[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: An impact of regular physical activity on the abdominal muscles may be significant when comparing various symptomatic groups. However, there is lack comprehensive information in this field. The objective of this study was to assess the lateral abdominal wall at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in adolescent physically active girls in different body positions.
Methods: Female students, 13–17 years of age, participated in the study. Participants were divided into two groups based on a physical activity statement. Measurements of the thickness of the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre were made in the supine and standing positions by ultrasound imaging.
Results: Compared to the control group, activities of the obliquus internus and transversus abdominis muscles were higher in the regular physical activity group by 8.9% (95% CI 3.10–14.7) and 36% (95% CI 19.1–47.5), respectively. In the regular physical activity group, the transversus abdominis preferential activation ratio was greater by 0.03 (95% CI 0.01–0.04), and the contraction ratio was greater by a mean value of 0.35 (95% CI 0.18–0.46).
Conclusion: Regular physical activity does not have any effect on the resting thickness of the abdominal muscles in the supine and standing positions. Girls performing regular physical activity have a greater ability to perform an independent activation and greater contractions of the transversus abdominis.
Journal of Sport and Health Science 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2015.10.002 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Back pain represents one of the most common diseases across various populations of workers worldwide. This study analyzes the prevalence and severity of back pain, based on selected demographic variables, and the relationship with physical activity among school teachers. Material and Methods: The study included 998 professionally active teachers (840 females and 158 males) from the southern part of Poland. Validated psychometric tools, namely: 1) for evaluation of disability due to back pain – a Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Neck Disability Index (NDI), 2) for physical activity assessment – the Subjective Experience of Work Load (SEWL) as well as the authors’ supplementary questionnaire, addressing demographic and anthropometric variables were used. Results: There was no correlation between age and the NDI scores in females (r = 0.027), in contrast to males (r = 0.202; p ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) were reported between: age and the ODI, in both females (r = 0.219) and males (r = 0.180). No associations between the body mass index (BMI)-ODI, and BMI-NDI were found. In the case of women, disability related to low back pain (LBP) had a negative impact on the indicators of their activity during work, sports, and leisure time. In the case of men, the NDI and ODI scores did not differ, based on activity indicators. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that back pain represents a serious concern among teachers. Age appears to be a prognostic factor, while no association between the BMI and LBP has been revealed. The limitation of physical activity leads to more frequent back pain.
Wstęp. Ból pleców to na całym świecie jedna z najczęściej spotykanych dolegliwości zdrowotnych w różnych populacjach pracowników. Celem badania była ocena występowania i nasilenia dolegliwości bólowych pleców wśród nauczycieli polskich szkół w powiązaniu z ich aktywnością fizyczną i zebranymi zmiennymi demograficznymi. Materiał i metody: W badaniu uczestniczyło 998 czynnych zawodowo nauczycieli (840 kobiet, 158 mężczyzn) z południowej Polski. Wykorzystano następujące narzędzia psychometryczne: 1) do oceny niepełnosprawności z powodu bólu pleców – polską wersję wskaźnika niepełnosprawności Oswetry (Oswestry Disability Index – ODI) i szyjny indeks niepełnosprawności (Neck Disability Index – NDI), 2) do oceny aktywności fizycznej – subiektywną ocenę wykonywanej pracy (Subjective Experience of Work Load – SEWL) oraz autorski kwestionariusz z pytaniami dotyczącymi zmiennych demograficznych i antropometrycznych. Wyniki: Nie wykazano zależności między wiekiem a NDI w grupie kobiet (r = 0,027), w przeciwieństwie do mężczyzn (r = 0,202; p ≤ 0,05). Różnice istotne statystycznie (p ≤ 0,05) uzyskano między zmiennymi: wiek i ODI (u kobiet: r = 0,219, u mężczyzn: r = 0,180). Nie wykazano istotności statystycznej między wskaźnikiem masy ciała (body mass index – BMI) a ODI ani między BMI a NDI. U kobiet z dolegliwościami bólowymi kręgosłupa stwierdzono niski poziom aktywności fizycznej w czasie pracy, w trakcie uprawiania sportu i spędzania wolnego czasu, natomiast u mężczyzn nie odnotowano takiej zależności. Wnioski: Uzyskane wyniki potwierdzają, że ból pleców jest poważnym problemem wśród nauczycieli. Wiek jest czynnikiem prognostycznym, natomiast nie odnotowano związku między BMI a bólami kręgosłupa. Ograniczenie aktywności ruchowej wiąże się z częstszymi dolegliwościami bólowymi kręgosłupa. Istnieje potrzeba wdrażania wśród nauczycieli programu promocji zdrowego stylu życia, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem aktywności ruchowej.
