[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on innate immune cells and trigger inflammation upon detection of pathogens and host tissue injury. TLR-mediated proinflammatory-signaling pathways are counteracted by partially characterized anti-inflammatory mechanisms that prevent exaggerated inflammation and host tissue damage as manifested in inflammatory diseases. We biochemically identified a component of TLR-signaling pathways, A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB (ABIN1), which recently has been linked by genome-wide association studies to the inflammatory diseases systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis. We generated ABIN1-deficient mice to study the function of ABIN1 in vivo and during TLR activation. Here we show that ABIN1-deficient mice develop a progressive, lupus-like inflammatory disease characterized by expansion of myeloid cells, leukocyte infiltrations in different parenchymatous organs, activated T and B lymphocytes, elevated serum Ig levels, and the appearance of autoreactive antibodies. Kidneys develop glomerulonephritis and proteinuria, reflecting tissue injury. Surprisingly, ABIN1-deficient macrophages exhibit normal regulation of major proinflammatory signaling pathways and mediators but show selective deregulation of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and its target genes, such as colony-stimulating factor 3 (Csf3), nitric oxide synthase, inducible (Nos2), and S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100a8). Their gene products, which are intimately linked to innate immune cell expansion (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), cytotoxicity (inducible nitric oxide synthase), and host factor-derived inflammation (S100A8), may explain, at least in part, the inflammatory phenotype observed. Together, our data reveal ABIN1 as an essential anti-inflammatory component of TLR-signaling pathways that controls C/EBPβ activity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(44):E998-1006. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During cell division, the spindle checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome segregation by monitoring the kinetochore-microtubule interaction and delaying the onset of anaphase until each pair of sister chromosomes is properly attached to microtubules. The spindle checkpoint is deactivated as chromosomes start moving toward the spindles in anaphase, but the mechanisms by which this deactivation and adaptation to prolonged mitotic arrest occur remain obscure. Our results strongly suggest that Cdc28-mediated phosphorylation of Bub1 at T566 plays an important role for the degradation of Bub1 in anaphase, and the phosphorylation is required for adaptation of the spindle checkpoint to prolonged mitotic arrest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrinsically disordered proteins are predicted to be highly abundant and play broad biological roles in eukaryotic cells. In particular, by virtue of their structural malleability and propensity to interact with multiple binding partners, disordered proteins are thought to be specialized for roles in signaling and regulation. However, these concepts are based on in silico analyses of translated whole genome sequences, not on large-scale analyses of proteins expressed in living cells. Therefore, whether these concepts broadly apply to expressed proteins is currently unknown. Previous studies have shown that heat-treatment of cell extracts lead to partial enrichment of soluble, disordered proteins. On the basis of this observation, we sought to address the current dearth of knowledge about expressed, disordered proteins by performing a large-scale proteomics study of thermostable proteins isolated from mouse fibroblast cells. With the use of novel multidimensional chromatography methods and mass spectrometry, we identified a total of 1320 thermostable proteins from these cells. Further, we used a variety of bioinformatics methods to analyze the structural and biological properties of these proteins. Interestingly, more than 900 of these expressed proteins were predicted to be substantially disordered. These were divided into two categories, with 514 predicted to be predominantly disordered and 395 predicted to exhibit both disordered and ordered/folded features. In addition, 411 of the thermostable proteins were predicted to be folded. Despite the use of heat treatment (60 min at 98 degrees C) to partially enrich for disordered proteins, which might have been expected to select for small proteins, the sequences of these proteins exhibited a wide range of lengths (622 +/- 555 residues (average length +/- standard deviation) for disordered proteins and 569 +/- 598 residues