Jonathan N Glickman

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (140)1231.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstracts: * 051214 Topical Drug Delivery in Ulcerative Colitis Using an Inflammation-targeted Hydrogel.pdf (89.4KB) - Uploading Abstracts
    14 AIChE Annual Meeting; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers. Under some conditions, TIM-3 expression has also been shown to be stimulatory. Considering that TIM-3, like cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, it is important to identify the circumstances under which TIM-3 can inhibit and activate T-cell responses. Here we show that TIM-3 is co-expressed and forms a heterodimer with carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), another well-known molecule expressed on activated T cells and involved in T-cell inhibition. Biochemical, biophysical and X-ray crystallography studies show that the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-variable (IgV)-like amino-terminal domain of each is crucial to these interactions. The presence of CEACAM1 endows TIM-3 with inhibitory function. CEACAM1 facilitates the maturation and cell surface expression of TIM-3 by forming a heterodimeric interaction in cis through the highly related membrane-distal N-terminal domains of each molecule. CEACAM1 and TIM-3 also bind in trans through their N-terminal domains. Both cis and trans interactions between CEACAM1 and TIM-3 determine the tolerance-inducing function of TIM-3. In a mouse adoptive transfer colitis model, CEACAM1-deficient T cells are hyper-inflammatory with reduced cell surface expression of TIM-3 and regulatory cytokines, and this is restored by T-cell-specific CEACAM1 expression. During chronic viral infection and in a tumour environment, CEACAM1 and TIM-3 mark exhausted T cells. Co-blockade of CEACAM1 and TIM-3 leads to enhancement of anti-tumour immune responses with improved elimination of tumours in mouse colorectal cancer models. Thus, CEACAM1 serves as a heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 that is required for its ability to mediate T-cell inhibition, and this interaction has a crucial role in regulating autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity.
    Nature 10/2014; DOI:10.1038/nature13848 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T-bet(-/-).Rag2(-/-) (TRUC) mice spontaneously develop microbiota-driven, TNF-mediated large bowel inflammation that resembles human ulcerative colitis. We show here that IL-23 and IL-1-dependent secretion of IL-17A by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs; defined as CD45(+)lin(-)Thy1(hi)NKp46(-)) is a second critical pathway in this model. Using an in vitro coculture system of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and freshly isolated FACS-purified ILCs, we demonstrate that IL-23 and IL-1 secreted by DCs in response to microbial stimulation work together to induce IL-17A production by ILCs. TNF is not required for IL-17A secretion by ILCs in vitro but synergizes with IL-17A to induce the expression of neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Upstream, activation of the IL-23/IL-17A axis is regulated by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing (Nod)/receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (Ripk2) signals in DCs. Genetic ablation of the Nod/Ripk2 signaling pathway protects TRUC mice from developing colitis without affecting the colitogenicity of the intestinal microbiota. Our data provide insight into the complex network of interactions between IL-17A-secreting ILCs and other components of the innate immune system in the development of colitis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2014; 111(25). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1408540111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-87. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)60314-0 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-39. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)60136-0 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which mucosal homeostasis is maintained are of central importance to inflammatory bowel disease. Critical to these processes is the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC), which regulates immune responses at the interface between the commensal microbiota and the host. CD1d presents self and microbial lipid antigens to natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis in animal models and human inflammatory bowel disease. As CD1d crosslinking on model IECs results in the production of the important regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 (ref. 9), decreased epithelial CD1d expression-as observed in inflammatory bowel disease-may contribute substantially to intestinal inflammation. Here we show in mice that whereas bone-marrow-derived CD1d signals contribute to NKT-cell-mediated intestinal inflammation, engagement of epithelial CD1d elicits protective effects through the activation of STAT3 and STAT3-dependent transcription of IL-10, heat shock protein 110 (HSP110; also known as HSP105), and CD1d itself. All of these epithelial elements are critically involved in controlling CD1d-mediated intestinal inflammation. This is demonstrated by severe NKT-cell-mediated colitis upon IEC-specific deletion of IL-10, CD1d, and its critical regulator microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), as well as deletion of HSP110 in the radioresistant compartment. Our studies thus uncover a novel pathway of IEC-dependent regulation of mucosal homeostasis and highlight a critical role of IL-10 in the intestinal epithelium, with broad implications for diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.