Medycyna pracy 11/2015; DOI:10.13075/mp.5893.00121 · 0.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. Body posture constitutes integral whole, so the formation of the temporomandibular joints should hypothetically correspond to the remaining parts of motor organ. On account of this assumption, an attempt was made to assess the body posture in groups according to presence of malocclusion. Material and methods. 336 children were examined including 1 73 girls and 1 63 boys aged 8-1 4. All the subjects underwent assessment of the body posture with use of Kasperczyk's point classification and assessment of the occlusion according to scale drawn up by Emmerich-Popłatek. Results. There was significant diversification (p<0.01) of mean value of body posture assessment between groups – with and without malocclusions. All parts assessed with use of Kasperczyk's point classification were analyzed and tested if there was a connection with the quality of occlusion. A statistically significant connection of malocclusion was found with shoulders set asymmetrically and protractionally (p=0.03) and the shoulder blades standing out from the back surface (p=0.03). Conclusions. Quality of body posture of children with malocclusions is significantly worse comparing to children without malocclusion. In the compared groups there was significant diversity of shoulders and shoulder blades setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic low back pain (LBP) is the most common cause of disability, hence multiple attempts have been undertaken to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at addressing the issue. The most commonly used strategies include motor control exercises of deep core muscles that stabilize the lower back. However, on the practical side, they require application of special devices, such as ultrasonography or electromyography as well as instructions and support provided by trained personnel. Despite the lack of high-quality empirical evidence, these exercises are extensively used in clinical practice. Narrative Review: The vast body of literature collected suggests that the cause of chronic LBP should be sought in the structural and functional alterations within different levels of the central nervous system. These alterations and maladaptations apply to both the molecular and tissue levels. Nevertheless, successful treatment of these changes is currently possible due to an affordable, cognitive therapeutic approach. It encompasses a number of strategies that aim to restore the normal function of the nervous system using brain plasticity processes. These include graded motor imagery, mirror therapy, graded exposure, pain education, sensory training and pain coping strategies. Conclusions: Lack of clear advantage in the application of the core stability exercises over other, potentially cheaper alternatives, implies a shift-paradigm from the existing bio-medical model of chronic LBP treatment towards modern cognitive approaches. As results of numerous studies confirm the validity of the approach aimed at restoring the structure and function of the central nervous system in contrast to the still common concept of treatment of the peripheral tissues of the body, more rigorous systematic reviews and meta-analysis are required. Evidence from this kind of evaluation may contribute to the shift in current beliefs regarding the treatment of chronic LBP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health.
Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions.
A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001).
A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Old age is correlated with frequent morbidity, reduced physical fitness and resourcefulness, and often with lack of independence. The risk of falls in the elderly is a serious problem. Gradual adoption of social behavior patterns coming from more wealthy countries can positively influence social attitude towards help and care directed at the elderly. An increasing percentage of these people will benefit from the support of institutions providing 24-hour care and safety. The paper presents the algorithm for determining the level of increased risk of falls. It might be a starting point for preventive and therapeutic policies for the institutions providing care for the elderly. The idea to construct an algorithm was initiated on the basis of professional experience and the literature focusing on the problems of falls in geriatric medicine. Okres starości zawiązany jest z powszechnie występującą chorobowością, mniejszą sprawnością fizyczną i zaradnością, często – z brakiem samodzielności. Ryzyko upadków stanowi w wieku starszym poważny problem. Stopniowe przyjmowanie wzorów zachowań społecznych napływających z krajów bogatszych, zmienia nastawienie do pomocy i opieki skierowanej do ludzi w podeszłym wieku. Osoby te w coraz większym odsetku będą korzystały ze wsparcia instytucji zapewniających całodobową opiekę i bezpieczeństwo. Praca przedstawia algorytm określający poziom zwiększonego ryzyka upadków. Stanowił by on punkt wyjścia do działań profilaktycznych i terapeutycznych w instytucjach zajmujących się opieką ludzi starych. Pomysł skonstruowania algorytmu zrodził się na bazie doświadczeń zawodowych oraz na podstawie piśmiennictwa wskazującego na problemy upadków w geriatrii. Słowa kluczowe: ryzyko upadków, starość, algorytm profilaktyczny
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Range of motion (ROM) and kinesthetic differentiation of movement (KDM) significantly influence hand
functions during work and while performing everyday activities. Because to date ROM and KDM in carpal tunnel
syndrome (CTS) patients and its changes following different forms of physiotherapy have not been thoroughly
assessed, they became the objective of our study. The aim was to assess the influence of two physiotherapeutic
programs on the ROM and KDM in patients with CTS.
