Ralph P. Kraft

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (84)169.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The presence of hot gaseous coronae around present-day massive spiral galaxies is a fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models. However, our observational knowledge remains scarce, since to date only four gaseous coronae were detected around spirals with massive stellar bodies ($\gtrsim2\times10^{11} \ \rm{M_{\odot}}$). To explore the hot coronae around lower mass spiral galaxies, we utilized Chandra X-ray observations of a sample of eight normal spiral galaxies with stellar masses of $(0.7-2.0)\times10^{11} \ \rm{M_{\odot}}$. Although statistically significant diffuse X-ray emission is not detected beyond the optical radii ($\sim20$ kpc) of the galaxies, we derive $3\sigma$ limits on the characteristics of the coronae. These limits, complemented with previous detections of NGC 1961 and NGC 6753, are used to probe the Illustris Simulation. The observed $3\sigma$ upper limits on the X-ray luminosities and gas masses exceed or are at the upper end of the model predictions. For NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 the observed gas temperatures, metal abundances, and electron density profiles broadly agree with those predicted by Illustris. These results hint that the physics modules of Illustris are broadly consistent with the observed properties of hot coronae around spiral galaxies. However, a shortcoming of Illustris is that massive black holes, mostly residing in giant ellipticals, give rise to powerful radio-mode AGN feedback, which results in under luminous coronae for ellipticals.
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    ABSTRACT: Cygnus A, the nearest truly powerful radio galaxy, resides at the centre of a massive galaxy cluster. Chandra X-ray observations reveal its cocoon shocks, radio lobe cavities and an X-ray jet, which are discussed here. It is argued that X-ray emission from the outer regions of the cocoon shocks is nonthermal. The X-ray jets are best interpreted as synchrotron emission, suggesting that they, rather than the radio jets, are the path of energy flow from the nucleus to the hotspots. In that case, a model shows that the jet flow is non-relativistic and carries in excess of one solar mass per year.
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT observations of the Planck SZ-detected cluster A3716 (PLCKG345.40-39.34 - G345). We show that G345 is, in fact, two subclusters separated on the sky by 400 kpc. We measure the subclusters' gas temperatures (~ 2-3 keV), total (~ 1-2 x 10^14 solar masses) and gas (~ 1-2 x 10^13 solar masses) masses, gas mass fraction within r500, entropy profiles, and X-ray luminosities (~ 10^43 erg/s). Using the gas density and temperature profiles for both subclusters, we show that there is good (0.8 sigma) agreement between the expected Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal predicted from the X-ray data and that measured from the Planck mission, and better agreement within 0.6 sigma when we re-computed the Planck value assuming a two component cluster model, with relative amplitudes fixed based on the X-ray data. Dynamical analysis shows that the two galaxy subclusters are very likely (> 97% probability) gravitationally bound, and in the most likely scenario, the subclusters will undergo core passage in 500 +- 200 Myr. The northern subcluster is centrally peaked and has a low entropy core, while the southern subcluster has a high central entropy. The high central entropy in the southern subcluster can be explained either by the mergers of several groups, as suggested by the presence of five giant ellipticals or by AGN energy injection, as suggested by the presence of a strong radio source in one of its massive elliptical galaxies, or by a combination of both processes.
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    ABSTRACT: The Local Group compact elliptical galaxy M32 hosts one of the nearest super-massive black holes (SMBHs), which has manifested itself only in X-rays to date. Based on sensitive observations taken with the {\it Karl G. Jansky} Very Large Array (VLA), we detect for the first time a compact radio source coincident with the nucleus of M32, which exhibits a flux density of $\sim$$47.3 \pm 5.9$ $\mu$Jy at 6.6 GHz. We discuss several possibilities for the nature of this source, favoring an origin of the long-sought radio emission from the central SMBH, for which we also revisit the X-ray properties based on recently acquired {\sl Chandra} and {\sl XMM-Newton} data. Our VLA observations also discover radio emission from three previously know optical planetary nebulae in the inner region of M32.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we discuss the luminosity modulations and spectral analysis results of the recent deep observations of XMMU 122939.7+075333, the first black hole discovered in a globular cluster. The source has been detected many times, typically with L$_X$ > 10$^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$, but in a 2010 observation had faded to L$_X$ ~ 10$^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$. In our 2011 observations, it has rebrightened to L$_X$ ~ 2x10$^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This significant increase in luminosity over a a relatively short time period is not consistent with the idea that the long term flux modulations displayed by XMMU 122939.7+075333 are caused by the Kozai mechanism alone as had previously been suggested. Instead, given that the source shows "spiky" behaviour in its light curve, it seems likely that the faintness in 2010 was a result of a short observation that did not catch any bright epochs. We also find that when the source is brighter than average, it has an excess of soft ($<$0.7 keV) photons. The spectral analysis reveals strong, albeit model-dependent, evidence of emission from highly ionised oxygen (O VIII) when the source is brighter than average.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 447(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2523 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radio-loud AGN play an important r\^ole in galaxy evolution. We need to understand their properties, and the processes that affect their behaviour in order to model galaxy formation and development. We here present preliminary results of an investigation into the cluster environments of radio galaxies. We have found evidence of a strong correlation between radio luminosity and environment richness for low excitation radio galaxies, and no evidence of evolution of the environment with redshift. Conversely, for high excitation radio galaxies, we found no correlation with environment richness, and tentative evidence of evolution of the cluster environment.