    Nature 04/2014; DOI:10.1038/nature13150 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulated immune responses to gut microbes are central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gut microbial activity can fuel chronic inflammation. Examining how IBD-directed therapies influence gut microbiomes may identify microbial community features integral to mitigating disease and maintaining health. However, IBD patients often receive multiple treatments during disease flares, confounding such analyses. Preclinical models of IBD with well-defined disease courses and opportunities for controlled treatment exposures provide a valuable solution. Here, we surveyed the gut microbiome of the T-bet(-/-) Rag2(-/-) mouse model of colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. Microbial features modified among these conditions included altered potential for carbohydrate and energy metabolism and bacterial pathogenesis, specifically cell motility and signal transduction pathways. We also observed an increased capacity for xenobiotics metabolism, including benzoate degradation, a pathway linking host adrenergic stress with enhanced bacterial virulence, and found decreased levels of fecal dopamine in active colitis. When transferred to gnotobiotic mice, gut microbiomes from mice with active disease versus treatment-induced remission elicited varying degrees of colitis. Thus, our study provides insight into specific microbial clades and pathways associated with health, active disease and treatment interventions in a mouse model of colitis.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 6 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.3.
    The ISME Journal 02/2014; DOI:10.1038/ismej.2014.3 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.
    Immunity 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.11.003 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recognition of autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) as a genetic risk factor has exposed the critical role of autophagy in Crohn's disease. Homozygosity for the highly prevalent ATG16L1 risk allele, or murine hypomorphic (HM) activity, causes Paneth cell dysfunction. As Atg16l1(HM) mice do not develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation, the mechanism(s) by which ATG16L1 contributes to disease remains obscure. Deletion of the unfolded protein response (UPR) transcription factor X-box binding protein-1 (Xbp1) in intestinal epithelial cells, the human orthologue of which harbours rare inflammatory bowel disease risk variants, results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Paneth cell impairment and spontaneous enteritis. Unresolved ER stress is a common feature of inflammatory bowel disease epithelium, and several genetic risk factors of Crohn's disease affect Paneth cells. Here we show that impairment in either UPR (Xbp1(ΔIEC)) or autophagy function (Atg16l1(ΔIEC) or Atg7(ΔIEC)) in intestinal epithelial cells results in each other's compensatory engagement, and severe spontaneous Crohn's-disease-like transmural ileitis if both mechanisms are compromised. Xbp1(ΔIEC) mice show autophagosome formation in hypomorphic Paneth cells, which is linked to ER stress via protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), elongation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Ileitis is dependent on commensal microbiota and derives from increased intestinal epithelial cell death, inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)-regulated NF-κB activation and tumour-necrosis factor signalling, which are synergistically increased when autophagy is deficient. ATG16L1 restrains IRE1α activity, and augmentation of autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells ameliorates ER stress-induced intestinal inflammation and eases NF-κB overactivation and intestinal epithelial cell death. ER stress, autophagy induction and spontaneous ileitis emerge from Paneth-cell-specific deletion of Xbp1. Genetically and environmentally controlled UPR function within Paneth cells may therefore set the threshold for the development of intestinal inflammation upon hypomorphic ATG16L1 function and implicate ileal Crohn's disease as a specific disorder of Paneth cells.
    Nature 10/2013; DOI:10.1038/nature12599 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence links the gut microbiota with colorectal cancer. Metagenomic analyses indicate that symbiotic Fusobacterium spp. are associated with human colorectal carcinoma, but whether this is an indirect or causal link remains unclear. We find that Fusobacterium spp. are enriched in human colonic adenomas relative to surrounding tissues and in stool samples from colorectal adenoma and carcinoma patients compared to healthy subjects. Additionally, in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis, Fusobacterium nucleatum increases tumor multiplicity and selectively recruits tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, which can promote tumor progression. Tumors from Apc(Min/+) mice exposed to F. nucleatum exhibit a proinflammatory expression signature that is shared with human fusobacteria-positive colorectal carcinomas. However, unlike other bacteria linked to colorectal carcinoma, F. nucleatum does not exacerbate colitis, enteritis, or inflammation-associated intestinal carcinogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that, through recruitment of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, fusobacteria generate a proinflammatory microenvironment that is conducive for colorectal neoplasia progression.
    Cell host & microbe 08/2013; 14(2):207-15. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2013.07.007 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 are critical for regulating intestinal inflammation. Candidate microbe approaches have identified bacterial species and strain-specific molecules that can affect intestinal immune responses, including species that modulate Treg responses. Because neither all humans nor mice harbor the same bacterial strains, we posited that more prevalent factors exist that regulate the number and function of colonic Tregs. We determined that short chain fatty acids (SCFA), gut microbiota-derived bacterial fermentation products, regulate the size and function of the colonic Treg pool and protect against colitis in a Ffar2(GPR43)-dependent manner in mice. Our study reveals that a class of abundant microbial metabolites underlies adaptive immune microbiota co-adaptation and promotes colonic homeostasis and health.
