[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAL (transaldolase) was originally described in the yeast as an enzyme of the PPP (pentose phosphate pathway). However, certain organisms and mammalian tissues lack TAL, and the overall reason for its existence is unclear. Recently, deletion of Ser(171) (TALDeltaS171) was found in five patients causing inactivation, proteasome-mediated degradation and complete deficiency of TAL. In the present study, microarray and follow-up Western-blot, enzyme-activity and metabolic studies of TALDeltaS171 TD (TAL-deficient) lymphoblasts revealed co-ordinated changes in the expression of genes involved in the PPP, mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative stress, and Ca(2+) fluxing. Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate was accumulated, whereas G6P (glucose 6-phosphate) was depleted, indicating a failure to recycle G6P for the oxidative branch of the PPP. Nucleotide analysis showed depletion of NADPH and NAD(+) and accumulation of ADP-ribose. TD cells have diminished Deltapsi(m) (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and increased mitochondrial mass associated with increased production of nitric oxide and ATP. TAL deficiency resulted in enhanced spontaneous and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. TD lymphoblasts showed increased expression of CD38, which hydrolyses NAD(+) into ADP-ribose, a trigger of Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum that, in turn, facilitated CD20-induced apoptosis. By contrast, TD cells were resistant to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis, owing to a dependence of caspase activity on redox-sensitive cysteine residues. Normalization of TAL activity by adeno-associated-virus-mediated gene transfer reversed the elevated CD38 expression, ATP and Ca(2+) levels, suppressed H(2)O(2)- and CD20-induced apoptosis and enhanced Fas-induced cell death. The present study identified the TAL deficiency as a modulator of mitochondrial homoeostasis, Ca(2+) fluxing and apoptosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fertility of spermatozoa depends on maintenance of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), which is generated by the electron-transport chain and regulated by an oxidation-reduction equilibrium of reactive oxygen intermediates, pyridine nucleotides, and glutathione (GSH). Here, we report that male mice lacking transaldolase (TAL)(-/-) are sterile because of defective forward motility. TAL(-/-) spermatozoa show loss of Deltapsi(m) and mitochondrial membrane integrity because of diminished NADPH, NADH, and GSH. Mitochondria constitute major Ca(2+) stores; thus, diminished mitochondrial mass accounts for reduced Ca(2+) fluxing, defective forward motility, and infertility. Reduced forward progression of TAL-deficient spermatozoa is associated with diminished mitochondrial reactive oxygen intermediate production and Ca(2+) levels, intracellular acidosis, and compensatory down-regulation of carbonic anhydrase IV and overexpression of CD38 and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Microarray analyses of gene expression in the testis, caput, and cauda epididymidis of TAL(+/+), TAL(+/-), and TAL(-/-) littermates confirmed a dominant impact of TAL deficiency on late stages of sperm-cell development, affecting the electron-transport chain and GSH metabolism. Stimulation of de novo GSH synthesis by oral N-acetyl-cysteine normalized the low fertility rate of TAL(+/-) males without affecting the sterility of TAL(-/-) males. Whereas TAL(-/-) sperm failed to fertilize TAL(+/+) oocytes in vitro, sterility of TAL(-/-) sperm was circumvented by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, indicating that TAL deficiency influenced the structure and function of mitochondria without compromising the nucleus and DNA integrity. Collectively, these data reveal an essential role of TAL in sperm-cell mitochondrial function and, thus, male fertility.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2006; 103(40):14813-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transaldolase (TAL) is a key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). TAL deficiency is a newly recognized cause of liver cirrhosis. We have developed an ion-pair LC separation combined with negative ion electrospray MS/MS detection method to assess PPP metabolites in urine samples from TAL-deficient mice. Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate (S7P), C5-polyols D-arabitol and D-ribitol, and 6-phosphogluconate (6PG) levels were markedly increased in urine of TAL-deficient mice with respect to those of wild-type and heterozygote littermates. The detection limits of S7P, D-arabitol, and 6PG were 0.15 +/- 0.015 pmol, 3.5 +/- 0.41 pmol, and 0.61 +/- 0.055 pmol, respectively. The limit of quantitation was 0.4 +/- 0.024 nmol/ml for S7P, 1.6 +/- 0.11 nmol/ml for 6PG and 10 +/- 0.7 nmol/ml for D-arabitol. Additional metabolites, hexose 6-phosphates (m/z 259), D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate (m/z 229), D-fructose 1,6-diphosphate (m/z 339), C6-polyols (m/z 181) and GSSG (m/z 611), that have been positively identified in mouse urine, showed similar levels in control and TAL-deficient mice.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry 04/2006; 41(4):463-9. · 3.21 Impact Factor