John Gormley

Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (37)54.15 Total impact

  • Jennifer Ryan, Michael Walsh, John Gormley
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the ability of published cut points for the RT3 accelerometer to differentiate between levels of physical activity intensity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Oxygen consumption (metabolic equivalents; METs) and RT3 data (counts/min) were measured during rest and 5 walking trials. METs and corresponding counts/min were classified as sedentary, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to MET thresholds. Counts were also classified according to published cut points. A published cut point exhibited an excellent ability to classify sedentary activity (sensitivity = 89.5%, specificity = 100.0%). Classification accuracy decreased when published cut points were used to classify LPA (sensitivity = 88.9%, specificity = 79.6%) and MVPA (sensitivity = 70%, specificity = 95-97%). Derivation of a new cut point improved classification of both LPA and MVPA. Applying published cut points to RT3 accelerometer data collected in children with CP may result in misclassification of LPA and MVPA.
    Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ 10/2014; 31(4):310-324. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced accelerometry-based devices have the potential to improve the measurement of everyday energy expenditure (EE) in people with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two such devices (the Sensewear ProArmband and the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity) and the ability of a traditional accelerometer (the RT3) to estimate EE in adults and children with CP.
    Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 08/2014; 11(1):116. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the ability of anthropometric measures to predict these factors. Cross-sectional study SETTING: Testing took place in a laboratory setting PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five adults with CP (mean±SD age 37.5±13.3 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-V) participated in this study. Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein were measured from a fasting venous blood sample. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment Index (HOMA-IR). The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio were also measured. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 20.5% in ambulatory adults and 28.6% in non-ambulatory adults. BMI was associated with HOMA-IR only (β=0.451, p<0.01). WC was associated with HOMA-IR (β=0.480, p<0.01), triglycerides (β=0.450, p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (β=0.352, p<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that WC provided the best indication of hypertensive blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, HOMA-IR, and the presence of multiple risk factors (area under the curve values of 0.713-0.763). A high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was observed in this relatively young sample of adults. WC was a better indicator of a number of risk factors compared to BMI and presents as a clinically useful method of screening for cardiometabolic risk among adults with CP.
    Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 04/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) participate in reduced levels of physical activity and spend increased time in sedentary behavior. The effect of this on their cardiometabolic health has not been investigated.Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among a cohort of ambulatory children with CP. Secondly, the aim was to investigate the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, overweight/obesity and BP in children with CP.Study designThis was a cross-sectional study of 90 ambulatory children, age 6 to 17 years, with CP.Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-height ratio and BP were measured on one occasion. Habitual physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days.ResultsThe prevalence of overweight/obesity in the cohort was 18.9%. Twenty-two percent of children had BP values within the hypertensive or pre-hypertensive range. Systolic BP was positively associated with waist circumference (β = 0.324, p <0.05) and BMI (β = 0.249, p<0.05). Elevated BP values were associated with reduced time in moderate-to-vigorous activity, vigorous activity and total activity, and increased time in sedentary behavior. The strongest association was observed between elevated BP and vigorous activity alone (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.99; p <0.05).LimitationsA convenience sample was recruited for this study and it is possible that this resulted in selection bias.Conclusions Despite the relatively low prevalence of overweight/obesity, a relatively high proportion of children with CP had elevated BP values. Reducing sedentary behavior and increasing habitual physical activity, particularly vigorous activity, should be a primary aim of rehabilitation in order to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk in this population.
    Physical Therapy 04/2014; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to participate in reduced levels of total physical activity. There is no information available however, regarding levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in this population. Reduced participation in MVPA is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study was firstly to compare levels of sedentary, light, MVPA and total activity in adults with CP to adults without CP. Secondly, the objective was to investigate the association between physical activity components, sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with CP. Adults with CP (n = 41) age 18–62 yr (mean ± SD = 36.5 ± 12.5 yr), classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System level I (n = 13), II (n = 18) and III (n = 10) participated in this study. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry in adults with CP and in age- and sex-matched adults without CP over 7 days. Anthropometric indicators of obesity, blood pressure and several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease were also measured in adults with CP. Adults with CP spent less time in light, moderate, vigorous and total activity, and more time in sedentary activity than adults without CP (p < 0.01 for all). Moderate physical activity was associated with waist-height ratio when adjusted for age and sex (β = −0.314, p < 0.05). When further adjustment was made for total activity, moderate activity was associated with waist-height ratio (β = −0.538, p < 0.05), waist circumference (β = −0.518, p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (β = −0.592, p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.636, p < 0.05). Sedentary activity was not associated with any risk factor. The findings provide evidence that relatively young adults with CP participate in reduced levels of MVPA and spend increased time in sedentary behavior, potentially increasing their risk of developing cardiometabolic disease.
