M Takeuchi

Kagoshima University, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken, Japan

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Publications (39)98.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-28B (IL-28B), also referred to as interferon-λ3, belongs to the type III interferon family. Earlier studies showed that IL-28B suppresses proliferation of some tumor cells in vitro. IL-28B gene transfection ex vivo also resulted in growth retardation of tumor cells in mice, through either direct antiproliferative action or induction of antitumor immunity. However, it has not been reported whether in vivo therapeutic administration of recombinant IL-28B can inhibit the growth of a pre-established tumor. Here, we found that repetitive subcutaneous administration of recombinant mouse IL-28B significantly induced tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and augmented natural killer cytolytic activity, leading to moderate suppression of the growth of a murine head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line that was completely resistant to the direct antiproliferative effect of IL-28B. Moreover, co-administration of recombinant mouse IL-28B and cisplatin (CDDP) more significantly inhibited in vivo growth of the tumor that had been established in syngenic mice and induced tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The CDDP treatment induced the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and Fas molecules on the surface of HNSCC cells both in vitro and in vivo; this may be the mechanism underlying the synergistic tumor suppression activity of IL-28B and CDDP. Unlike type I interferon, IL-28B did not suppress growth of bone marrow cells in culture. Therefore, IL-28B may be useful as a tool for a novel multidisciplinary therapy against cancer, significantly potentiating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses, especially when co-administrated with CDDP, which is currently the first choice chemotherapeutic agent against various tumors including HNSCCs.
    Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md.: 1997) 03/2011; 34(2):139-48. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms is an important medical and social problem. Drug-resistant microorganisms are thought to grow selectively in the presence of antibiotics. Most clinically isolated drug-resistant microorganisms have mutations in the target genes for the drugs. While any of the many mutagens in the environment may cause such genetic mutations, no reports have yet described whether these mutagens can confer drug resistance to clinically important microorganisms. We investigated how environmental mutagens might be implicated in acquired resistance to antibiotics in clinically important microorganisms, which causes human diseases. We selected mutagens found in the environment, in cigarette smoke, or in drugs, and then exposed Pseudomonas aeruginosa to them. After exposure, the incidence of rifampicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa strains markedly increased, and we found mutations in genes for the antibiotic-target molecule. These mutations were similar to those found in drug-resistant microorganisms isolated from clinical samples. Our findings show that environmental mutagens, and an anticancer drug, are capable of inducing drug-resistant P. aeruginosa similar to strains found in clinical settings.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/2011; 317(2):109-16. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to cigarette smoke impairs the pulmonary immune system, including alveolar macrophage function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully elucidated. This study investigates the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the antigen-presenting activity of alveolar macrophages, which is required for antigen-specific response to T cells. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 10 days using a Hamburg II smoking machine, and alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The antigen-presenting activity of alveolar macrophages was significantly inhibited in mice exposed to cigarette smoke compared with mice not exposed to cigarette smoke. Major histocompatibility complex class II cell surface molecule-positive cells, B7-1 molecule-positive cells, and interleukin-1beta messenger RNA gene expression in alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased in mice exposed to cigarette smoke compared with mice not exposed to cigarette smoke. In contrast, DNA damage and generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in alveolar macrophages were significantly increased by cigarette smoke exposure. These results suggest that inhibition of the antigen-presenting activity of alveolar macrophages may result from decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and B7-1 molecules and interleukin-1beta messenger RNA gene expression following cigarette smoke exposure. Furthermore, inhibition of antigen presentation in alveolar macrophage may result from DNA damage induced by excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species being generated by alveolar macrophages following cigarette smoke exposure. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke impairs the immunological function of alveolar macrophages and, as a result, increases the risk for pulmonary infection.
    Inhalation Toxicology 12/2009; 21(14):1229-35. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a reversible inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), is increasingly taken as an antioxidative and anti-ageing supplement. This study investigated the effects of DHEA on the expression of G6PD and on the state of oxidative stress in a human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, HL60, during the differentiation to neutrophil-like cell. This study differentiated HL60 with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the presence (DMSO-HL60/DHEA) or absence (DMSO-HL60) of DHEA. During the differentiation, activity, mRNA and protein levels of G6PD were increased. DHEA increased these levels further. DHEA by itself suppressed the production of superoxide from DMSO-HL60 upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, DMSO-HL60/DHEA stimulated with PMA in the absence of DHEA produced superoxide and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine more than PMA-stimulated DMSO-HL60. After addition of H(2)O(2), the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione was lower in DMSO-HL60/DHEA than in DMSO-HL60. These findings indicate that DHEA acts both as an antioxidant and as a pro-oxidant.
