[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a lipid-activated transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These immune cells exposed to distinct inflammatory milieu show cell type specification as a result of altered gene expression. We demonstrate here a mechanism how inflammatory molecules modulate PPARγ signaling in distinct subsets of cells. Proinflammatory molecules inhibited whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulated PPARγ activity in macrophages and DCs. Furthermore, IL-4 signaling augmented PPARγ activity through an interaction between PPARγ and signal transducer and activators of transcription 6 (STAT6) on promoters of PPARγ target genes, including FABP4. Thus, STAT6 acts as a facilitating factor for PPARγ by promoting DNA binding and consequently increasing the number of regulated genes and the magnitude of responses. This interaction, underpinning cell type-specific responses, represents a unique way of controlling nuclear receptor signaling by inflammatory molecules in immune cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium, a trace element that is fundamental to human health, is incorporated into some proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), generating a family of selenoproteins. Sec incorporation is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Sec insertion sequence-binding protein 2 (SECISBP2; also known as SBP2). Here, we describe subjects with compound heterozygous defects in the SECISBP2 gene. These individuals have reduced synthesis of most of the 25 known human selenoproteins, resulting in a complex phenotype. Azoospermia, with failure of the latter stages of spermatogenesis, was associated with a lack of testis-enriched selenoproteins. An axial muscular dystrophy was also present, with features similar to myopathies caused by mutations in selenoprotein N (SEPN1). Cutaneous deficiencies of antioxidant selenoenzymes, increased cellular ROS, and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative damage may mediate the observed photosensitivity. Reduced levels of selenoproteins in peripheral blood cells were associated with impaired T lymphocyte proliferation, abnormal mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, and telomere shortening. Paradoxically, raised ROS in affected subjects was associated with enhanced systemic and cellular insulin sensitivity, similar to findings in mice lacking the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Thus, mutation of SECISBP2 is associated with a multisystem disorder with defective biosynthesis of many selenoproteins, highlighting their role in diverse biological processes.
The Journal of clinical investigation 11/2010; 120(12):4220-35. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in forkhead box E1/thyroid transcription factor 2 (FOXE1/TTF-2) cause syndromic congenital hypothyroidism, with thyroid dysgenesis, cleft palate, spiky hair, and variable choanal atresia and bifid epiglottis in three cases reported hitherto. We have elucidated the molecular basis of the disorder in a female with a similar clinical phenotype, born to nonconsanguineous parents.
The FOXE1 gene, located on chromosome 9q22, was sequenced in the proband and family members. Microsatellite marker and multiplex ligation probe amplification analyses determined chromosomal inheritance patterns and FOXE1 copy number. Mutant FOXE1 function was predicted by structural modeling and tested in transfection assays.
The proband was homozygous for a novel missense (c.412T-->C; F137S) FOXE1 mutation, but her mother showed heterozygous and father wild-type alleles for this gene sequence. However, the proband was also homozygous for 10 microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 9 with exclusively maternal inheritance. Multiplex ligation probe amplification assays showed two copies of FOXE1 in the proband, indicating maternal isodisomy for chromosome 9. Consistent with structural modeling, the F137S mutant FOXE1 protein failed to bind DNA and showed negligible transcriptional activity.
We have described the first case of uniparental disomy causing homozygosity for a novel, loss-of-function FOXE1/TTF-2 mutation in dysgenetic congenital hypothyroidism.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 08/2010; 95(8):4031-6. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three siblings of Pakistani origin presented neonatally with isolated hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism and were well controlled on fludrocortisone therapy during childhood and adolescence.
These individuals were reevaluated as adults after fludrocortisone withdrawal to investigate the biochemical and molecular basis of their disorder.
When reassessed off fludrocortisone treatment, hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism was confirmed in all subjects but with significant hyperkalemia in only one case. Profiling of urinary steroid metabolites showed a biochemical pattern (elevated tetrahydrocorticosterone to 18-hydroxytetrahydro-11-dehydrocorticosterone ratio but normal 18-hydroxytetrahydro-11-dehydrocorticosterone to tetrahydroaldosterone ratio) consistent with partial type 1 aldosterone synthase deficiency. Sequencing of the CYP11B2 gene showed that affected subjects were homozygous for a single nucleotide substitution (T925C) in exon 5, corresponding to a serine to proline mutation (S308P) in the predicted protein, with unaffected family members being heterozygous. Consistent with structural modeling showing that the mutated residue is located within the alpha-helix I, close to the hemebinding, active site of the enzyme, functional characterization of the S308P mutant protein in vitro showed complete loss of enzyme activity. However, administration of dexamethasone further reduced levels of circulating aldosterone and its urinary metabolites in affected subjects, suggesting that some mineralocorticoid biosynthesis occurs in vivo.
We have identified the first CYP11B2 gene defect in a family of Asian origin, associated with a type 1 aldosterone synthase deficiency phenotype. Preservation of some aldosterone production suggests either residual mutant CYP11B2 enzyme activity in vivo or mineralocorticoid biosynthesis via an alternative pathway.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 01/2009; 94(3):914-9. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PPARgamma is essential for adipogenesis and metabolic homeostasis. We describe mutations in the DNA and ligand binding domains of human PPARgamma in lipodystrophic, severe insulin resistance. These receptor mutants lack DNA binding and transcriptional activity but can translocate to the nucleus, interact with PPARgamma coactivators and inhibit coexpressed wild-type receptor. Expression of PPARgamma target genes is markedly attenuated in mutation-containing versus receptor haploinsufficent primary cells, indicating that such dominant-negative inhibition operates in vivo. Our observations suggest that these mutants restrict wild-type PPARgamma action via a non-DNA binding, transcriptional interference mechanism, which may involve sequestration of functionally limiting coactivators.