for folded proteins). Computational structural analyses revealed several unexpected features of the thermostable proteins: (1) disordered domains and coiled-coil domains occurred together in a large number of disordered proteins, suggesting functional interplay between these domains; and (2) more than 170 proteins contained lengthy domains (>300 residues) known to be folded. Reference to Gene Ontology Consortium functional annotations revealed that, while disordered proteins play diverse biological roles in mouse fibroblasts, they do exhibit heightened involvement in several functional categories, including, cytoskeletal structure and cell movement, metabolic and biosynthetic processes, organelle structure, cell division, gene transcription, and ribonucleoprotein complexes. We believe that these results reflect the general properties of the mouse intrinsically disordered proteome (IDP-ome) although they also reflect the specialized physiology of fibroblast cells. Large-scale identification of expressed, thermostable proteins from other cell types in the future, grown under varied physiological conditions, will dramatically expand our understanding of the structural and biological properties of disordered eukaryotic proteins.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2009; 8(1):211-26. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 26 S proteasome is an energy-dependent protease that degrades proteins modified with polyubiquitin chains. It is assembled from two multi-protein subcomplexes: a protease (20 S proteasome) and an ATPase regulatory complex (PA700 or 19 S regulatory particle) that contains six different AAA family subunits (Rpt1 to -6). Here we show that binding of PA700 to the 20 S proteasome is mediated by the COOH termini of two (Rpt2 and Rpt5) of the six Rpt subunits that constitute the interaction surface between the subcomplexes. COOH-terminal peptides of either Rpt2 or Rpt5 bind to the 20 S proteasome and activate hydrolysis of short peptide substrates. Simultaneous binding of both COOH-terminal peptides had additive effects on peptide substrate hydrolysis, suggesting that they bind to distinct sites on the proteasome. In contrast, only the Rpt5 peptide activated hydrolysis of protein substrates. Nevertheless, the COOH-terminal peptide of Rpt2 greatly enhanced this effect, suggesting that proteasome activation is a multistate process. Rpt2 and Rpt5 COOH-terminal peptides cross-linked to different but specific subunits of the 20 S proteasome. These results reveal critical roles of COOH termini of Rpt subunits of PA700 in the assembly and activation of eukaryotic 26 S proteasome. Moreover, they support a model in which Rpt subunits bind to dedicated sites on the proteasome and play specific, nonequivalent roles in the asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2008; 283(46):31813-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) represent an important class of proteins primarily involved in cellular signaling and regulation. The aim of this study was to develop methodology for the enrichment and identification of IUPs. We show that heat treatment of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cell extracts at 98 degrees C selects for IUPs. The majority of these IUPs were cytosolic or nuclear proteins involved in cell signaling or regulation. These studies represent the first large-scale experimental investigation of the intrinsically unstructured mammalian proteome.
Journal of Proteome Research 11/2006; 5(10):2839-48. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PEP-19 is a 7.6 kDa neuronally expressed polypeptide that contains a single calmodulin-binding IQ motif. The calmodulin-binding activity of several neuronal IQ motif proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of a conserved serine. We propose that the serine residue within the IQ motif of PEP-19 is phosphorylated, and that phosphorylation modifies the activity of PEP-19. Camstatin, a functionally active 25-residue fragment of PEP-19's IQ motif, binds calmodulin and inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase. A truncated camstatin-in which the IQ motif serine is the only phosphorylatable residue-was screened against 42 different kinases. Truncated camstatin is selectively phosphorylated by four isoforms of protein kinase C. Furthermore, treatment of full-length PEP-19 with PKCgamma catalyzes phosphorylation of the same serine residue. Fluorescent anisotropy shows that phosphorylation of camstatin inhibits its binding to calmodulin. NMR solution structures indicate that both camstatin and phospho-camstatin exist in similar dynamic turn-like conformations. This suggests that camstatin's greater affinity for calmodulin is due not to a change in the conformation of the phospho-peptide, but rather, to a disruption of hydrophobic interactions between phospho-camstatin and calmodulin caused by the presence of the hydrophilic phosphate group. The H(alpha) chemical shifts and the circular dichroism spectra of the camstatins are consistent with those of "nascent helices". We submit that PEP-19 is a PKC substrate, and that the phosphorylation state of PEP-19 may play a role in the modulation of calmodulin-dependent signaling.