    Free Radical Research 09/2009; 43(10):922-31. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jungle honey (JH) is collected from timber and blossom by wild honey bees that live in the tropical forest of Nigeria. JH is used as a traditional medicine for colds, skin inflammation and burn wounds as well as general health care. However, the effects of JH on immune functions are not clearly known. Therefore, we investigated the effects of JH on immune functions and antitumor activity in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with JH (1 mg/mouse/day, seven times intra-peritoneal). After seven injections, peritoneal cells (PC) were obtained. Antitumor activity was assessed by growth of Lewis Lung Carcinoma/2 (LL/2) cells. PC numbers were increased in JH-injected mice compared to control mice. In Dot Plot analysis by FACS, a new cell population appeared in JH-injected mice. The percent of Gr-1 surface antigen and the intensity of Gr-1 antigen expression of PC were increased in JH-injected mice. The new cell population was neutrophils. JH possessed chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Tumor incidence and weight were decreased in JH-injected mice. The ratio of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing cells was increased in JH-injected mice. The effective component in JH was fractionized by gel filtration using HPLC and had an approximate molecular weight (MW) of 261. These results suggest that neutrophils induced by JH possess potent antitumor activity mediated by ROS and the effective immune component of JH is substrate of MW 261.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2009; 2011:908743. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Common laboratory rats and mice fail to develop persistent, progressive pulmonary inflammation found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a result of tobacco smoke exposure. We hypothesized that spontaneously hypertensive rats would be more susceptible than normal Wistar Kyoto rats to acute tobacco smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation due to impaired apoptosis. Spontaneously hypertensive rats display systemic oxidative stress, inflammation, hypercoagulation, and immunosupression, similar to humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed whole-body to tobacco smoke (total particulate concentration 75-85 mg/m(3)) or filtered air for 6 h/day for 2 or 15 days (3 days/wk). Tobacco smoke caused an increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils at both time points in each strain. Significantly more neutrophils were noted in spontaneously hypertensive rats at 15 days compared to Wistar Kyoto rats. There was a trend of increase for macrophages in spontaneously hypertensive rats at both time points (significant at 2 days). TUNEL assay detected apoptotic cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue sections. The number of apoptotic neutrophils in airway walls and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased at 2 days in both strains, but at 15 days the effect was much lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats than in Wistar Kyoto rats. Tobacco smoke induces a greater inflammatory response associated with lower apoptotic neutrophils in the lungs of spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar Kyoto rats. The spontaneously hypertensive rat may be a more relevant animal model of acute tobacco smoke-induced airway inflammation than other laboratory rats.
    Inhalation Toxicology 06/2008; 20(7):623-33. · 1.89 Impact Factor
  • Clinical and Experimental Immunology - CLIN EXP IMMUNOL. 01/2008; 88(1):181-187.
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is useful for diagnosing various interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and monitoring ILD during treatment. The ability to detect specific agents or substances by using BAL is especially helpful in determining whether idiopathic ILD has a background causality. BAL in combination with other intensive examinations may enable the definitive diagnosis of an idiopathic ILD. Among the idiopathic ILDs of concern, this article focuses on idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). IIP and COP are classified together as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), an integrated clinicoradiographic pathological disease entity. BAL has identified two points important for differentiating the disease entity: a paucity of lymphocytes appears in the BAL fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lymphocytosis with a decreased CD4:CD8 ratio appears in patients with COP. These findings can be useful, in combination with high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) data, for selecting a favorable treatment option. On the other hand, these rules cannot be applied to IP associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, some IIP patients may manifest features of CVD during the clinical course after the detection of IP (interstitial pneumonia). Thus the definite role of BAL cell profiles remains to be determined.
    Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 11/2007; 28(5):496-503. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • World Allergy Organization Journal. 01/2007;
  • World Allergy Organization Journal. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Dichlorofluorescin (DCFH), a widely used fluorescent probe for reactive oxygen species (ROS) was decomposed completely and generated two distinct fluorescent products by photo-irradiation at 254 nm for 30 min. In the previous study, we had shown that one was dichlorofluorescein (DCF), a well known oxidized product of DCFH. In this study we investigated the other product and identified it as monochlorofluorescein (MCF) by 1H-NMR and fast atom bombardment/mass spectrum (FAB/MS) analyses. MCF was generated by photo-irradiation, but not by ROS. On the other hand, DCF was produced by both photo-irradiation and ROS. MCF showed similar fluorescent emission spectrum to DCF, however, its fluorescence intensity was more than that of DCF. The kinetic study suggested that MCF was not generated from DCF but from monochlorofluorescin, which might be generated from DCFH by photo-irradiation.
    Free Radical Research 10/2006; 40(9):959-65. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aims at establishing a novel vaccine procedure, using bone marrow-derived DCs that have ingested apoptotic B16 melanoma (DCs(+)), alone or in combination with splenic T lymphocytes from a syngenic donor. Co-immunization with DCs(+) and T cells showed the highest antitumor potential against preestablished B16 tumor in mice, in which CTL and NK cytotoxicities were drastically elevated, while either DCs(+) alone, naive DCs (DCs(-)) alone, or a mixture of DCs(-) and T cells induced less significant therapeutic outcomes. Use of extracellular matrix proteins elevated antitumor activity of DC(-)/T cell vaccine. Compared with the CD8(+) cells, the CD4(+)T cells more remarkably improved the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy. The present system may be a feasible therapeutic modality to eradicate malignancies including melanoma.
    Cancer Letters 09/2006; 240(1):83-93. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Interleukin-21 (IL-21) plays important roles in the regulation of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. We hypothesized that the cytokine may provide a novel immunotherapy strategy for cancer by stimulating both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In this context, antitumor immunity induced by IL-21 was examined in mice bearing subcutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC).MethodsA plasmid vector encoding murine IL-21 was injected intravenously into mice with pre-established HNSCC tumors, either alone or in combination with a vector construct expressing IL-15. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and NK killing activities were evaluated by chrome release assays, while HNSCC-specific antibody was examined by flow cytometry and ELISA.ResultsSignificant antitumor effects were obtained by repeated transfection with either the IL-21 or the IL-15 gene. Co-administration of both cytokine genes resulted in increased suppression of tumor growth, significantly prolonging the survival periods of the animals. Thirty percent of the tumor-bearing mice that received the combination therapy survived for more than 300 days, completely rejecting rechallenge with the tumor at a distant site. IL-21 induced significant elevation of HNSCC-specific CTL activity, while IL-21 and IL-15 augmented NK activity in an additive manner. IL-21 gene transfer also promoted the production of tumor-specific IgG.Conclusions In vivo transduction of the IL-21 gene elicits powerful antitumor immunity, including both humoral and cellular arms of the immune response, and results in significant suppression of pre-established HNSCC. Co-transfer of the IL-15 gene further improved the therapeutic outcome, mainly by augmenting NK tumoricidal activity. The biological effects of IL-21 may be in sharp contrast to those of conventional Th1 and Th2 cytokines, suggesting intriguing implications of this cytokine for the classical concept of Th1 vs. Th2 paradigm. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 08/2005; 8(1):90 - 99. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that there is an association between low BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) CD4/CD8 ratio and lower remission rates in sarcoidosis patients. To investigate the patient characteristics and clinical features of Japanese sarcoidosis patients with low BALF CD4/CD8 ratios. 322 Japanese sarcoidosis patients were retrospectively analyzed, and 3 groups were selected according to BALF CD4/CD8 ratios as follows: patients with the BALF CD4/CD8 ratio in the lowest 5 percentile (Group 1: 0.43-1.41), median 5 percentile (Group II: 4.68-5.47), and top 5 percentile (Group III: 12.6-60.1). Each group consisted of 16 patients (5% of 322 patients). The patient characteristics, clinical features, and the short-term prognosis for at least 2 years (average 116 months) were compared among the groups. Multivariate analysis was performed for 322 patients to investigate the determinants of BALF CD4/CD8 ratios. The number of BALF CD8+ cells were greater in Group I than in the other two groups. In Group I, there were higher incidences of younger age, male gender, and lower number of extrathoracic lesions compared with Group III. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age and male gender were independently associated with low BALF CD4/CD8 ratios. The frequency of treatment with corticosteroid and progression to pulmonary fibrosis tended to be higher in Group I. Low BALF CD4/CD8 ratios were due to increased number of BALF CD8+ cells. Younger age and male gender were independently associated with low BALF CD4/CD8 ratios in sarcoidosis patients.
    Sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases: official journal of WASOG / World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders 07/2005; 22(2):154-60. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the effects of fosfomycin, an antibiotic reported to possess immunomodulatory activities, and prednisolone on the production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-1beta by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) macrophages obtained from sarcoidosis patients. The molar IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratio in the culture supernatants of BALF macrophages obtained from sarcoidosis patients, which was lower in sarcoidosis patients than in healthy nonsmokers, was significantly increased in the presence of fosfomycin, but decreased by prednisolone. Further, the molar IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratios in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from four of five patients after fosfomycin administration for 14 days were higher than the ratios measured before fosfomycin administration. Fosfomycin showed an anti-inflammatory effect in a different way, when compared with that of prednisolone.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2004; 10(5):293-8. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune aberration in cancer patients can be at least partly ascribed to an accumulation of immature myeloid cells and monocytes/macrophages with immunosuppressive functions. Mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma 2 (LL/2) cells show marked splenomegaly as the tumors progress, and this condition is accompanied by impaired T cell activities. We characterized the cells that accumulated in the spleens of LL/2 tumor-bearing mice and attempted to restore the normal cell population by employing interleukin-2 (IL-2). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cells expressing Mac1, B7, NK-K1, Gra-1, and MHC class II antigens on their surfaces drastically decreased in number when LL/2 had been engineered to produce IL-2. IL-2 also restored the concanavalin A (ConA)-mediated proliferative response and IL-2 production of the spleen cells. The in vivo growth of IL-2-producing tumors was significantly slower than that of parental LL/2 cells. Therefore, local IL-2 production may reverse systemic immune abnormality by stopping myeloid cell accumulation.
    Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 12/2003; 23(11):631-8. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we have investigated the expression of cytokine mRNAs in mice cutaneously exposed to formaldehyde using semiquantitative RT-PCR. We show that formaldehyde induced the long-lasting expression of IL-4 and IFN-gamma mRNAs and the transient expression of IL-13 mRNA in mouse spleen and draining lymph nodes. The transient increases in IL-2, IL-15, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-18 mRNAs, but long-lasting IL-15 mRNA were only seen in the formaldehyde-exposed mouse spleen. Moreover, a weak contact hypersensitivity (CH) and the significant increases in IL-4 and IFN-gamma mRNAs were detected in the ear skin of formaldehyde-cutaneously exposed mice when rechallenged mouse ears. Furthermore, CH as measured by mouse ear swelling response was positively correlated with IL-4 and IFN-gamma mRNA levels in the challenged ears. This study thus suggests that the induction of Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNAs, particularly IL-4 and IFN-gamma, are a common immunological feature caused by contact allergens irrespective of strong or weak contact allergens. The analysis of IL-4 and IFN-gamma mRNAs may be useful markers in establishing the novel test for predicting chemical sensitizing potentials.
    Immunology Letters 11/2002; 84(1):49-55. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the immunopotentiating activities of boiled water-soluble extracts from desiccated Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM). Effect of ABM extract on antibody production was investigated by method of hemolytic plaque-forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antigen. ABM extracts significantly (p<0.01) increased the number of PFC in spleen with intraperitoneal administration at doses of 25 mg/kg as compared with control group. The populations of Mac-1- or CD25-positive cells significantly (p<0.01, p<0.001) increased, but in CD19-positive cells, there were no differences in ABM-treated mice as compared with control mice. The expressions of IL-6 and IL-1beta mRNA were augmented by ABM extract in both peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells. These results suggested that ABM extract might be an effective stimulator for T cell and macrophage to IL-1beta and IL-6 release, resulting in augmentation of antibody production against SRBC antigen.
