[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial oceanography studies have demonstrated the central role of microbes in functioning and nutrient cycling of the global ocean. Most of these former studies including at Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) focused on surface seawater and benthic organisms (e.g., coral reefs and sponges). This is the first metagenomic study of the SAO. The SAO harbors a great microbial diversity and marine life (e.g., coral reefs and rhodolith beds). The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community diversity of the SAO along the depth continuum and different water masses by means of metagenomic, physical-chemical and biological analyses. The microbial community abundance and diversity appear to be strongly influenced by the temperature, dissolved organic carbon, and depth, and three groups were defined [1. surface waters; 2. sub-superficial chlorophyll maximum (SCM) (48-82 m) and 3. deep waters (236-1,200 m)] according to the microbial composition. The microbial communities of deep water masses [South Atlantic Central water, Antarctic Intermediate water and Upper Circumpolar Deep water] are highly similar. Of the 421,418 predicted genes for SAO metagenomes, 36.7 % had no homologous hits against 17,451,486 sequences from the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. From these unique genes from the SAO, only 6.64 % had hits against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. SAO microbial communities share genes with the global ocean in at least 70 cellular functions; however, more than a third of predicted SAO genes represent a unique gene pool in global ocean. This study was the first attempt to characterize the taxonomic and functional community diversity of different water masses at SAO and compare it with the microbial community diversity of the global ocean, and SAO had a significant portion of endemic gene diversity. Microbial communities of deep water masses (236-1,200 m) are highly similar, suggesting that these water masses have very similar microbiological attributes, despite the common knowledge that water masses determine prokaryotic community and are barriers to microbial dispersal. The present study also shows that SCM is a clearly differentiated layer within Tropical waters with higher abundance of phototrophic microbes and microbial diversity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel mesophilic, strictly hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur-, nitrate- and thiosulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain Monchim33(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Central Indian Ridge. The non-motile, rod-shaped cells were Gram-negative and non-sporulating. Growth was observed between 15 and 37 °C (optimum 33 °C; 3.2 h doubling time) and between pH 5.4 and 8.6 (optimum pH 6.0). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotroph capable of using molecular hydrogen as the sole energy source and carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source. The G + C content of genomic DNA was 42.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Sulfurovum and was closely related to Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1 and S. lithotrophicum 42BKT(T) (95.6 % and 95.4 % sequence similarity, respectively). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the novel isolate could be differentiated genotypically from Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1 and S. lithotrophicum 42BKT(T). On the basis of the molecular and physiological traits of the new isolate, the name Sulfurovum aggregans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Monchim33(T) (=JCM 19824(T) =DSM 27205(T)).
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. 06/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve more stable bio-hydrogen (bioH2) production from non-food feedstocks, stable feedstock preparations of marine biomass and an efficient bioH2 system using marine bacteria under saline conditions are two important key technologies that needed to be developed. Vibrio tritonius strain AM2, which was isolated from the gut of a marine invertebrate, was cultured under various conditions in marine broth (at initial 2.25% (w/v) NaCl) supplemented with mannitol, a seaweed carbohydrate, to evaluate its hydrogen production. The maximum molar yield of bioH2 was recorded as 1.7 mol H2/mol mannitol at pH 6 and 37 °C. The mannitol-grown cells had higher yields of bioH2 than the glucose-grown cells in the pH range 5.5–7.5. Compared to glucose, mannitol might be a better substrate for bioH2 production using strain AM2. Fermentation product profiling revealed that strain AM2 might be utilising the formate-hydrogen pathway for bioH2 production. Furthermore, strain AM2 was able to produce hydrogen from powdered brown macroalgae containing 31.1% dry weight of mannitol. The molar yield of hydrogen reached 1.6 mol H2/mol mannitol contained in the seaweed feedstock. In conclusion, strain AM2 has the ability to produce hydrogen from mannitol with high yields even under saline conditions.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 05/2014; 39(14):7270–7277. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep-sea vents harbor dense populations of various animals that have their specific symbiotic bacteria. Scaly-foot gastropods, which are snails with mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, have a gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont in their enlarged esophageal glands and diverse epibionts on the surface of their scales. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The endosymbiont genome displays features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and insertion elements. The genome encodes functions commonly found in deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs such as sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. Stable carbon isotope ((13)C)-labeling experiments confirmed the endosymbiont chemoautotrophy. The genome also includes an intact hydrogenase gene cluster that potentially has been horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacteria. Notable findings include the presence and transcription of genes for flagellar assembly, through which proteins are potentially exported from bacterium to the host. Symbionts of snail individuals exhibited extreme genetic homogeneity, showing only two synonymous changes in 19 different genes (13 810 positions in total) determined for 32 individual gastropods collected from a single colony at one time. The extremely low genetic individuality in endosymbionts probably reflects that the stringent symbiont selection by host prevents the random genetic drift in the small population of horizontally transmitted symbiont. This study is the first complete genome analysis of gastropod endosymbiont and offers an opportunity to study genome evolution in a recently evolved endosymbiont.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 8 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.131.
