Publications (3)8.53 Total impact
Article: HGPRT mutation induction by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea as measured by 6-thioguanine resistance is higher in male than in female Syrian hamster fetuses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The consequences of mutations in embryonic and fetal cells are serious and contribute to high prenatal sensitivity to mutagenic agents. An understanding of the factors that influence the yield of such mutations is important for management of adverse effects of perinatal exposures. Resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG) can be utilized to study mutational events at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus. HGPRT is X-linked and recessive. According to the Lyon hypothesis, male cells have only one X-chromosome and female cells randomly inactivate the second X-chromosome. This leads to the prediction that X-linked genes should be equally sensitive to the mutagenic effects of toxicants in male and female fetuses. We tested this supposition by in utero exposure of Syrian hamster fetuses to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) at day 12 of gestation. ENU is a strong carcinogen and mutagen. HGPRT mutations were detected by selection with 6-TG. Surprisingly. the male cells had 4 to 5 times more 6-TG mutants than female cells, in two separate experiments (p<0.001). Ouabain resistance, reflecting a co-dominant autosomal locus, was used as a control, and we found that there was no significant difference between male and female cells (p=0.549). Possible reasons for the sex difference in mutations include escape of the second X-chromosome from inactivation in some of the female cells, or higher mutability in male cells. In any event, there is a gender difference in vulnerability to mutation of an X-linked gene that has previously not been appreciated, and that may be relevant to toxicological studies of such genes. HGPRT is frequently used to monitor mutagenic events in human fetuses.Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 10/2006; 77(5):399-404. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To bypass the essential gastrulation function of Fgf8 and study its role in lineages of the primitive streak, we have used a new mouse line, T-Cre, to generate mouse embryos with pan-mesodermal loss of Fgf8 expression. Surprisingly, despite previous models in which Fgf8 has been assigned a pivotal role in segmentation/somite differentiation, Fgf8 is not required for these processes. However, mutant neonates display severe renal hypoplasia with deficient nephron formation. In mutant kidneys, aberrant cell death occurs within the metanephric mesenchyme (MM), particularly in the cortical nephrogenic zone, which provides the progenitors for recurring rounds of nephron formation. Prior to mutant morphological changes, Wnt4 and Lim1 expression, which is essential for nephrogenesis, is absent in MM. Furthermore, comparative analysis of Wnt4-null homozygotes reveals concomitant downregulation of Lim1 and diminished tubule formation. Our data support a model whereby FGF8 and WNT4 function in concert to induce the expression of Lim1 for MM survival and tubulogenesis.Development 10/2005; 132(17):3859-71. · 6.60 Impact Factor
Article: Induction of tubules in rat metanephrogenic mesenchyme in the absence of an inductive tissue[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AbstractDifferentiation of metanephrogenic mesenchyme to renal tubular epithelium requires induction by the ureteric bud in vivo or any of several embryonic tissues in vitro. In an effort to eliminate the tissue requirement in embryonic induction, extracellular matrices and soluble factors were analyzed individually or in combination for their ability to stimulate tubulogenesis in uninduced metanephrogenic mesenchyme from 13-gestation-day rat embryos. These evaluations have established that pituitary extract and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in concert with a matrix can promote morphogenesis of mesenchymal rudiments in culture. While type I collagen, laminin, or fibronectin matrices all promoted tubulogenesis in the presence of pituitary extract and EGF, type IV collagen proved the most effective. Under these conditions, tubules were induced in 23/24 mesenchymal rudiments by 9 days in culture. Mesenchyme was not induced prior to explanation since it formed no tubules when cultured in a medium that allowed tubulogenesis in intact embryonic kidneys. Preliminary characterization of the undefined factor in pituitary extract was consistent with a protein of molecular weight >100 000 but <300 000. When uninduced metanephrogenic mesenchyme from mouse was used instead of rat tissue, a similar pattern of morphogenesis was not observed, suggesting that the described medium is inappropriate for promoting differentiation in mouse or, less likely, that different mechanisms mediate differentiation in rat and mouse. These studies show that embryonic induction can occur in explanted rat renal mesenchyme in an appropriate environment and does not require the presence of an inductive tissue.Differentiation.