    International Immunopharmacology 08/2002; 2(8):1205-11. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EBV/lipoplex is a nonviral gene delivery system composed of a cationic lipid and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based plasmid vector that carries the EBV oriP and EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene. Because the EBNA1 supports retention, nuclear localization, and transcriptional upregulation of the oriP-bearing plasmid, cells transfected with the EBV/lipoplex express the transgene at a very high level. We hypothesized that tumor cells genetically manipulated with the EBV/lipoplex may be used as a tumor vaccine without drug selection, strongly contributing to immunotherapy of patients with malignancies. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 exert a variety of immune-regulatory functions including interferon (IFN)-gamma production and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) activation. Here, we investigated the possible therapeutic effects of an autologous tumor cell vaccine in the B16 melanoma model. The vaccine was engineered to secrete IL-12 and IL-18 by means of the EBV/lipoplex. B16 cells were subcutaneously implanted into syngenic mice followed by repetitive immunization with irradiated B16 cells that had been transfected 3 days earlier by TFL2-3, a novel cationic lipid, with EBV-plasmid vectors encoding IL-12 and/or IL-18 genes (B16/mIL-12, B16/mIL-18, and B16/mIL-12+mIL-18). The mice vaccinated with B16/mIL-12 underwent strong tumor suppression accompanied by a high IFN-gamma production. Both CTL and NK activities were significantly elevated in these mice. When the tumor cell vaccine was prepared by means of conventional (non-EBV) plasmid vectors combined with the same cationic lipid, the therapeutic outcome was not as good, suggesting the superiority of the EBV-based plasmid in engineering these types of tumor vaccines. Vaccination with B16/mIL-18 was not effective in suppressing tumors, whereas B16/mIL-12+mIL-18 showed comparable antitumor therapeutic validity as B16/mIL-12 did. When IFN-gamma mutant (IFN-gamma(-/-) mice were treated, B16/mIL-12 vaccine did not show any therapeutic activity, suggesting the necessity of IFN-gamma in the anti-melanoma immune responses. In contrast, the antitumor effect was not affected by NK depletion in mice that received repetitive injections with anti-asialo GM1 antibody. Furthermore, vaccination with B16/mIL-12 significantly suppressed pulmonary metastases in mice that had been intravenously injected with parental B16. Our results suggest that the EBV/lipoplex is quite useful in generating an autologous tumor cell vaccine and that IL-12 is an important component of the vaccine.
    Molecular Therapy 06/2002; 5(5 Pt 1):609-16. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various factors such as serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE) activity, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid lymphocyte percent, CD4/CD8 ratio, and shadows on chest radiograph have been identified as indexes of disease activity in patients with sarcoidosis. However, it remains to be confirmed whether these factors can predict clinical outcomes. To examine whether the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)/IL-1 beta ratio can predict the clinical course, we prospectively followed the clinical courses of 30 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis 4 years after measurement of immunoreactive amounts of IL-1ra or IL-1 beta in the culture supernatants obtained from BAL fluid macrophages. Immunoreactive amounts of IL-1ra or IL-1 beta were measured using ELISA. Changes in pulmonary function, sACE activity, and shadows on chest radiographs during observation periods were evaluated as markers of changes in disease activity. We found that the patients whose shadows on chest radiographs showed improvement had a higher molar IL-1ra/IL-1 beta ratio than the patients whose shadows persistently remained 4 years after BAL examination (p < 0.05). The molar ratio was found to be positively correlated with improvement of percent vital capacity (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the ratio of sACE activity at the time of the last observation to sACE activity at the time of BAL (sACE(LAST)/sACE(BAL), p < 0.01). The sACE(LAST)/sACE(BAL) ratio was significantly lower in patients whose shadows on chest radiographs decreased than in those whose shadows remained unchanged (p < 0.005). The IL-1ra/IL-1 beta ratio in the BAL fluid macrophage culture supernatants in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis could be a useful marker in predicting the persistence of granulomatous lesions (chronicity).
    Respiration 01/2000; 67(4):389-96. · 2.62 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

328 Citations
98.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2011
    • Kagoshima University
      • • Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken, Japan
    • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
      • Department of Microbiology
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1999–2011
    • Kyoto Sangyo University
      • Faculty of Life Sciences
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2006
    • University of Yamanashi
      • Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering
      Kōfu-shi, Yamanashi-ken, Japan
  • 2005
    • Louis Pasteur Center for Medical Research
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1988–2004
    • Kyoto University
      • • Department of Respiratory Medicine
      • • Primate Research Institute
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 1993
    • University of the Ryukyus
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Okinawa, Okinawa-ken, Japan