Ludo Verhoeven

Kentalis, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (199)335.8 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A considerable number of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) are able to acquire basic word reading skills. However, not much is known about their achievements in more advanced reading comprehension skills. In the present study, a group of 49 children with ID and a control group of 21 typically developing children with word decoding skills in the normal ranges of first grade were compared in lower level (explicit meaning) and higher level (implicit meaning) reading comprehension abilities. Moreover, in the group of children with ID it was examined to what extent their levels of lower level and higher level reading comprehension could be predicted from their linguistic skills (word decoding, vocabulary, language comprehension) and cognitive skill (nonverbal reasoning). It was found that children with ID were weaker than typically developing children in higher level reading comprehension but not in lower level reading comprehension. Children with ID also performed below the control group on nonverbal reasoning and language comprehension. After controlling for nonverbal reasoning, linguistic skills predicted lower level reading comprehension but not higher level reading comprehension. It can be concluded that children with ID who have basic decoding skill do reasonably well on lower level reading comprehension but continue to have problems with higher level reading comprehension.
    Research in developmental disabilities. 08/2014; 35(11):3139-3147.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined how linguistic and sociocultural diversity have an impact on the reading literacy outcomes of a representative sample of 3,549 first-language (L1) and 208 second-language (L2) fourth-grade students in the Netherlands. A multilevel modelling analysis was conducted using Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2006 data to explore to what extent linguistic background, socioeconomic status (SES), home and school literacy environment and reading attitudes explain differences in reading literacy achievement. Significant differences between L1 and L2 students were found with regard to reading literacy achievement, SES and the home and school literacy environment. Multilevel modelling analysis showed 34.7% of explained variance in reading literacy achievement, whereby the student level accounts for most of the explained variance. In the final model, linguistic background, SES, home and school literacy environment and reading attitudes were found to have a significant effect on reading literacy achievement.
    Journal of Research in Reading 08/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the neural underpinnings of word decoding, and how it changes as a function of repeated exposure, we trained Dutch participants repeatedly over the course of a month of training to articulate a set of novel disyllabic input strings written in Greek script to avoid the use of familiar orthographic representations. The syllables in the input were phonotactically legal combinations but non-existent in the Dutch language, allowing us to assess their role in novel word decoding. Not only trained disyllabic pseudowords were tested but also pseudowords with recombined patterns of syllables to uncover the emergence of syllabic representations. We showed that with extensive training, articulation became faster and more accurate for the trained pseudowords. On the neural level, the initial stage of decoding was reflected by increased activity in visual attention areas of occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal cortex, and in motor coordination areas of the precentral gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. After one month of training, memory representations for holistic information (whole word unit) were established in areas encompassing the angular gyrus, the precuneus and the middle temporal gyrus. Syllabic representations also emerged through repeated training of disyllabic pseudowords, such that reading recombined syllables of the trained pseudowords showed similar brain activation to trained pseudowords and were articulated faster than novel combinations of letter strings used in the trained pseudowords.
    Neuropsychologia 06/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents’ peer status in Grade 8 from Grade 7 behaviors differed between mainstream education and special education settings. The behaviors of deaf early adolescents in the beginning of secondary school strongly predicted their peer status a year later. For deaf mainstream students, withdrawn behavior was the most important and negative predictor of peer status. For deaf students in special education settings, prosocial behavior was the most important and positive predictor of peer status.
    Exceptional children 06/2014; 80:438-453. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or semantically meaningful pictures to the correct category, according to a certain set of rules. In general, the groups did not differ on measures of intelligence, working memory, attention, fluency and memory. For the monitoring of allocation of abstract figures, a similar pattern of reaction times was found for ASD and control participants. For the monitoring of allocation of semantically meaningful pictures, a different response pattern was found, with a stronger increase in response times for the ASD than for the control group when the number of categories increased. This suggests that participants with ASD are able to monitor working memory representations, but suffer under more complex circumstances.
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined sociocultural and educational factors in explaining the reading literacy achievement of fourth-grade children (about 10 years of age) in the Netherlands during the past decade. Using 2001, 2006 and 2011 PIRLS data, a multilevel modeling analysis was conducted to examine levels and changes in reading literacy achievement over the years in relation to gender, SES, ethnicity, linguistic background and number of books in the home, and school SES as sociocultural factors, and early literacy activities and abilities, reading strategies instruction, time spent on reading and computer use as educational factors. A significant decline in reading achievement between 2001 and 2011 was evidenced with more than 80% of the variance being explained at the student level. All factors, except for early literacy abilities, reading strategy instruction and time spent on reading, showed statistically significant effects on reading literacy. All these effects applied to both literary and expository text genres, and to higher-order as well as to lower-order reading comprehension processes with two exceptions: computer use showed only an impact on expository texts and on the lower-order processing condition, and a rural school setting showed no impact on the literary text genre. Interaction effects showed that the decline in reading literacy achievement in the Netherlands in the past decade is related to the sociocultural factors of gender and student SES and to the educational factors of early literacy activities in the home and early literacy abilities established in the school.