    Research in developmental disabilities 01/2014; 35(9):1995–2002. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To report the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the ability of anthropometric measures to predict these factors. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Testing took place in a laboratory setting Participants Fifty-five adults with CP (mean±SD age 37.5±13.3 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-V) participated in this study. Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein were measured from a fasting venous blood sample. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment Index (HOMA-IR). The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio were also measured. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 20.5% in ambulatory adults and 28.6% in non-ambulatory adults. BMI was associated with HOMA-IR only (β=0.451, p<0.01). WC was associated with HOMA-IR (β=0.480, p<0.01), triglycerides (β=0.450, p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (β=0.352, p<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that WC provided the best indication of hypertensive blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, HOMA-IR, and the presence of multiple risk factors (area under the curve values of 0.713-0.763). Conclusion A high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was observed in this relatively young sample of adults. WC was a better indicator of a number of risk factors compared to BMI and presents as a clinically useful method of screening for cardiometabolic risk among adults with CP.
    Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 01/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Jennifer Ryan, John Gormley
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A comparative evaluation of the ability of activity monitors to predict energy expenditure (EE) is necessary to aid in the investigation of the effect of EE on health. The purpose of this study was to validate and compare the RT3, the SWA and the IDEEA at measuring EE in adults and children. Twenty-six adults and 22 children completed a resting metabolic rate (RMR) test and performed four treadmill activities at 3 km.h(-1), 6 km.h(-1), 6 km.h(-1) at a 10% incline, 9 km.h(-1). EE was assessed throughout the protocol by the RT3, the SWA and the IDEEA. Indirect calorimetry (IC) was used as a criterion measure of EE against which each monitor was compared. Mean bias was assessed by subtracting EE from IC from EE from each monitor for each activity. Limit of agreement plots were used to assess the agreement between each monitor and IC. Limits of agreement for resting EE were narrowest for the RT3 for adults and children. Although the IDEEA displayed the smallest mean bias between measures at 3 km.h(-1), 6 km.h(-1) and 9 km.h(-1) in adults and children, the SWA agreed closest with IC at 6 km.h(-1), 6 km.h(-1) at a 10% incline and 9 km.h(-1). Limits of agreement were closest for the SWA at 9 km.h(-1) in adults representing 42% of the overall mean EE. Although the RT3 provided the best estimate of resting EE in adults and children, the SWA provided the most accurate estimate of EE across a range of physical activity intensities.
    European Journal of Sport Science 11/2013; 13(6):681-688. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lumbar spine injury in rowers is common and ergometer rowing has been cited as a risk factor for this injury. The purpose of this study is to compare lumbar kinematics between ergometer and single scull rowing and to examine the effect of fatigue on kinematics. The sagittal lumbar spine motion of 19 elite male rowers (lumbar spine injury free in the previous six months) was measured with an electrogoniometer during a 'step test' on an ergometer and in a single sculling boat. Maximum range of lumbar flexion was recorded in standing for reference. Power output and heart rate were recorded during the ergometer tests. Heart rate was used as a surrogate for power output in the sculling test. Maximum lumbar flexion increased during the step test and was significantly greater on the ergometer (4.4 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees change), compared with the boat (+1.3 degrees +/- 1.1 degrees change), (3.1 degrees difference, p = 0.035). Compared to the voluntary range of motion, there is an increase of 11.3% (ergometer) and 4.1% (boat). Lumbar spine flexion increases significantly during the course of an ergometer trial while changes in a sculling boat were minimal. Such differences may contribute to the recent findings linking ergometer use to lower-back injury.