    Science 07/2013; 341(6145). DOI:10.1126/science.1241165 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to microbes during early childhood is associated with protection from immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Here, we show that in germ-free (GF) mice, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells accumulate in the colonic lamina propria and lung, resulting in increased morbidity in models of IBD and allergic asthma as compared with that of specific pathogen-free mice. This was associated with increased intestinal and pulmonary expression of the chemokine ligand CXCL16, which was associated with increased mucosal iNKT cells. Colonization of neonatal-but not adult-GF mice with a conventional microbiota protected the animals from mucosal iNKT accumulation and related pathology. These results indicate that age-sensitive contact with commensal microbes is critical for establishing mucosal iNKT cell tolerance to later environmental exposures.
    Science 03/2012; 336(6080):489-93. DOI:10.1126/science.1219328 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence and imaging features of bone metastases in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The medical records of 190 patients with pathologically proven GISTs were reviewed, and patients with bone metastases were identified. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were examined for features of bone metastases, and findings were correlated with the results of positron-emission tomography (PET) and histopathology. Of 190 GIST patients, six (3.2%) had bone metastases: four patients had multiple bone metastases, and two patients had a solitary metastasis. The maximum diameter of the metastases ranged from 2 to 40 mm, and they most commonly involved the vertebrae, ribs, pelvic bones, and femurs. All lesions were well-marginated and lytic. A soft tissue component was identified in three patients. The bone metastases showed intense fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. After treatment with imatinib mesylate in three patients, the bone metastases developed peripheral sclerosis on CT and became less FDG-avid on PET. All six primary tumors were morphologically high-grade with high mitotic rates and necrosis. Bone metastases from GISTs are uncommon; when detected with CT, they are characterized by single or multiple lytic lesions with or without soft tissue involvement. A sclerotic rim may appear around the metastatic lesions in response to treatment. Similar to the disease in other sites, bone metastases show intense FDG uptake, which decreases following treatment.
    Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 03/2012; 18(4):391-6. DOI:10.4261/1305-3825.DIR.5179-11.1 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic modifier loci influence the phenotypic expression of many Mendelian traits; insight into disease pathogenesis gained from their identification in animal disease models may impact the treatment of human multigenic disorders. We previously described an innate immune-driven model of spontaneous ulcerative colitis in T-bet(-/-).Rag2(-/-) double-deficient mice that resembles human ulcerative colitis. On a BALB/c background, this disease is highly penetrant and results in the development of colorectal cancer. However, we observed that colitis in T-bet(-/-).Rag2(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6 background was significantly less severe. Quantitative trait locus analysis using an N2 backcross strategy revealed a single major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3 that mapped to the Cdcs1 (cytokine deficiency-induced colitis susceptibility-1) locus previously identified in the Il10(-/-) and Gnai2(-/-) colitis models. Congenic introduction of the susceptible Cdcs1 interval from C3H/He into the C57BL/6 background restored colitis severity. Bone marrow reconstitution experiments further mapped the effect of host genetics on disease severity to the hematopoietic compartment. There were distinct differences in the expression of several Cdcs1 genes in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from Cdcs1 congenic mice. We conclude that the Cdcs1 locus controls colitis severity in T-bet(-/-).Rag2(-/-) mice through innate immune cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2011; 108(17):7137-41. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1104234108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have increased numbers of human tryptase-β (hTryptase-β)-positive mast cells (MCs) in the gastrointestinal tract. The amino acid sequence of mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-6 is most similar to that of hTryptase-β. We therefore hypothesized that this mMCP, or the related tryptase mMCP-7, might have a prominent proinflammatory role in experimental colitis. The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis models were used to evaluate the differences between C57BL/6 (B6) mouse lines that differ in their expression of mMCP-6 and mMCP-7 with regard to weight loss, colon histopathology, and endoscopy scores. Microarray analyses were performed, and confirmatory real-time PCR, ELISA, and/or immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on a number of differentially expressed cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The mMCP-6-null mice that had been exposed to DSS had significantly less weight loss as well as significantly lower pathology and endoscopy scores than similarly treated mMCP-6-expressing mice. This difference in colitis severity was confirmed endoscopically in the TNBS-treated mice. Evaluation of the distal colon segments revealed that numerous proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines that preferentially attract neutrophils, and MMPs that participate in the remodeling of the ECM were all markedly increased in the colons of DSS-treated WT mice relative to untreated WT mice and DSS-treated mMCP-6-null mice. Collectively, our data show that mMCP-6 (but not mMCP-7) is an essential MC-restricted mediator in chemically induced colitis and that this tryptase acts upstream of many of the factors implicated in IBD.