    Learning and Individual Differences 05/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • British Journal of Educational Psychology 04/2014; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the linguistic and cognitive predictors of early literacy in 17 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (mean age: 7; 6 years) compared to 24 children with normal language acquisition (NLA) (mean age: 6; 0 years), who were all in the so-called partial alphabetic phase of reading (Ehri, 2005). In each group, children's performances in early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) were assessed, as well as their achievement in linguistic and cognitive measures associated to these skills. The results showed that, notwithstanding the fact that there were no differences in word decoding, children with ID lagged behind on all predictor measures relevant to early literacy skills compared to children with NLA. Moreover, whereas children with NLA showed a regular predictive pathway of early literacy skills, children with ID showed a deviant pattern, in which nonverbal intelligence and rhythmic skills proved to be of major importance. Also letter knowledge appeared to be involved in their early literacy processing. It can be tentatively concluded that in the ID group, children's level of nonverbal intellectual abilities in combination with rhythmic ability proves pivotal in the development of their early literacy skills.
    Research in developmental disabilities 04/2014; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A common assumption in multimedia design is that audio-visual materials with pictures and spoken narrations lead to better learning outcomes than visual-only materials with pictures and on-screen text. The present study questions the generalizability of this modality effect. We explored how modality effects change over time, taking into account study strategies during learning and the modality of the final performance measure. Eighty-four university students (Mage = 21.4) studied learner-paced visual-only or audio-visual multimedia presentations and answered written and oral retention and transfer questions immediately after learning and after 1 day. There was no performance difference between the audio-visual and the visual-only groups immediately after learning, but after 1 day, the visual-only group had significantly higher scores on three of four outcome measures. This reversed modality effect was independent of test modality, but both groups scored higher on written than on oral questions. While both groups spent on average 33 min studying, the visual-only group went through the materials at a faster pace and repeated more slides. In sum, results contradict common multimedia design recommendations and instead suggest that learner-paced presentations should include on-screen text. Benefits of on-screen text could be due in part to the successful use of reading strategies.
    Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 04/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody – which is independent from reading skills – in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could provide more insight into the general role of prosody in reading comprehension.AimsThe current study investigates how much variance in reading comprehension scores is explained by speech prosody and text reading prosody, after controlling for decoding, vocabulary, and syntactic awareness.SampleA battery of reading and language assessments was performed by 106 Dutch fourth-grade primary school children.Methods Speech prosody was assessed using a storytelling task and text reading prosody by oral text reading performance. Decoding skills, vocabulary, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension were assessed using standardized tests.ResultsHierarchical regression analyses showed that text reading prosody explained 6% of variance and that speech prosody explained 8% of variance in reading comprehension scores, after controlling for decoding, vocabulary, and syntactic awareness. Phrasing was the significant factor in both speech and text reading. When added in consecutive order, phrasing in speech added 5% variance to phrasing in reading. In contrast, phrasing in reading added only 3% variance to phrasing in speech.Conclusions The variance that speech prosody explained in reading comprehension scores should not be neglected. Speech prosody seems to facilitate the construction of meaning in written language.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to decoding efficiency and language comprehension. One hundred and six Dutch primary school children from fourth grade participated in this study and were assessed on decoding efficiency, vocabulary, syntactic ability, reading fluency performance and reading comprehension skills. Regression analysis showed that text reading prosody, not text reading rate, explained additional variance in reading comprehension performance when decoding efficiency and language comprehension were controlled for. This result suggests that the inclusion of text reading prosody as an aspect of text reading fluency is justified and that a natural intonation is associated with better comprehension of what is read.
    Journal of Research in Reading 02/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the development of arithmetic performance and its cognitive precursors in children with CP from 7 till 9 years of age. Previous research has shown that children with CP are generally delayed in arithmetic performance compared to their typically developing peers. In children with CP, the developmental trajectory of the ability to solve addition- and subtraction tasks has, however, rarely been studied, as well as the cognitive factors affecting this trajectory. Sixty children (M = 7.2 years, SD = .23 months at study entry) with CP participated in this study. Standardized tests were administered to assess arithmetic performance, word decoding skills, non-verbal intelligence, and working memory. The results showed that the ability to solve addition- and subtraction tasks increased over a two year period. Word decoding skills were positively related to the initial status of arithmetic performance. In addition, non-verbal intelligence and working memory were associated with the initial status and growth rate of arithmetic performance from 7 till 9 years of age. The current study highlights the importance of non-verbal intelligence and working memory to the development of arithmetic performance of children with CP.
    Research in developmental disabilities 01/2014; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compared the performances of young children with specific language impairment (SLI) to that of typically developing (TD) children on cognitive measures of working memory (WM) and behavioral ratings of executive functions (EF). The Automated Working Memory Assessment was administered to 58 children with SLI and 58 TD children aged 4 and 5 years. Additionally, parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version. The results showed the SLI group to perform significantly worse than the TD group on both cognitive and behavioral measures of WM. The deficits in WM performance were not restricted to the verbal domain, but also affected visuospatial WM. The deficits in EF behaviors included problems with inhibition, shifting, emotional control, and planning/organization. The patterns of associations between WM performance and EF behaviors differed for the SLI versus TD groups. WM performance significantly discriminated between young children with SLI and TD, with 89% of the children classified correctly. The data indicate domain general impairments in WM and problems in EF behaviors in young children with SLI. Attention should thus be paid to WM - both verbal and visuospatial - and EF in clinical practice. Implications for assessment and remediation were discussed.