The ISME Journal 01/2014; 8(1):40-51. · 8.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4°C and 40°C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10T represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1T ( = LMG 27497T = JCM 19399T = CIP 110588T = KMM 7502T) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10T ( = JCM 19398T = CIP 110589T = KMM 7501T), are proposed.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106514. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we present the draft genome sequences of six carotenoid producers affiliated with Nonlabens spp. isolated from marine environments in both the northern and southern parts of Japan. The genomic information will help to elucidate the function and evolution of carotenoid synthetic gene clusters not only in the genus Nonlabens but also in the family Flavobacteriaceae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we present the draft genome sequences of a zeaxanthin-producing flavobacterium, Algibacter lectus strains SS8 and NR4, isolated from coastal sediment and rock surfaces in Hakodate, Japan, respectively. This genomic information represents the first Algibacter genome sequences, which will help us to elucidate the biology and evolution of Flavobacteriaceae bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we present the draft genomes of Marinobacter similis A3d10(T), a potential plastic biodegrader, and Marinobacter salarius R9SW1(T), isolated from radioactive waters. This genomic information will contribute information on the genetic basis of the metabolic pathways for the degradation of both plastic and radionuclides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, slightly halophilic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated P2E16T, was isolated from mangrove (Avicennia marina) rhizosphere, collected at Devipattinam mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India. Strain P2E16T grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 25-28 °C and in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that strain P2E16T was phylogenetically closely related to the genus Zunongwangia, with Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87T as the closest related type strain (98.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and less than 93% to all other members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain P2E16T contained MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone, phosphatidylethanolamine as the predominant polar lipid and iso-C15:0 (17.8%), iso-C17:03-OH (15.1%), C15:0 (12.8%), iso- C17:1ω9c (9.8%), iso- C15:1G (9.0%), and Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:02-OH; 7.1%) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 34.3 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness and low DNA-DNA relatedness demonstrated that strain P2E16T is distinct from Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87T. On the basis of the data presented, strain P2E16T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Zunongwangia, for which the name Zunongwangia mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P2E16T (=DSM 24499T =LMG 26237T=KCTC 23496T).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 10/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21 000 km(2)) and has one of the largest marine CaCO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of CaCO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m(-2 )s(-1)), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 10(5) tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South Atlantic Ocean.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 29 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.133.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coral health is under threat throughout the world due to regional and global stressors. White plague disease (WP) is one of the most important threats affecting the major reef builder of the Abrolhos Bank in Brazil, the endemic coral Mussismilia braziliensis. We performed a metagenomic analysis of healthy and WP-affected M. braziliensis in order to determine the types of microbes associated with this coral species. We also optimized a protocol for DNA extraction from coral tissues. Our taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinomycetes as the main groups in all healthy and WP-affected corals. Vibrionales, members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides complex, Rickettsiales, and Neisseriales were more abundant in the WP-affected corals. Diseased corals also had more eukaryotic metagenomic sequences identified as Alveolata and Apicomplexa. Our results suggest that WP disease in M. braziliensis is caused by a polymicrobial consortium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 Persephonella hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough (SNT). Although the strains share >98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types (ST), indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.
Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:107. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date 142 species have been described in the Vibrionaceae family of bacteria, classified into seven genera; Aliivibrio, Echinimonas, Enterovibrio, Grimontia, Photobacterium, Salinivibrio and Vibrio. As vibrios are widespread in marine environments and show versatile metabolisms and ecologies, these bacteria are recognized as one of the most diverse and important marine heterotrophic bacterial groups for elucidating the correlation between genome evolution and ecological adaptation. However, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we could not find any robust monophyletic lineages in any of the known genera. We needed further attempts to reconstruct their evolutionary history based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and/or genome wide taxonomy of all the recognized species groups. In our previous report in 2007, we conducted the first broad multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to infer the evolutionary history of vibrios using nine housekeeping genes (the 16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA), and we proposed 14 distinct clades in 58 species of Vibrionaceae. Due to the difficulty of designing universal primers that can amplify the genes for MLSA in every Vibrionaceae species, some clades had yet to be defined. In this study, we present a better picture of an updated molecular phylogeny for 86 described vibrio species and 10 genome sequenced Vibrionaceae strains, using 8 housekeeping gene sequences. This new study places special emphasis on (1) eight newly identified clades (Damselae, Mediterranei, Pectenicida, Phosphoreum, Profundum, Porteresiae, Rosenbergii, and Rumoiensis); (2) clades amended since the 2007 proposal with recently described new species; (3) orphan clades of genomospecies F6 and F10; (4) phylogenetic positions defined in 3 genome-sequenced strains (N418, EX25, and EJY3); and (5) description of V. tritonius sp. nov., which is a member of the "Porteresiae" clade.
Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:414. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marine invertebrates interact with various microorganisms ranging from pathogens to symbionts. One-to-one symbiosis between a single microbial species and a single host animal has served as a model for the study of host-microbe interactions. In addition, increasing attention has recently been focused on the complex symbiotic associations, e.g., associations between sponges and their symbionts, due to their biotechnological potential; however, relatively little is known about the microbial diversity associated with members of the phylum Echinodermata. Here, for the first time, we investigated microbial communities associated with a commercially important holothurian species, Apostichopus japonicus, using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Diverse and abundant heterotrophs, mostly Gammaproteobacteria members, were cultured semi-quantitatively. Using the cloning and sequencing technique, different microbial communities were found in different holothurian tissues. In the holothurian coelomic fluid, potentially metabolically active and phylogenetically unique members of Epsilonproteobacteria and Rickettsiales were discovered. This study suggests that coelomic fluids of marine invertebrates, at least those inhabiting intertidal areas where physical and chemical conditions fluctuate, provide microbes with unique and stable habitats.
Microbes and Environments 03/2012; 27(3):300-5. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel heterotrophic, thermophilic bacterium, designated strain AC55(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Hatoma Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. Cells of strain AC55(T) were non-motile, long rods (2.0- to 6.8-μm long and 0.3- to 0.6-μm wide). The strain was an obligatory anaerobic heterotroph capable of fermentative growth on complex proteinaceous substances. Elemental sulfur was reduced to hydrogen sulfide but did not stimulate growth. Growth was observed between 37 and 60°C (optimum 55°C), pH 5.5 and 8.5 (optimum pH 6.6), and in the presence of 1.5-4.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.5%, w/v). Menaquinone-7 and -8 were the major respiratory quinones. The G + C content of the genomic DNA from strain AC55(T) was 51.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AC55(T) was the first cultivated representative of Acidobacteria subdivision 10. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic features of the novel isolate, the genus name Thermotomaculum gen. nov. is proposed, with Thermotomaculum hydrothermale sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain is AC55(T) (=JCM 17643(T) = DSM 24660(T) = NBRC 107904(T)).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T) = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 10/2011; 62(Pt 8):1864-70. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibrio harveyi is an emerging pathogen that causes mass mortality in a wide variety of marine animal species; however, it is still unclear which environmental determinants correlate V. harveyi dynamics and the bacterium-mediated death of marine animal life. We conducted a correlation analysis over a 5-year period (2003-2007) analysing the following data: V. harveyi abundance, marine animal mortality and environmental variables (seawater temperature, salinity, pH, chlorophyll a, rainfall and total viable bacterial counts). The samples were collected from a coastal area in northern Japan, where deaths of a marine gastropod species (Haliotis discus hannai) have been reported. Our analysis revealed significant positive correlations between average seawater temperature and average V. harveyi abundance (R = 0.955; P < 0.05), and between average seawater temperature and V. harveyi-mediated abalone death (R = 0.931; P < 0.05). Based on the regression model, n degrees C rise in seawater temperature gave rise to a 21(n)-fold increase in the risk of mortality caused by V. harveyi infection. This is the first report providing evidence of the strong positive correlation between seawater temperature and V. harveyi-mediated death of marine species.