[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oncoprotein E7 of human papilloma viruses (HPV) is involved in the pathogenesis and maintenance of human cervical cancers. The most prevalent HPV types found in cervix carcinomas are HPV16, 18 and 45. The structure of the E7 dimer from HPV45 (PDB 2F8B) was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Each monomer comprises an unfolded N-terminus and a well-structured C-terminal domain with a beta1beta2alpha1beta3alpha2 topology representing a unique zinc-binding fold found only for E7. Dimerization occurs through the alpha1/alpha1' helices and intermolecular beta-sheet formation but excludes the zinc-binding sites. E7 is reported to interact with a number of cellular proteins (e.g. pRb, p21(CIP1)). Binding of a peptide derived from the C-terminus of p21(CIP1) to the C-terminal domain of E7 was characterized by monitoring chemical shift perturbations of the amide groups of E7. This provides direct evidence that a shallow groove situated between alpha1 and beta1 of the E7 C-terminal domain is interacting with the C-terminus of p21(CIP1). Intriguingly, this binding site overlaps with the low-affinity binding site on E7 for the C-domain of pRb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to directly bind to the SH3 domain of human lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck) via a proline-rich region located in the amino terminal part of Nef. To address the question whether Nef binding to Lck SH3 involves residues outside the typical poly-proline peptide binding site and whether the Lck unique domain is involved in Nef-Lck interaction, we studied the direct interaction between both molecules using recombinant full-length HIV-1 Nef protein on one side and recombinantly expressed and uniformly 15N-isotope labeled Lck protein comprising unique and SH3 domains on the other side. Applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we could show that only residues of Lck SH3, that are typically involved in binding poly-proline peptides, are affected by Nef binding. Further, for the first time we could rule out that residues of Lck unique domain are involved in binding to full length Nef protein. Thus, interactions of Lck unique domain to cellular partners e.g. CD4 or CD8, are not necessarily competitive with Lck binding to HIV-1 Nef.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine kinases are involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, activation and transformation. Human lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck) is a 56 kDa protein involved in T-cell- and IL2-receptor signaling. Three-dimensional structures are known for SH3, SH2 and kinase domains of Lck as well as for other tyrosine kinases. No structure is known for the unique domain of any Src-type tyrosine kinase.
Lck(1-120) comprising unique and SH3 domains was structurally investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found the unique domain, in contrast to the SH3 part, to have basically no defined structural elements. The solution structure of the SH3 part could be determined with very high precision. It does not show significant differences to Lck SH3 in the absence of the unique domain. Minor differences were observed to the X-ray structure of Lck SH3.
The unique domain of Lck does not contain any defined structure elements in the absence of ligands and membranes. Presence of the unique domain is not relevant to the three-dimensional structure of the Lck SH3 domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Nef proteins of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses are known to directly bind and downregulate the CD4 receptor of infected cells. Recent results suggest that residues forming an alpha-helix N-cap in the CD4 cytoplasmic domain play a role in binding of CD4 to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein. We determined the dissociation constants between Nef and several CD4 peptides that contain or do not contain the respective alpha-helix N-cap. Further, we compared helical secondary structure content of these CD4 peptide variants by circular dichroism spectroscopy. We conclude that presence of an alpha-helix in CD4 cytoplasmic domain increases CD4 affinity to Nef. In addition, the amino acid sequence of residues forming the helix N-cap influences CD4 affinity to Nef, too. Finally, the structural changes induced in Nef and CD4 upon binding to each other are investigated.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2002; 292(3):734-40. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6700 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Nef protein of the simian and human immunodeficiency viruses is known to directly bind and downregulate the CD4 receptor.
Although the molecular mechanism is well understood, direct binding of Nef and CD4 is difficult to demonstrate and is believed
to be of low affinity. Applying nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy, we biophysically reevaluated the
CD4-Nef complex and found the dissociation constant to be in the submicromolar range. We conclude that additional, so far
disregarded residues in the N terminus of Nef are important for interaction with CD4.
Journal of Virology 05/2001; 75(8):3960-4. DOI:10.1128/JVI.75.8.3960-3964.2001 · 4.44 Impact Factor