    Sports Biomechanics 06/2013; 12(2):132-42. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Physical activity has beneficial effects on arterial stiffness among healthy adults. There is a lack of data on this relationship in adults with hypertension. The majority of studies which have examined physical activity and arterial stiffness have used subjective measures of activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured habitual physical activity and arterial stiffness in individuals with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. METHODS: Adults attending an outpatient hypertension clinic were recruited into this cross sectional study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured using applanation tonometry. Participant's full lipid profile and glucose were determined through the collection of a fasting blood sample. RESULTS: Fifty three adults (51(14) years, 26 male) participated, 16 of whom had the metabolic syndrome. Inactivity was positively correlated with PWV (r=0.53, p<0.001) and AIx (r=0.48, p<0.001). There were significant inverse associations between habitual physical activity of all intensities and both AIx and PWV. In stepwise regression, after adjusting for potential confounders, physical activity was a significant predictor of AIx and PWV. CONCLUSION: Habitual physical activity of all intensities is associated with reduced arterial stiffness among adults with hypertension.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 01/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Jennifer Ryan, John Gormley
    Physical Therapy Reviews 01/2013; 18(4):239-262.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Lumbar spine injury is common in rowers and examination of spinal kinematics may improve the understanding of this injury's prevalence. This study aimed to examine the range of frontal plane angular displacement (AD) in the lumbar spine at L3 during ergometer rowing and to investigate the effect of exhaustion on lumbar kinematics. Twelve elite male rowers completed an incremental test on a Concept 2 ergometer. Lumbar AD at L3 was measured continually throughout the rowing trial using a Spectrotilt Inclinometer and blood lactate was sampled at 3-minute intervals. AD of between 4.7° and 8.8° was recorded at L3. There was a significant increase in AD between the first and last stage of the test (mean increase = 4.1 ± 1.94°, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 2.9 to 5.3°, t = 7.36, P = 0.000014). Incremental rise in AD was associated with an incremental rise in blood lactate but regression confirmed that only stroke rate was a significant predictor for increasing angle. Thus there is a statistically significant increase in frontal plane AD at L3 over the course of an incremental exercise test although it cannot be confirmed if this is as a result of exhaustion. The values of AD confirm that there is motion in the frontal plane in ergometer rowing.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 08/2012; 30(14):1481-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    F Wilson, C Simms, J Gormley, C Gissane
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    ABSTRACT: Background The incidence of lumbar spine injury is high. Ergometer rowing and fatigue have been cited as risk factors for this injury. Objective Compare the kinematics of the lumbar spine in rowers on an ergometer and a sculling boat during a fatiguing protocol. Design Lumbar spine kinematics were assessed in the sagittal plane using a twin axis electrogoniometer. Setting A laboratory and field based study of elite level rowing. Participants 19 male rowers, mean age 24.2 (3.7) years, mean weight 82.5 (8.4) kg and height 1.88 (0.05) m. Assessment of risk factors Maximum range of lumbar flexion was measured before each test. Sagittal plane lumbar spine angular kinematics were measured during an ergometer rowing trial which comprised of an incremental 'step test' on a Concept 2 ergometer. The trial was repeated in a sculling boat on the water. Main outcome measurements Pre-test maximum flexion and maximum lumbar flexion during each test were compared. Mean sagittal flexion in the lumbar spine during the first and last stage of the step test was compared. The findings of ergometer and boat rowing were compared. Results Maximum sagittal flexion was 113% (15.2) of pre-test range during ergometer rowing and 104.1% (10.2) during boat rowing. Lumbar flexion increased over the course of testing. Increase in lumbar flexion was significantly greater on the ergometer (mean change+4.4°(0.85)) compared with the boat (mean change+1.3°(1.1)), (mean difference 3.1, 95% CI 0.3 to 5.9, t=2.28, p=0.035). Conclusion Rowers experience a very high level of lumbar spine flexion which increases over the course of a rowing trial. Ergometer rowing results in significantly greater increases in sagittal motion in the lumbar spine compared to boat rowing.
    British journal of sports medicine 04/2011; 45(4):383. · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hypertension - J HYPERTENSION. 01/2010; 28.
  • Journal of Hypertension - J HYPERTENSION. 01/2010; 28.
  • C. Condon, J. Gormley, J. Hussey
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic disease characterised by synovial inflammation that may lead to permanent joint damage. Children with JIA may experience periods of reduced physical activity during an exacerbation of the disease and possibly after the active inflammation has resolved. The objective of this review was to establish the current physical activity levels in children with JIA. Methods: A literature search was performed to examine the evidence surrounding physical activity levels in children with JIA. For inclusion in the review, studies had to measure and report levels of physical activity with either objective or subjective methods. Results: Seven studies meeting the criteria were reviewed. A limited number of studies used objective measurements of physical activity, such as accelerometers. The results of these studies suggest that there is little difference in physical activity levels between children with JIA and controls. Studies that used subjective measurements such as self-reported or parental-reported questionnaires suggest a decline in physical activity in the subjects with JIA compared to controls. Discussion: Due to the conflicting nature of the results and methodological issues in some of studies reviewed, it is not clear if there is a significant difference in physical activity levels in children with JIA compared to healthy peers. Given the known benefits of physical activity on the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems during childhood, further research in this area is required to assess physical activity levels in children with JIA.
    Physical Therapy Reviews 11/2009; 14(6):411-417.
