[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the ability of daily applications of Streptococcus rattus strain JH145 to affect the numbers of an implanted Streptococcus mutans strain in a rat model.
A spontaneous L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-deficient mutant of Streptococcus rattus, JH146, was isolated by screening on selective medium and compared with a previously isolated spontaneous LDH deficient strain, JH145. Both strains were shown to have single base pair deletion mutations in the structural gene (ldh) for LDH, and reversion frequencies were approximately the same. Animals treated once daily with >or=10(6) CFU (colony forming units) of JH145 showed a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of implanted S. mutans to total cultivable bacteria in oral swab samples. The rate of decrease in S. mutans levels was dose-dependent. No adverse effects were observed by in-life observation of treated animals, and histopathological, haematological and blood chemistry analyses were unremarkable.
The results presented indicate that daily application of JH145, a naturally occurring LDH-deficient variant of S. rattus, can compete with S. mutans for its habitat on the tooth surface.
S. rattus JH145 has potential as a probiotic for use in the prevention of dental caries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct a pilot human clinical trial to assess the safety and to test the ability of a probiotic mouthwash, ProBiora(3), to affect the levels of Streptococcus mutans and certain known periodontal pathogens in the mouth when administered twice daily over a period of 4 weeks.
The mouthwash contained three specific strains of naturally occurring oral bacteria and was tested at two dose levels: 10(6) and 10(8) colony forming units each of Strep. oralis strain KJ3sm, Strep. uberis strain KJ2sm, and the spontaneous lactic acid-deficient variant of Strep. rattus, strain JH145. Substantial decreases in the levels of the marker bacteria were observed. No safety issues were noted with the twice daily application of this mouthwash.
Despite the small number of subjects and the use of young, orally healthy adults, along with the inherent variability in the microbiological measurements, the probiotic mouthwash was able to substantially affect the levels of dental pathogens in saliva and periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque.
The results of this pilot human study suggest that the probiotic mouthwash product may be safe for daily use as an aid in maintaining both dental and periodontal health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the pharmacodynamics of the lantibiotic MU1140 and the ability of selected organisms to develop resistance to this antibiotic. MU1140 demonstrated activity against all Gram-positive organisms tested, including oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF). No activity was observed against Gram-negative bacteria or yeast. Time-kill studies revealed that MU1140 was rapidly bactericidal against Streptococcus pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant S. aureus, whilst it was bacteriostatic against VREF. In vitro resistance development to MU1140, tested by sequential subculturing in subinhibitory concentrations of MU1140, revealed a stable threefold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Subsequent subculturing of the strains with elevated MICs in antibiotic-free media for 7 days did not result in a reduction of their MIC values for MU1140. Collectively, our findings illustrate the therapeutic potential of MU1140 for management of Gram-positive infections.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 11/2008; 33(1):70-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.07.028 · 4.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutacin 1140 and nisin A are peptide antibiotics that belong to the lantibiotic family. N-Terminal rings A and B of nisin A and mutacin 1140 (lipid II-binding domain) share many structural and sequence similarities. Nisin A binds lipid II and thus disrupts cell wall synthesis and also forms transmembrane pores. Very little is known about mutacin 1140 in this regard. We performed fluorescence-based studies using a bacteria-mimetic membrane system. The results indicated that lipid II monomers are arranged differently in the mutacin 1140 complex than in the nisin A complex. These differences in complex formation may be attributed to the fact that nisin A uses lipid II to form a distinct pore complex, while mutacin 1140 does not form pores in this membrane system. Further experiments demonstrated that the mutacin 1140-lipid II and nisin A-lipid II complexes are very stable and capable of withstanding competition from each other. Transmembrane electrical potential experiments using a Streptococcus rattus strain, which is sensitive to mutacin 1140, demonstrated that mutacin 1140 does not form pores in this strain even at a concentration 8 times higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Circular complexes of mutacin 1140 and nisin A were observed by electron microscopy, providing direct evidence for a lateral assembly mechanism for these antibiotics. Mutacin 1140 did exhibit a membrane disruptive function in another commonly used artificial bacterial membrane system, and its disruptive activity was enhanced by increasing amounts of anionic phospholipids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To construct a genetically modified strain of Streptococcus mutans for dental caries prevention. The strain has significantly reduced cariogenicity owing to a deletion of the entire open reading frame for lactate dehydrogenase, and has excellent colonization potential through the production of a natural antibiotic called mutacin 1140. For use in human clinical trials, additional mutations were introduced to enable rapid elimination of the strain in case of adverse side effects and to increase genetic stability.
