Dirk-Jan Kok

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (3)12.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To assess the relationship between glycogen content in bladder detrusor tissue and historical bladder function in a guinea-pig model of partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). In male immature guinea pigs PBOO was created with a silver ring around the proximal urethra; a control group had a sham operation for comparison. Longitudinal individual urodynamic data were obtained weekly, so that guinea pigs were killed at different levels of bladder dysfunction. Bladder sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to assess overall morphology and glycogen granule density, scored from 0 (no glycogen) to 3. Glycogen scores were related to both the end-stage and historical extremes of bladder function values. Glycogen granules were seen only in the detrusor; as their number increased their location expanded from only close to the serosa (glycogen score 1), through the detrusor (score 2) up to the urothelium (score 3). A glycogen score of 0 correlated with normal values for all urodynamic variables. Compared with a glycogen score of 0 a score of 1 correlated with significant (P < 0.05) changes in end-stage compliance (decrease) and contractility (increase) and significantly higher historical values for contractility, pressure and number of unstable contractions (NUC). In the group with a glycogen score of 2 there were significant changes in both the end-stage values and historical extremes for compliance, pressure, contractility and NUC (all P < 0.05). In the group with a glycogen score of 3 all these changes were even more dramatic, except for the end-stage contractility, for which the increase was not significant. From glycogen score 0 to score 3 all changes increased in magnitude. A high glycogen content reflects a history of abnormal urodynamic function. This finding exemplifies the added value of structural analysis to urodynamic studies. Further studies are needed to relate bladder structure to the potential for functional recovery.
    BJU International 10/2007; 100(4):846-52. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined whether nephrocalcinosis is common and whether its detection is influenced by renal tissue processing. Renal cortical and papillary tissue was obtained from the unaffected parts of 15 kidneys removed due to an oncological indication. The effect of tissue processing on the loss of crystals was studied in a kidney with nephrocalcinosis due to chronic pyelonephritis. Immediately frozen and formaldehyde fixed sections were analyzed by polarized light and Raman spectroscopy, and stained for calcium (Yasue) and hyaluronan. Although 13 of 15 snap-frozen sections from tumor kidneys contained birefringent particles (mean +/- SD 3.2 +/- 2.9 particles per cm(2)) in the renal tubules, this was not considered nephrocalcinosis because the crystals were not attached to the epithelial lining. Interstitial nephrocalcinosis was found on Yasue stain in 3 of 15 kidneys with tumor (20%). Calcium deposits were found in the papillary interstitium only, always together with hyaluronan. Formaldehyde fixed sections from the pyelonephritis kidney contained fewer renal tubular cell associated birefringent particles than immediately frozen sections (9.4 +/- 1.9 vs 41.6 +/- 1.2 per cm(2)). Particles were composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (Yasue and Raman). There are 2 distinct forms of nephrocalcinosis, including tubular nephrocalcinosis, which seems to be reserved for specific conditions such as chronic pyelonephritis, and interstitial nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of tubular calcium oxalate nephrocalcinosis could be underestimated due to the loss of crystals during tissue processing for routine histology. The crystal binding molecule hyaluronan may have a role in the 2 forms of nephrocalcinosis.
    The Journal of Urology 10/2007; 178(3 Pt 1):1097-103. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have applied Raman spectroscopy to discriminate between nontumor and tumor bladder tissue and to determine the biochemical differences therein. Tissue samples from 15 patients were collected, and frozen sections were made for Raman spectroscopy and histology. Twenty-five pseudocolor Raman maps were created in which each color represents a cluster of spectra measured on tissue areas of similar biochemical composition. For each cluster, the cluster-averaged spectrum (CAS) was calculated and classified as tumor and nontumor in accordance to pathohistology. Unguided hierarchical clustering was applied to display heterogeneity between and within groups of nontumor and tumor CAS. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed to discriminate between CAS from tumor and nontumor. The model was tested by a leave-one-patient-out validation, 84 of the 90 CAS (93%) were correctly classified with 94% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Biochemical differences between tumor and nontumor CAS areas were analyzed by fitting spectra of pure compounds to the CAS. Nontumor CAS showed higher collagen content while tumor CAS were characterized by higher lipid, nucleic acid, protein, and glycogen content. Raman spectroscopy enabled effective discrimination between tumor and nontumor bladder tissue based on characterized biochemical differences, despite heterogeneity expressed in both tumor and nontumor CAS.
    Analytical Chemistry 12/2006; 78(22):7761-9. · 5.70 Impact Factor