Brain Research 06/2006; 1092(1):16-27. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2.6 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution structure has been determined for the glycosylated Fab (fragment antigen binding) of an IgM (Yvo) obtained from a subject with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. Dynamic light scattering was used to estimate the gel point and monitor the formation of an ordered hydroscopic gel of Yvo IgM upon cooling. If a cryoglobulin forms gels in peripheral tissues and organs, the associated swelling and damage to microvasculature can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. The three-dimensional structure of the branched N-linked oligosaccharide associated with the CH1 domain (first constant domain of heavy chain) is reported. The carbohydrate may act to shield part of the lateral surface of the CH1 domain and crowd the junction between the CH1 and CH2 domains, thereby limiting the segmental flexibility of the Fab arms in intact Yvo IgM, especially at low temperatures. Recently, Yvo IgM was shown to have the properties of a naturally occurring proteolytic antibody [Paul, Karle, Planque, Taguchi, Salas, Nishiyama, Handy, Hunter, Edmundson and Hanson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 39611-39619; Planque, Bangale, Song, Karle, Taguchi, Poindexter, Bick, Edmundson, Nishiyama and Paul (2004) J. Biol Chem. 279, 14024-14032]. The Yvo protein displayed the ability to cleave, by a nucleophilic mechanism, the amide bonds of a variety of serine protease substrates and the gp120 coat protein of HIV. An atypical serine, arginine and glutamate motif is located in the middle of the Yvo antigen-binding site and displays an overall geometry that mimics the classical serine, histidine and aspartate catalytic triad of serine proteases. Our present findings indicate that pre-existing or natural antibodies can utilize at least one novel strategy for the cleavage of peptide bonds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FADD is essential for death receptor (DR)-induced apoptosis. However, it is also critical for cell cycle progression and proliferation, activities that are regulated by phosphorylation of its C-terminal Ser194, which has also been implicated in sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and in regulating FADD's intracellular localization. We now demonstrate that casein kinase Ialpha (CKIalpha) phosphorylates FADD at Ser194 both in vitro and in vivo. FADD-CKIalpha association regulates the subcellular localization of FADD, and phosphorylated FADD was found to colocalize with CKIalpha on the spindle poles in metaphase. Inhibition of CKIalpha diminished FADD phosphorylation, prevented the ability of Taxol to arrest cells in mitosis, and blocked mitogen-induced proliferation of mouse splenocytes. In contrast, a low level of cycling splenocytes from mice expressing FADD with a mutated phosphorylation site was insensitive to CKI inhibition. These data suggest that phosphorylation of FADD by CKI is a crucial event during mitosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human RNPS1 was originally characterized as a pre-mRNA splicing activator in vitro and was shown to regulate alternative splicing in vivo. RNPS1 was also identified as a protein component of the splicing-dependent mRNP complex, or exon-exon junction complex (EJC), and a role for RNPS1 in postsplicing processes has been proposed. Here we demonstrate that RNPS1 incorporates into active spliceosomes, enhances the formation of the ATP-dependent A complex, and promotes the generation of both intermediate and final spliced products. RNPS1 is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with the CK2 (casein kinase II) protein kinase. Serine 53 (Ser-53) of RNPS1 was identified as the major phosphorylation site for CK2 in vitro, and the same site is also phosphorylated in vivo. The phosphorylation status of Ser-53 significantly affects splicing activation in vitro, but it does not perturb the nuclear localization of RNPS1. In vivo experiments indicated that the phosphorylation of RNPS1 at Ser-53 influences the efficiencies of both splicing and translation. We propose that RNPS1 is a splicing regulator whose activator function is controlled in part by CK2 phosphorylation.