Deletion mutations were introduced into the dal gene for d-alanine biosynthesis and the comE gene for genetic transformation. The resulting strain, A2JM, was tested for dependence on exogenous d-alanine and its ability to be eradicated from colonized rats. The strain was also tested for its ability to exchange DNA with another strain of S. mutans in in vitro and in vivo models.
A2JM was completely dependent on exogenous d-alanine, but could colonize the oral cavity of rats in low numbers in the absence of dietary d-alanine. Results indicated that A2JM can scavenge d-alanine from other plaque bacteria. Lowering of the total oral bacterial load through daily application of chlorhexidine enabled virtually complete eradication of A2JM. The introduction of the comE gene did not significantly decrease the transformability of A2JM in in vitro or in vivo models. The addition of a deletion in the comE gene does, nonetheless, provide additional safety as it has a very low reversion frequency.
Based on the safety and efficacy profiles established in vitro and in animal models, A2JM appears suitable for safe use in human clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We applied an immunoscreening technique, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT), to identify immunogenic bacterial proteins
expressed during human infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. We were able to assign a functional classification to 25 of 35 proteins identified
by IVIAT. Of these 25, the majority represent proteins with known or potential roles in the pathogenesis of S. enterica. These include proteins implicated in fimbrial structure and biogenesis, antimicrobial resistance, heavy metal transport,
bacterial adhesion, and extracytoplasmic substrate trafficking as well as secreted hydrolases. The 10 remaining antigens represent
proteins with unknown functions. Of the 35 identified antigens, four had no immunoreactivity when probed with control sera
from individuals never exposed to serovar Typhi organisms; these four included PagC, TcfB, and two antigens of unknown function
encoded by STY0860 and STY3683. PagC is a virulence factor known to be upregulated in vivo in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of mice. TcfB is the major structural subunit of a fimbrial operon found in serovar Typhi with
no homolog in serovar Typhimurium organisms. By examining differential immunoreactivities in acute- versus convalescent-phase
human serum samples, we found specific anti-PagC and anti-TcfB immunoglobulin G responses in patients with serovar Typhi bacteremia.
Serovar Typhi antigens identified by IVIAT warrant further evaluation for their contributions to pathogenesis, and they may
have diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventive uses.
Infection and Immunity 10/2006; 74(9):5161-8. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00488-06 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lantibiotics are polycyclic peptides containing unusual amino acids, which have binding specificity for bacterial cells, targeting the bacterial cell wall component lipid II to form pores and thereby lyse the cells. Yet several members of these lipid II-targeted lantibiotics are too short to be able to span the lipid bilayer and cannot form pores, but somehow they maintain their antibacterial efficacy. We describe an alternative mechanism by which members of the lantibiotic family kill Gram-positive bacteria by removing lipid II from the cell division site (or septum) and thus block cell wall synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutacin 1140 is a member of a family of ribosomally synthesized peptide bacteriocins called lantibiotics (lanthionine-containing antibiotics) and is produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Mutacin 1140 has been shown to be effective against a broad array of Gram-positive bacteria. Chromatography and mass spectroscopy data suggested that mutacin 1140 forms a small compact structure. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and restrained molecular dynamics simulations showed that mutacin 1140 interconverts between multiple structures. Calculations of scalar (J) coupling constants showed the best agreement with experimental values when the entire population-weighted ensemble of structures was used, providing independent support for the ensemble. Representative structures from each major group in the ensemble had a common feature in which they are all kinked around the hinge region forming a horseshoe-like shape, and the regions of flexibility of the molecule were limited and well-defined. The structures determined in this study provide a starting point for modeling the mutacin 1140-membrane interactions and pore formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary structure of the Streptococcus mutans lantibiotic mutacin 1140 was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical sequencing. The structure is in agreement with other closely related lantibiotics, such as epidermin. A novel method was developed in which mutacin 1140 was chemically modified with sodium borohydride followed by ethanethiol, allowing the differentiation of the thioether-containing residues from the dehydrated residues. This double-labeling strategy provides a simple method to reliably identify all modified lantibiotic residues with a minimal amount of material. While NMR spectroscopy is still required to obtain thioether bridging patterns and thus the complete covalent structure, the double-labeling technique, along with mass spectrometry, provides most of the information in a fraction of the time required for a complete NMR analysis. Thus, with these new techniques lantibiotics can be rapidly characterized.