140 people participated in the experiment, including 122 (87,15%) women and 18 (,85%) men. Each person
who was not excluded and fulfilled the inclusion criteria to the study was randomly assigned to a group
rehabilitated by means of either manual therapy including neurodynamic techniques (MT) or physical therapy
including electrophysical modalities (EM). ROM and KDM were assessed. The therapy in MT group was based on
manual therapy including neurodynamic techniques and in the EM group on laser therapy and ultrasounds.
Statistically significant improvement was observed in flexion and extension ROM in upper extremities with
CTS only in the MT group (p<0.001). Similar effects were obtained in KDM. Similar results distribution occurred
while comparing extremities with CTS and healthy extremities. Statistically significant improvement in
assessment of ROM and KDM were observed only in the MT group (p<0.001).
Therapeutic program using manual therapy including neurodynamic techniques improves ROM and KDM in
patients with CTS. The cycle of therapy improved the status of symptomatic limbs. A decreased difference in
terms of ROM and KDM in the symptomatic limb in relation to the asymptomatic limb was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The objective of the study was to evaluate the symmetry of the thickness of the abdominal
muscles at rest and while standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] An ultrasound assessment was performed of the side-to-side differences of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles in the supine and standing positions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and control groups. [Results] In the AIS group, 64.3% of the patients had left scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10.7°, and 35.7% of the patients had right scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10°. In the supine position, the thickness asymmetry of the TrA was greater in the AIS compared with the control group by an average of 14% (95% CI 3.9–24.2). [Conclusion] Among the abdominal muscles examined, patients with AIS exhibited more asymmetry only for the TrA. In the standing position, the TrA was as symmetric in the patients as in the control group. Mild scoliosis has no impact on the symmetry of the thickness of the OE and OI in the supine and standing positions. The direction of curvature had no effect on the symmetry of the abdominal muscles studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a connection between the weather and the capacity of people with severe disabilities to undertake physical activity, their mental disposition and the occurrence of the epileptic seizures.
The observation was carried out on a group of ten male subjects with severe intellectual disabilities. The observation of the persons was carried out by three pedagogues. The method of direct observation was used in the research.
In the course of the conducted studies, a dependence between physical activity and temperature, atmospheric pressure and atmospheric humidity was discovered.
The mental disposition and physical activity of the people with severe intellectual disabilities showed a dependence on the temperature and atmospheric pressure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to a normal gait, the locomotion of people with infantile cerebral palsy (ICP) is characterized by great variability. An experiment was conducted to determine if the use of whole-body vibrations changes the time of support by each of the extremities as well as the range of flexion of the hip and knee articulations. Three women with ICP were involved in the whole-body vibration experiment. The parameters of the vibration adopted during training were a frequency of 20 Hz and an amplitude of 2 mm. The BTS Smart system for three-plane movement analysis paired with a desktop computer was used for the evaluation of gait parameters. The vibration procedure improved the range of flexion in knee articulation but did not change the range of flexion in hip articulation. The equalization of time disparities in the load of both extremities was obtained after the first treatment procedure. In this investigated group, the vibration procedure may be a complement to the rehabilitation process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background This study aimed to analyse the self-evaluations of physicians and physiotherapists, from different specialisations, about their preparedness for work with people with intellectual disability (ID), and what they considered were the most significant barriers in working with people with ID. Both the physicians and physiotherapists pointed to initiatives that they found useful, such as the Healthy Athletes Program of the Special Olympics, which prepares them for everyday work with people with disability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Civilizacne ochorenia a ich vplyv na kvalitu zivota, zdravia a socialno-ekonomicku oblast. : Socialna praca, dobrovolnictvo marginalizovane skupiny, etika, varia. / Ed.: S. Bugri, P. Beno, M. Sramka. Presov : Ustav socialnych vied a zdravotnictva bl. P.P Gojdica, 2014 Summary: Spinal ailments put limitation on functional one's possibilities. Working with the disabled, taking forced and often disadvantageous positions of the body cause dysfunctions or increase the degree of the existing ones. In this article preventive actions are shown that can be taken to maintain indispensable physical health. Therefore, it is crucial for both persons taking care of the sick and people working with the disabled to learn principles of ergonomics as a basis of their general education. The main task of ergonomics is to develop the most optimal way working system, both its individual elements and the relation between them. This should be understood not only as assurance of working in full safety but also as comprehensive development of an employee-intellectual, mental and social. These optimal working conditions create further possibilities for an employee and motivate them to be more efficient at work. Social background – the scale of the disability problem Disability is one of the key problems of the modern world, the proof of which is the scale of the problem – over 650 million people in the world are disabled; the number constitutes c.a. 10% of the world's population. The problem of disability is also present in Poland. According to the data collected during national census in Poland, the number of the disabled reached the level of 4,7 million people, 3,1 million of whom had legal confirmation of their disability. The results of the Study of Economic Activity of the Population (BAEL), conducted by Central Statistical Office in Poland, indicate that 27,4% of the disabled in Poland are those with its severe level (GUS, 2011). Those figures need to be treated as underestimated – due to the methodology of the study (voluntary character of the responses). The other reason, which indicates underestimation of the number of the disabled, is the percentage of the elderly. Poland is demographically an old society, with over 5 million people at the age of over 65 in 2010, which constitutes 14% of the society (according to United Nations, the threshold of demographically advanced aged society is when 7% of the
Civilizacne ochorenia a ich vplyv na kvalitu zivota, zdravia a socialno-ekonomicku oblast. : Socialna praca, dobrovolnictvo marginalizovane skupiny, etika, varia., Edited by S. Bugri, P. Beno, M. Sramka, 10/2014: pages 41-48; Presov : Ustav socialnych vied a zdravotnictva bl. P.P Gojdica, 2014., ISBN: 978-80-89464-26-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Pain in the cervical spine area is one of the main health problems of inhabitants of Western Europe. The necessity of parents’ taking care of a child with physical disability is connected with parents’ exposure to the factors affecting the risk of occurrence of pain in the cervical spine.