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/2005; 25(4):1446-57. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous work has shown that immunodominant T-helper cell epitopes cluster within distinct fragments on a single face of the HIV envelope gp120 protein. We show in this report that the general positions of immunodominant epitopes are shared by T cells derived from BALB/c, C57BL/6, and CB6F1 mice, yet the precise peptides recognized by the responding T cell populations may differ. In addition, we find that gp120 peptides displayed by tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry of a purified HIV envelope protein share location with peptides defined as immunodominant T cell targets. Results are consistent with the suggestion that gp120 peptide location influences antigen processing, which, in turn, influences the specificity of immunodominant T cells.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 03/2005; 21(2):165-70. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular cloning of cDNA for a new regulatory subunit, designated p97, of the human 26S proteasome showed that the polypeptide consists of 908 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 100 184 Da and an isoelectric point of 4.94. Computer analysis showed that p97 is very similar to type-1 tumor-necrosis-factor(TNF)-receptor-associated protein (TRAP)-2 and 55.11, both of which were identified recently as binding proteins of the cytoplasmic domain of type-1 TNF receptor by yeast two-hybrid screening. This finding suggests that the 26S proteasome might serve as a mediator molecule in the TNF signaling pathway in cells. Computer-assisted similarity analysis also revealed the high sequence similarity of p97 with a yeast protein whose function is yet unknown, the gene for which is here termed NAS1 (non-ATPase subunit 1). Disruption of NAS1 resulted in several phenotypes, including lethality and temperature-sensitive growth, depending on the genetic background of the cells used. The human p97 cDNA suppressed the growth defect of nas1 disruptant cells, when expressed from single-copy or multicopy vectors, indicating that p97 is functionally equivalent to yeast Nas1p. Culturing of the temperature-sensitive nas1 cells at the restrictive temperature promoted the accumulation polyubiquitinated cellular proteins, implying that the 26S proteasome requires a functional Nas1p subunit for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These results indicate that p97/Nas1p plays an important regulatory role in the function of the 26S proteasome.
European Journal of Biochemistry. 07/2004; 239(3):912 - 921.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein with glycolytic and non-glycolytic functions, including pro-apoptotic activity. GAPDH accumulates in the nucleus after cells are treated with genotoxic drugs, and it is present in a protein complex that binds DNA modified by thioguanine incorporation. We identified a novel CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES) comprising 13 amino acids (KKVVKQASEGPLK) in the C-terminal domain of GAPDH, truncation or mutation of which abrogated CRM1 binding and caused nuclear accumulation of GAPDH. Alanine scanning of the sequence encompassing the putative NES demonstrated at least two regions important for nuclear export. Site mutagenesis of Lys259 did not affect oligomerization but impaired nuclear efflux of GAPDH, indicating that this amino acid residue is essential for proper functioning of this NES. This novel NES does not contain multiple leucine residues unlike other CRM1-interacting NES, is conserved in GAPDH from multiple species, and has sequence similarities to the export signal found in feline immunodeficiency virus Rev protein. Similar sequences (KKVV*7-13PLK) were found in two other human proteins, U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and transcription factor BT3.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2004; 279(7):5984-92. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PITSLRE protein kinases, hereafter referred to as cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11) due to their association with cyclin L, are part of large molecular weight protein complexes that contain RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) as well as numerous transcription and RNA processing factors. Data presented here demonstrate that the influence of CDK11(p110) on transcription and splicing does not involve phosphorylation of the RNAP II carboxyl-terminal domain by CDK11(p110). We have isolated a DRB- and heparin-sensitive protein kinase activity that co-purifies with CDK11(p110) after ion exchange and affinity purification chromatography. This protein kinase was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses. In addition to the RNAP II carboxyl-terminal domain, CK2 phosphorylates the CDK11(p110) amino-terminal domain. These data suggest that CDK11(p110) isoforms participate in signaling pathways that include CK2 and that its function may help to coordinate the regulation of RNA transcription and processing events. Future experiments will determine how phosphorylation of CDK11(p110) by CK2 specifically affects RNA transcription and/or processing events.