European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2001; 267(23):6810-6. DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1033.2000.01777.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An effector strain has been constructed for use in the replacement therapy of dental caries. Recombinant DNA methods were
used to make theStreptococcus mutans supercolonizing strain, JH1140, lactate dehydrogenase deficient by deleting virtually all of theldh open reading frame (ORF). To compensate for the resulting metabolic imbalance, a supplemental alcohol dehydrogenase activity
was introduced by substituting the adhB ORF fromZymomonas mobilis in place of the deleted ldhORF. The resulting clone, BCS3-L1, was found to produce no detectable lactic acid during growth on a variety of carbon sources,
and it produced significantly less total acid due to its increased production of ethanol and acetoin. BCS3-L1 was significantly
less cariogenic than JH1140 in both gnotobiotic- and conventional-rodent models. It colonized the teeth of conventional rats
as well as JH1140 in both aggressive-displacement and preemptive-colonization models. No gross or microscopic abnormalities
of major organs were associated with oral colonization of rats with BCS3-L1 for 6 months. Acid-producing revertants of BCS3-L1
were not observed in samples taken from infected animals (reversion frequency, <10−3) or by screening cultures grown in vitro, where no revertants were observed among 105 colonies examined on pH indicator medium. The reduced pathogenic potential of BCS3-L1, its strong colonization potential,
and its genetic stability suggest that this strain is well suited to serve as an effector strain in the replacement therapy
of dental caries in humans.
Infection and Immunity 03/2000; 68(2):543-9. DOI:10.1128/IAI.68.2.543-549.2000 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of Streptococcus mutans, a bacterial pathogen associated with dental caries, to tolerate rapid drops in plaque pH (acidurance), is considered an important virulence factor. To study this trait, Tn917 mutants of S. mutans strain JH1005 which display acid sensitivity have been isolated and partially characterized. In this paper, the characterization of one of these mutants, AS17, is reported. Preliminary sequence analysis revealed that the transposon insertion in AS17 occurred in the intergenic region of a two-gene locus which has been named sat for secretion and acid tolerance. This locus displays a high degree of homology to the ylxM-ffh operon of Bacillus subtilis. The sat+ locus was cloned by complementation of a conditional Escherichia coli ffh mutant with an S. mutans genomic library. Sequencing of the complementing clone identified the intact ylxM and ffh genes as well as a partial ORF with homology to the proUlopuAC gene of B. subtilis which encodes the binding protein of the ProU/OpuA osmoregulated glycine betaine transport system. RNA dot blot experiments indicated steady-state levels of ffh mRNA in the mutant that were approximately eightfold lower compared to parental levels. This suggests a partial polar effect of the sat-1::Tn917 mutation on ffh expression. Upon acid shock (pH 5), wild-type ffh mRNA levels were found to increase approximately four- to eightfold compared to unstressed (pH 7.5) levels. Mutant levels remained unaltered under the same conditions. Experiments designed to investigate the origins of the acid-sensitivity of the mutant revealed a lack of an acid-adaptive/tolerance response. Assays of proton-extruding ATPase (H+/ATPase) specific activity measured with purified membranes derived from acid-shocked AS17 showed twofold lower levels compared to the parent strain. Also, AS17 was found to be unable to ferment sorbitol although it was able to grow in glucose and a variety of other sugar substrates. These findings suggest that Ffh may be involved in the maintenance of a functional membrane protein composition during adaptation of S. mutans to changing environmental conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans JH1000 and its derivatives were previously shown (J. D. Hillman, K. P. Johnson, and B. I. Yaphe, Infect. Immun. 44:141-144, 1984) to produce a low-molecular-weight, broad-spectrum bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS). The thermosensitive vector pTV1-OK harboring Tn917 was used to isolate a BLIS-deficient mutant, DM25, and the mutated gene was recovered by shotgun cloning in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis of insert DNA adjacent to Tn917 led to the identification of four open reading frames including two (lanA and lanB) which have substantial homology to the Staphylococcus epidermidis structural gene (epiA) and a modifying enzyme gene (epiB) for biosynthesis of the lantibiotic epidermin, respectively. Although the BLIS activity could not be recovered from broth cultures, high yields were obtained from a solid medium consisting of Todd-Hewitt broth containing 0.5% agarose that was stab inoculated with JH1140 (a spontaneous mutant of JH1000 that produces threefold-elevated amounts of activity). Agar could not substitute for agarose. Chloroform extraction of the spent medium produced a fraction which yielded two major bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The faster-migrating band was absent in chloroform extracts of the mutant, DM25. The amino acid sequence of this band was determined by Edman sequencing and mass spectroscopy. The results showed that it is a lantibiotic, which we have named mutacin 1140, and that the sequence corresponded to that deduced from the lanA sequence. We observed a number of similarities of mutacin 1140 to epidermin and an S. mutans lantibiotic, B-Ny266, but it appears to have significant differences in the positions of its thioether bridges. It also has other unique features with regard to its leader sequence and posttranslational modification. A proposed structure for mutacin 1140 is presented.