    Research in developmental disabilities 01/2014; 35(1):62-74. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the neural underpinnings of word decoding, and how it changes as a function of repeated exposure, we trained Dutch participants repeatedly over the course of a month of training to articulate a set of novel disyllabic input strings written in Greek script to avoid the use of familiar orthographic representations. The syllables in the input were phonotactically legal combinations but non-existent in the Dutch language, allowing us to assess their role in novel word decoding. Not only trained disyllabic pseudowords were tested but also pseudowords with recombined patterns of syllables to uncover the emergence of syllabic representations. We showed that with extensive training, articulation became faster and more accurate for the trained pseudowords. On the neural level, the initial stage of decoding was reflected by increased activity in visual attention areas of occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal cortex, and in motor coordination areas of the precentral gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. After one month of training, memory representations for holistic information (whole word unit) were established in areas encompassing the angular gyrus, the precuneus and the middle temporal gyrus. Syllabic representations also emerged through repeated training of disyllabic pseudowords, such that reading recombined syllables of the trained pseudowords showed similar brain activation to trained pseudowords and were articulated faster than novel combinations of letter strings used in the trained pseudowords.
    Neuropsychologia 01/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Marlies de Zeeuw, Rob Schreuder, Ludo Verhoeven
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated written word identification of regular and irregular past-tense verb forms by first (L1) and second language (L2) learners of Dutch in third and sixth grade. Using a lexical decision task, we measured speed and accuracy in the identification of regular and irregular past-tense verb forms by children from Turkish-speaking homes (L2 learners) and monolingual Dutch-speaking homes (L1 learners). All beginning readers of Dutch had relatively more difficulties with the identification of irregular verb forms than regular verbs forms, but the effects were stronger for L2 learners than for L1 learners. These processing differences were only present in third grade, however, indicating that with increased target language experience, the reading of past-tense verb forms becomes more fluent and automatized in both L1 and L2 learners.
    Language Learning 12/2013; 63(4). · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from prosocial, antisocial, and withdrawn behavior, agreeableness and extraversion, and pragmatic communicative skills. Low levels of antisocial behavior positively predicted peer acceptance. Popularity depended on a more complex profile of predictors. Prosocial and antisocial behavior contributed positively to popularity, whereas withdrawn behavior contributed negatively. Extraversion and pragmatic skills also played a role in the prediction of popularity. Extraversion moderated the associations of prosocial and antisocial behavior with popularity. Popularity was highest when high levels of prosocial or antisocial behavior were combined with high levels of extraversion. Pragmatic skills moderated the association of prosocial behavior with popularity. Popularity was highest when prosocial behavior and pragmatic skills were high.
    The Journal of Early Adolescence 12/2013; 34(5):585-605. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: RIDD664
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study for 108 typical and 122 atypical Dutch readers in second grade, the accuracy and speed of decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words were assessed along with four types of phonological precursor measures: rapid naming, verbal working memory, phoneme awareness and letter knowledge. The data show that the group being diagnosed as poor readers were significantly behind in all reading and spelling measures. It was also found that the criterion measures of reading and spelling explained already two third of the variance associated with the group distinction. Finally, we found word and pseudoword efficiency in the typical group to be explained by phonological awareness (spoonerism) and rapid naming of letters, word and pseudoword accuracy by phonological awareness, and spelling by phonological awareness and letter dictation. In the group of poor readers, a much greater variety of precursor measures was involved in explaining the variance in reading and spelling abilities.
    Research in developmental disabilities 09/2013; 34(11):4194-4202. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements versus unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity.
    Brain research 09/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40 participants learned the translation of 100 Swahili words and then further restudied the words with translations or retrieved the translations from memory during testing. As in previous experiments, recall accuracy was higher for restudied words than for tested words immediately after practice, but higher for tested words after 7 days. Response times for correct answers, however, showed a different result: Learners were faster to recall tested words than restudied words both immediately after practice and after 7 days. These results are interpreted in light of recent suggestions that testing selectively strengthens cue-response associations. An additional outcome was that testing effects on recall accuracy were related to perceived retrieval success during practice. When several practice retrievals were successful, testing effects on recall accuracy were already significant immediately after practice. Together with the reaction time data, this supports recent models that attribute changes in testing effects over time to limited item retrievability during practice.
    Memory 09/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

843 Citations
335.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • Kentalis
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Maastricht University
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 1998–2014
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • • Behavioural Science Institute
      • • Faculty of Social Science
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2012–2013
    • Royal Dutch Visio Centre of Expertise for Blind and Partially Sighted People
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • Tilburg University
      Tilburg, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Open Universiteit Nederland
      Heerlen, Limburg, Netherlands