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2003; 278(4):2265-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin-like proteins (ub-lps) are conjugated by a conserved enzymatic pathway, involving ATP-dependent activation at the C terminus by an activating enzyme (E1) and formation of a thiolester intermediate with a conjugating enzyme (E2) prior to ligation to the target. Ubc9, the E2 for SUMO, synthesizes polymeric chains in the presence of its E1 and MgATP. To better understand conjugation of ub-lps, we have performed mutational analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ubc9p, which conjugates the SUMO family member Smt3p. We have identified Ubc9p surfaces involved in thiolester bond and Smt3p-Smt3p chain formation. The residues involved in thiolester bond formation map to a surface we show is the E1 binding site, and E2s for other ub-lps are likely to bind to their E1s at a homologous site. We also find that this same surface binds Smt3p. A mutation that impairs binding to E1 but not Smt3p impairs thiolester bond formation, suggesting that it is the E1 interaction at this site that is crucial. Interestingly, other E2s and their relatives also use this same surface for binding to ubiquitin, E3s, and other proteins, revealing this to be a multipurpose binding site and suggesting that the entire E1-E2-E3 pathway has coevolved for a given ub-lp.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2003; 277(49):47938-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to characterize the role of upstream kinases in the regulation of the MAP3 kinase MEKK1 and the potential impact on signaling to MAP kinase cascades. We find that the MAP4 kinase PAK1 phosphorylates the amino terminus of MEKK1 on serine 67. We show that serine 67 lies in a D domain, which binds to the c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK). Serine 67 is constitutively phosphorylated in resting 293 cells, but is dephosphorylated following exposure to stress stimuli such as anisomycin and UV irradiation. Phosphorylation of this site inhibits binding of JNK/SAPK to MEKK1. Thus, we propose a mechanism by which the MEKK1-dependent JNK/SAPK pathway is negatively regulated by PAK through phosphorylation of serine 67.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2002; 277(48):45785-92. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The X-ray structure of an immunoglobulin light-chain dimer isolated from the urine as a "Bence-Jones protein" from a patient with multiple myeloma and amyloidosis (Sea) was determined at 1.94 A resolution and refined to R and R(free) factors of 0.22 and 0.25, respectively. This "amyloidogenic" protein crystallized in the orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1) space group with unit-cell parameters a = 48.28, b = 83.32, c = 112.59 A as determined at 100 K. In the vital organs (heart and kidneys), the equivalent of the urinary protein produced fibrillar amyloid deposits which were fatal to the patient. Compared with the amyloidogenic Mcg light-chain dimer, the Sea protein was highly soluble in aqueous solutions and only crystallized at concentrations approaching 100 mg ml(-1). Both the Sea and Mcg proteins packed into crystals in highly ordered arrangements typical of strongly diffracting crystals of immunoglobulin fragments. Overall similarities and significant differences in the three-dimensional structures and crystalline properties are discussed for the Sea and Mcg Bence-Jones proteins, which together provide a generalized model of abnormalities present in lambda chains, facilitating a better understanding of amyloidosis of light-chain origin (AL).