The objective of this study was to analyse whether there are differences in the occurrence of cervical spine pain between the group of parents of children with physical disability and parents of children without a disability.
The research included a group of parents of school-aged children with physical disability (n = 47) and a group of parents of children without disability (n = 69), aged between 29 and 60 years from the Silesian Voivodeship (Poland). The people taking part in the research were asked to complete two questionnaires: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for the cervical spine and Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire. Means, standard deviations, and ranges to compare scores across groups were calculated.
The mean VAS score among parents of children with physical disability was 4.22 (SD = 3.23) compared to 2.16 (SD = 2.31; p < .001) among parents of children without physical disability. Similarly, mean NDI scores were 19.6 (SD = 15.12) and 9.68 (SD = 8.84; p < .001), respectively.
The parents of children with physical disability are to a greater extent exposed to the occurrence of cervical spine pain. Therefore, suitable training as regards ergonomics, especially during lifting, transferring and transporting children might be beneficial to these parents.
Disability and Health Journal 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dhjo.2014.09.008 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attempt to compare the occlusion condition in groups of children with different body posture.
336 children aged from 8 to 14 years were investigated. The subjects were selected in orthodontic clinics (237 children) and at schools (98 children). All participants were divided into groups with different body posture according to Kasperczyk's point method. The comparison of the occlusion quality was performed with the use of a scale developed by Emmerich-Popłatek.
The studied group comprised following number of persons: 12 (3.56%) with no malocclusion, 37 (10.98%) with mild, 162 (48.37%) with moderate and 124 (37.09%) with severe malocclusion. In relation to the body posture, 52.67% of the participants had correct posture, 45.53 % had a faulty posture of mild degree and 1.78% of severe degree. A considerable differentiation of the occlusion condition was discovered within the three groups. In view of a small number of participants with a faulty posture of considerable degree (n=6) the comparative analysis of the occlusion condition was performed between the group with a correct body posture and group with faulty posture (created by combining group 2 and 3). The result of the analysis suggests a significant differentiation of the occlusion condition between the groups mentioned above (p<0.01).
Children with faulty postures present more intense malocclusions than children with a correct body posture. Results of this type suggest the need for interdisciplinary look at people with malocclusions whose therapy should involve body posture correction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lower postural tone is not always associated with central nervous system structural damage. There is such kind of tone that stays within the broadly defined normal range, but is characterized by distinct decrease of tone of the deep muscles responsible for stabilization. External syndromes are features of active or passive compensation observed in the postural and motor patterns. Active compensation of the lower muscle tone is associated with excessive use of the superficial muscles for stabilization that leads to limitation of motion in the joints and to functional shortening of some muscles. Active compensation mechanisms in the lower part of the body cause decreased anterior pelvic tilt, functional shortening of the hamstring muscles and pes cavus (spastoidal type). Passive compensation is initiated in case of decreased tone of both deep and superficial muscles. Stabilization is kept with considerable participation of the spatial shape of bones, ligaments, meniscus and passive properties of the muscles. Tendency to hypermobility of the periarthritis elements is observed, which is manifested by increase of the physiological range of motion in the joints. As a result in the lower part of the body postural faults develop, which are characterized by increased lumbar lordosis, anterior pelvic tilt, valgus knee and feet (atetoidal type). Observations indicate that lower tone of the muscles responsible for stabilization triggers off the sequence of compensatory mechanisms that ultimately lead to specific postural faults.