Infection and Immunity 07/1998; 66(6):2743-9. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemolysins have been proven to be important virulence factors in many medically relevant pathogenic organisms. Their production has also been implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease. Hemolytic strain 361B of Prevotella melaninogenica, a putative etiologic agent of periodontal disease, was used in this study. The cloning, sequencing, and characterization of phyA, the structural gene for a P. melaninogenica hemolysin, is described. No extensive sequence homology could be identified between phyA and any reported sequence at either the nucleotide or amino acid level. As predicted from sequence analysis, this gene produces a 39-kDa protein which has hemolytic activity as measured by zymogram analysis. Unlike many Ca2+-dependent bacterial hemolysins, both the cloned and native PhyA proteins were enhanced by the presence of EDTA in a dose-dependent fashion with 40 mM EDTA allowing maximum activity. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were found to be inhibitory. The hemolytic activity also was found to have a dose-dependent endpoint. Through recovery of hemolytic activity from a spent reaction, this endpoint was shown to be the result of end product inhibition. This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of a gene from P. melaninogenica.
Infection and Immunity 08/1997; 65(7):2765-71. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we reported that transposon Tn917 mutagenesis of Streptococcus mutans JH1005 yielded an isolate detective in its normal ability to produce a mutacin (P. J. Crowley, J. D. Hillman, and A. S. Bleiweis, abstr. D55, p. 258 in Abstracts of the 95th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 1995, 1995). In this report we describe the recovery of the mutated gene by shotgun cloning. Sequence analysis of insert DNA adjacent to Tn917 revealed homology to the gene encoding formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase (Fhs) from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources. In many bacteria, Fhs catalyzes the formation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, which is used directly in purine biosynthesis and formylation of Met-tRNA and indirectly in the biosynthesis of methionine, serine, glycine, and thymine. Analysis of the fhs mutant grown anaerobically in a minimal medium demonstrated that the mutant had an absolute dependency only for adenine, although addition of methionine was necessary for normal growth. Coincidently it was discovered that the mutant was sensitive to acidic pH; it grew more slowly than the parent strain on complex medium at pH 5. Complementation of the mutant with an integration vector harboring a copy of fhs restored its ability to grow in minimal medium and at acidic pH as well as to produce mutacin. This represents the first characterization of Fhs in Streptococcus.
Journal of Bacteriology 04/1997; 179(5):1563-72. · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hemagglutinin genes hagB and hagC of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a putative periodontopathic microorganism, have been cloned, sequenced, and characterized. However, the roles of these putative virulence genes have not yet been determined. In this study, an in vivo expression technology vector termed pPGIVET was constructed and used to determine if hagB and hagC were expressed during an infectious process. We constructed pPGIVET as a conjugative suicide plasmid containing a multiple-cloning site (MCS) upstream of two tandem promoterless reporter genes that encode tetracycline resistance [tetA(Q)2] and galactokinase (galK). The promoter and a portion of the open reading frame (ORF) of hagB were inserted into the MCS in both a positive and a negative orientation relative to the reporter genes. These constructs were conjugated into P. gingivalis 381. Southern blot analysis of different transconjugants indicated that Campbell insertions had occurred at the chromosomal hagB locus and also at the hagC locus, which has high (99%) homology to the ORF of hagB. pPGIVET-labeled clones in which the hag promoters were positively oriented relative to the reporter genes expressed tetracycline resistance and galactokinase activity in vitro and in vivo at significantly higher levels than did the wild-type strain or clones in which the hag promoters were negatively oriented. Expression of tetracycline resistance allowed substantial enrichment of heterodiploids over wild-type cells during a mixed infection in the mouse abscess model. These results indicate that hagB and hagC are transcriptionally active in vivo and suggested that pPGIVET may be used to isolate P. gingivalis genes expressed only during an infectious process.
Infection and Immunity 12/1996; 64(11):4802-10. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CH4ts is a previously isolated recombinant mutant of Streptococcus mutans NG8 which produces a thermolabile L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. It does not grow at 42 degrees C under a variety of cultivation conditions. In this study, we show that a batch culture of CH4ts shifted from 30 to 42 degrees C underwent rapid cessation of growth and accelerated cell death. The mutant grew at 42 degrees C in continuous culture under glucose-limiting conditions. Under these conditions, lactate production was replaced by production of ethanol and, to a smaller extent, acetoin. The cloned Zymomonas mobilis gene for alcohol dehydrogenase II, placed under the control of the S. mutans spaP regulatory signals, complemented LDH deficiency. The alcohol dehydrogenase-complemented mutant grew as well or better than NG8 on a variety of carbon sources at 42 degrees C and produced significant amounts of ethanol in place of lactic acid. These results are in accord with other approaches indicating that S. mutans has other enzymatic activities, including pyruvate formate-lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, for pyruvate metabolism. However, at high glucose concentrations, the levels of activity of these enzymes are apparently insufficient to compensate for the absence of LDH.