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the PITSLRE protein kinases are members of the cyclin-dependent kinase superfamily, their cellular function is unclear. Previously we demonstrated that the general RNA splicing factor RNPS1 is a specific PITSLRE p110 kinase interactor in vivo. This suggests that the PITSLRE family of protein kinases is involved in some aspect of RNA processing or transcription. Here we identify multiple transcriptional elongation factors, including ELL2, TFIIF(1), TFIIS, and FACT, as PITSLRE kinase-associated proteins. We demonstrate that PITSLRE p110 protein kinases co-immunoprecipitate and/or co-purify with these elongation factors as well as with RNA polymerase II. Antibody-mediated inhibition of PITSLRE kinase specifically suppressed RNA polymerase II-dependent in vitro transcription initiated at a GC-rich (adenosine deaminase) or TATA box-dependent (Ad2ML) promoter, and this suppression was rescued by readdition of purified PITSLRE p110 kinase. Together, these data strongly suggest that PITSLRE protein kinases participate in a signaling pathway that potentially regulates or links transcription and RNA processing events.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2002; 277(4):2589-96. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that regulates body fat stores and feeding behavior. In an effort to identify endogenous diffusible modulators of leptin production, we found that endothelin-1 (ET-1) up-regulates leptin expression in adipocytes. ET-1 is as potent and efficacious as insulin in stimulating leptin production in two different adipocyte cell lines. Endothelins stimulate leptin production via the endothelin-A receptor (ET(A)), as judged by a potency rank order of ET-1 ET-3. We detected expression of ET(A) but not ET(B) in both cell lines by Northern blot analysis. In addition, the ET(A)-selective antagonist FR139317 inhibited ET-1-induced leptin expression more potently than did the ET(B)-selective antagonist BQ788. ET-1 and insulin positively interact with each other in increasing leptin production in adipocytes. In primary mouse white fat cells, we detected expression of both ET(A) and ET(B) by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses. We conclude that ET-1 stimulates leptin production via the ET(A) receptor in cultured adipocytes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2001; 276(30):28471-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional structure of the mitochondrial bc(1) complex reveals that the extrinsic domain of the Fe-S subunit, which carries the redox-active [2Fe2S] cluster, is attached to its transmembrane anchor domain by a short flexible hinge sequence (amino acids D43 to S49 in Rhodobacter capsulatus). In various structures, this extrinsic domain is located in different positions, and the conformation of the hinge region is different. In addition, proteolysis of this region has been observed previously in a bc(1) complex mutant of R. capsulatus [Saribas, A. S., Valkova-Valchanova, M. B., Tokito, M., Zhang, Z., Berry E. A., and Daldal, F. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8105-8114]. Thus, possible correlations between proteolysis, conformation of the hinge region, and position of the extrinsic domain of the Fe-S subunit within the bc(1) complex were sought. In this work, we show that thermolysin, or an endogenous activity present in R. capsulatus, cleaves the hinge region of the Fe-S subunit between its amino acid residues A46-M47 or D43-V44, respectively, to yield a protease resistant fragment with a M(r) of approximately 18 kDa. The cleavage was affected significantly by ubihydroquinone oxidation (Q(o)) and ubiquinone reduction (Q(i)) site inhibitors and by specific mutations located in the bc(1) complex. In particular, using either purified or detergent dispersed chromatophore-embedded R. capsulatus bc(1) complex, we demonstrated that while stigmatellin blocked the cleavage, myxothiazol hardly affected it, and antimycin A greatly enhanced it. Moreover, mutations in various regions of the Fe-S subunit and cyt b subunit changed drastically proteolysis patterns, indicating that the structure of the hinge region of the Fe-S subunit was modified in these mutants. The overall findings establish that protease accessibility of the Fe-S subunit of the bc(1) complex is a useful biochemical assay for probing the conformation of its hinge region and for monitoring indirectly the position of its extrinsic [2Fe2S] cluster domain within the Q(o) pocket.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The T cell receptor (TCR) zeta subunit contains three immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) that translate effective extracellular ligand binding into intracellular signals by becoming phosphorylated into 21- and 23-kD forms. We report here that the 21-kD form of TCR zeta is generated by phosphorylation of the tyrosines in the second and third ITAMs, whereas the 23-kD form is formed by the additional phosphorylation of the membrane-proximal ITAM tyrosines. The stable formation of the 21- and 23-kD species requires the binding of the tandem SH2 domains of ZAP-70. We also report that TCR-mediated signaling processes can proceed independently of either the 21- or 23-kD species of TCR zeta.