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2011; 108(1):290-5. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1005758108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal health requires the coexistence of eukaryotic self with the gut microbiota and dysregulated host-microbial interactions can result in intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that colitis improved in T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice that consumed a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DN-173 010 strain. A decrease in cecal pH and alterations in short chain fatty acid profiles occurred with consumption, and there were concomitant increases in the abundance of select lactate-consuming and butyrate-producing bacteria. These metabolic shifts created a nonpermissive environment for the Enterobacteriaceae recently identified as colitogenic in a T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) ulcerative colitis mouse model. In addition, 16S rRNA-based analysis of the T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) fecal microbiota suggest that the structure of the endogenous gut microbiota played a key role in shaping the host response to the bacterial strains studied herein. We have identified features of the gut microbiota, at the membership and functional level, associated with response to this B. lactis-containing fermented milk product, and therefore this model provides a framework for evaluating and optimizing probiotic-based functional foods.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(42):18132-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1011737107 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disruption of homeostasis between the host immune system and the intestinal microbiota leads to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Whether IBD is instigated by individual species or disruptions of entire microbial communities remains controversial. We characterized the fecal microbial communities in the recently described T-bet(-/-) ×Rag2(-/-) ulcerative colitis (TRUC) model driven by T-bet deficiency in the innate immune system. 16S rRNA-based analysis of TRUC and Rag2(-/-) mice revealed distinctive communities that correlate with host genotype. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis correlates with colitis in TRUC animals, and these TRUC-derived strains can elicit colitis in Rag2(-/-) and WT adults but require a maternally transmitted endogenous microbial community for maximal intestinal inflammation. Cross-fostering experiments indicated a role for these organisms in maternal transmission of disease. Our findings illustrate how gut microbial communities work in concert with specific culturable colitogenic agents to cause IBD.
    Cell host & microbe 09/2010; 8(3):292-300. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2010.08.004 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gallstones are frequent in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). These stones are generally "black" pigment (i.e., Ca bilirubinate) with an appreciable cholesterol admixture. The pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms for this "mixed" gallstone in CF are unknown. Here we investigate in a CF mouse model with no overt liver or gallbladder disease whether pathophysiological changes in the physical chemistry of gallbladder bile might predict the occurrence of "mixed" cholelithiasis. Employing a DeltaF508 mouse model with documented increased fecal bile acid loss and induced enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin (Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294: G1411-G1420, 2008), we assessed gallbladder bile chemistry, morphology, and microscopy in CF and wild-type mice, with focus on the concentrations and compositions of the common biliary lipids, bilirubins, Ca(2+), and pH. Our results demonstrate that gallbladder bile of CF mice contains significantly higher levels of all bilirubin conjugates and unconjugated bilirubin with lower gallbladder bile pH values. Significant elevations in Ca bilirubinate ion products in bile of CF mice increase the likelihood of supersaturating bile and forming black pigment gallstones. The risk of potential pigment cholelithogenesis is coupled with higher cholesterol saturations and bile salt hydrophobicity indexes, consistent with a proclivity to cholesterol phase separation during pigment gallstone formation. This is an initial step toward unraveling the molecular basis of CF gallstone disease and constitutes a framework for investigating animal models of CF with more severe biliary disease, as well as the human disease.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 07/2010; 299(1):G205-14. DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00341.2009 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohn s and Colitis Supplements 04/2010; 4(1):8-9. DOI:10.1016/S1873-9954(10)70013-6
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinoid tumors of the biliary tree are exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of a biliary carcinoid in the radiological literature. We herein report on a 50-year-old female with a history of breast cancer who presented with epigastric pain. Laboratory evaluation revealed results consistent with obstructive jaundice. Right upper quadrant ultrasound and multidetector-row CT scan showed an intraductal and well-defined tumor in the porta hepatis with dilated intrahepatic bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the intraluminal growth of the tumor was arising from the right hepatic duct. Familiarity with the imaging appearances may prompt early recognition of biliary carcinoids and allow differentiation from other more common biliary neoplasms.
    European Journal of Radiology Extra 03/2010; DOI:10.1016/j.ejrex.2009.12.002

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,231.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1999–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2010
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2006
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Immunopathology Research Unit
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States