Infection and Immunity 11/1996; 64(10):4319-23. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New vectors were constructed for efficient transposon Tn917-mediated mutagenesis of poorly transformable strains of Streptococcus mutans(pTV1-OK) and subsequent recovery of interrupted genes in Escherichia coli (pT21delta2TetM). In this report, we demonstrate the utility of Tn917 mutagenesis of a poorly transformable strain of S. mutans (JH1005) by showing (i) the conditional replication of pTV1-OK, a repA(Ts) derivative of the broad-host-range plasmid pWVO1 harboring Tn9l7, in JH1005 at the permissive temperature (30 degrees C) versus that at the nonpermissive temperature (45 degrees C); (ii) transposition frequencies similar to those reported for Bacillus subtilis (10(-5) to 10(-4)) with efficient plasmid curing in 90 to 97% of the erythromycin-resistant survivors following a temperature shift to 42 to 45 degrees C; and (iii) the apparent randomness of Tn917 insertion as determined by Southern hybridization analysis and the ability to isolate nutritional mutants, mutants in acid tolerance, and mutants in bacteriocin production, at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 0.7%. Recovery of transposon-interrupted genes was achieved by two methods: (i) marker rescue in E. coli with the recovery vector pTV21delta2TetM, a tetracycline-resistant and ampicillin-sensitive Tn9l7-pBR322 hybrid, and (ii) "shotgun" cloning of genomic libraries of Tn917 mutants into pUC19. Sequence analyses revealed insertions at five different genetic loci in sequences displaying homologies to Clostridium spp.fhs (66% identity), E. coli dfp (43% identity), and B. subtilis ylxM-ffh (58% identity), icd (citC [69% identity]), and argD (61% identity). Insertions in icd and argD caused nutritional requirements; the one in ylxM-ffh caused acid sensitivity, while those in fhs and dfp caused both acid sensitivity and nutritional requirements. This paper describes the construction of pTV1-OK and demonstrates that it can be efficiently employed to deliver Tn917 into S. mutans for genetic analyses with some degree of randomness and that insertions in the chromosome can be easily recovered for subsequent characterization. This represents the first published report of successful Tn9l7 mutagenesis in the genus Streptococcus.
Journal of Bacteriology 08/1996; 178(14):4166-75. · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human oral flora is normally composed of hundreds of different types of bacteria. This high degree of complexity is largely responsible for the observation that a state of health is the predominant condition of the oral cavity: Myriad bacterial interactions between innocuous and potentially pathogenic species prevent the latter from attaining sufficient numbers to initiate clinically observable diseases. However, protracted or profound perturbations of the oral environment may lead to ecological upsets fundamentally characterized by extreme simplification of the resident flora. Radiation- or autoimmune-induced xerostomia is a striking example of such a perturbation. During the period of floral simplification, as the bacterial interactions diminish, impediments to the outgrowth of pathogens are lost, ultimately leading to the onset of disease. In the absence of methods to reverse the conditions responsible for the ecological upset, as is currently the case in many forms of xerostomia, the possibility of restoring a complex, balanced flora is not imminently practical. However, as our understanding of microbial ecology and pathogenesis develops, application of a replacement therapy approach may become plausible to prevent or retard particular diseases prevalent in xerostomia patients.
Advances in Dental Research 05/1996; 10(1):66-8. DOI:10.1177/08959374960100011301
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The previously cloned gene for L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from Streptococcus mutans was mutagenized in vitro. An Escherichia coli transformant which expressed a thermolabile LDH activity was identified. The ldh(Ts) gene was introduced into S. mutans on a suicide vector to create a heterodiploid expressing both wild-type and thermolabile LDH activities. Self-recombinants which had only one ldh gene were isolated. One of these clones expressed only the thermolabile LDH activity. This isolate grew well at 30 degrees C but did not grow at 42 degrees C under a variety of cultivation conditions, thereby proving that LDH deficiency is lethal in S. mutans in the absence of compensatory mutations.
Journal of Bacteriology 04/1994; 176(5):1542-5. · 2.81 Impact Factor