  • Nora Shields, John Gormley, Neil O'Hare
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    ABSTRACT: Research has documented concern among physiotherapists regarding the use of electromagnetic radiation in physiotherapy departments, in particular the use of short-wave diathermy. The purpose of this study was to examine how physiotherapists perceive their risk of exposure to radiofrequency radiation at work in the context of known environmental and lifestyle risks, and whether they felt in a position to protect themselves against any possible risk. Data were collected by postal questionnaire sent to 225 physiotherapists working in hospital-based physiotherapy departments. The response rate was 90%. There was no significant difference between the ratings of risk perception between physiotherapists who worked in a department where short-wave diathermy equipment was available and those who did not. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation in the physiotherapy department was perceived as low risk and it was also seen as the risk respondents felt best able to protect themselves from. These findings when interpreted in the context of previous research suggest that physiotherapists realize they can protect themselves from any potential risks associated with using short-wave diathermy but may be complacent regarding the dangers involved.
    07/2009; 7(4):170-175.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to establish the validity of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) against Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for measuring trapezius muscle thickness. Participants were asymptomatic subjects recruited from Trinity College Dublin and associated teaching hospitals. Four MRI axial slices were made through each of the C6, T1, T5 and T8 spinous processes, with the subject supine. RUSI was performed immediately after MRI at the same vertebral levels, with the subject prone. Linear measurements of trapezius muscle thickness were made off-line on both the MRI and Ultrasound scans, in three regions: lower, middle and upper trapezius. Bland and Altman limits of agreement and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to analyse the relationship between thickness measures taken from MRI and RUSI. Eighteen subjects (9 women) participated, (age-range 21-42 years). Results demonstrated good agreement between MRI and RUSI measurements of the lower trapezius muscle at T8 (r=0.77) and moderate agreement at T5, (r=0.62). Results were poor for the middle (T1) and upper (C6) trapezius muscles, (r=-0.22 to 0.52) but may be explained by differences in both positioning and imaging planes between the 2 modalities. It was concluded that RUSI is a valid method of measuring lower trapezius muscle thickness.
    Manual therapy 04/2009; 14(5):572-8. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Artery Research 01/2009; 3(4):176-176.
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    F Wilson, C Gissane, J Gormley, C Simms
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the injury incidence and association with type and volume of training in international rowers were described. A prospective cohort design was used over a 12-month period. 20 international rowers who were competing as part of the Irish Amateur Rowing Union squad system. The rowers were interviewed monthly, and data were collected regarding their training and competition exposure as well as their injury experience. A mean injury rate of 3.67 per 1000 exposure hours was reported with a total of 44 injuries reported in a 12-month period. The mean number of injuries sustained per athlete was 2.2 (1.24) over the 12-month period. The area where the greatest number of injuries were reported was the lumbar spine (31.82% of total injuries, 95% CI 20 to 50) (fig 2) followed by the knee (15.91% of total injuries, 95% CI 10 to 30) and the cervical spine (11.36% of total injuries, 95% CI 5 to 24). Half of the injuries (22 injuries, 50% of total reported injuries) were to the spine (chi(2) = 30.8, df = 9, p = 0.0003). Ergometer training load was the most significantly associated with injury risk (r = 0.68, p = 0.01). International rowers are at higher risk of injury than most non-contact sports and some contact sports. The high risk of lumbar spine injury and the significant association of high volume of ergometer training merit further research to reduce time and competition lost to injury.
    British journal of sports medicine 09/2008; 44(3):207-14. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the RT3 accelerometer, and its inbuilt algorithm, in measuring inactivity, walking and running in children. Twenty children, aged 7-12 years, participated in the study. The RT3 was compared to physiological energy expenditure obtained via a wireless portable ergospirometric system. Data analysis was performed using Bland and Altman plots and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. There were no significant differences between the methods for each activity. Bland and Altman 95% limits of agreement between the two measures in kcalmin(-1) for each of the activities were as follows: inactivity (-0.058, 0.47), walking at 3kmh(-1) (-1.22, 0.83) brisk walking at 6kmh(-1) (-2.74, 0.54), brisk walking at 6kmh(-1) on an incline of a 10% gradient (-1.69, 2.11), and jogging at 9kmh(-1) (-3.67, 1.24). Energy expenditure via the RT3 correlated significantly with that obtained by indirect calorimetry for each activity independently (r=0.56-0.84, all P<0.01). The RT3 provided a valid estimate of inactivity, walking and running and would thus appear appropriate for the objective measurement of physical activity levels.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 01/2008; 12(1):130-3. · 2.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

206 Citations
54.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Trinity College Dublin
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Physiotherapy
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2009
    • Department of Health, Ireland
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2006
    • St. James's Hospital
      • Department of Physiotherapy
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • The Adelaide and Meath Hospital Ireland
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1999
    • Trinity College
      Hartford, Connecticut, United States