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    ABSTRACT: The Whipple mission was a proposal submitted to the NASA Discovery AO in 2010 to study the solid bodies of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud via a blind occultation survey. Though not accepted for flight, the proposal was awarded funding for technology development. Detecting a significant number of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) via a blind occultation survey requires a low noise, wide field of view, multi object differential photometer. The light curve decrement is typically a few percent over timescales of tenths of seconds or seconds for Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud objects, respectively. To obtain a statistically interesting number of detections, this photometer needs to observe many thousands of stars over several years since the rate of occultation for a single star given the space density of the TNOs is low. The light curves from these stars must be monitored with a sensor with a temporal resolution of rv 25-50 ms and with a read noise of< 20 e- rms. Since these requirements are outside the capability of CCDs, the Whipple mission intends to use Teledyne H2RG HyViSI Silicon Hybrid CMOS detectors operating in "window" read mode. The full Whipple focal plane consists of a 3x3 array of these sensors, with each sensor comprised of 1024x 1024 36/μm pixels. Combined with the telescope optic, the Whipple focal plane provides a FOV of rv36 deg2 . In operation, each HyViSI detector, coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, monitors the flux from 650 stars at 40 Hz. The ASIC digitizes the data at the required cadence and an FPGA provides preliminary occultation event selection. The proposed 2010 Whipple mission utilized a spacecraft in a a "drift-away" orbit which signifi­ cantly limited the available telemetry data rate. Most of the light curve processing is required to be on-board the satellite so only candidate occultation events are telemetered to the ground. Occul­ tation light curves must be processed in real time on the satellite by an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A simple, real time band pass filter, called the Equivalent Width (EW) algorithm, has been instantiated in the FPGA. This EW filter selects for telemetry only those occultation event light curves that differed significantly from noise. As part of our technology development program, a key facet of the proposed Whipple focal plane was constructed and operated in our laboratory consisting of a single HyViSI H2RG sensor, a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, and a flight-like Virtex-5 FPGA. In order to fully demonstrate the capabilities of this photometer, we also made a occultation light-curve simulator. The entire system can generate simulated occultation light curves, project them onto an H2RG sensor, read out the sensor in windowing mode at 40 Hz, pass the data to an FPGA that continuously monitors the light curves and dumps candidate occultation events to our simulated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). In this paper, we summarize the technical capabilities of our system, present sample data, and discuss how this system will be used to support our proposal effort for the next Discovery round.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 08/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation “hardness”, high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and spectrally resolved without saturation. We present details of our camera design and device performance with particular emphasis on those aspects of interest to single photon counting x-ray astronomy. These features include read noise, x-ray spectral response and quantum efficiency. Funding for this work has been provided in large part by NASA Grant NNX09AE86G and a grant from the Betty and Gordon Moore Foundation.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Although the energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is believed to have a profound effect on the evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, details of the AGN heating remain elusive. Here, we study NGC 193 - a nearby lenticular galaxy - based on X-ray (Chandra) and radio (VLA and GMRT) observations. These data reveal the complex AGN outburst history of the galaxy: we detect a pair of inner X-ray cavities, an outer X-ray cavity, a shock front, and radio lobes extending beyond the inner cavities. We suggest that the inner cavities were produced ~78 Myr ago by a weaker AGN outburst, while the outer cavity, the radio lobes, and the shock front are due to a younger (13-26 Myr) and (4-8) times more powerful outburst. Combining this with the observed morphology of NGC 193, we conclude that NGC 193 likely represents the first example of a second, more powerful, AGN outburst overrunning an older, weaker outburst. These results help to understand how the outburst energy is dissipated uniformly in the core of galaxies, and therefore may play a crucial role in resolving how AGN outbursts suppress the formation of large cooling flows at cluster centers.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2014; 782(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/782/2/L19 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a combined galaxy population analysis for the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified at 0 < z < 1.4 within the SDSS, Bootes and DEEP2 surveys. We identified AGN in a uniform and unbiased manner at X-ray, infrared and radio wavelengths. Supermassive black holes undergoing radiatively-efficient accretion (detected as X-ray and/or infrared AGN) appear to be hosted in a separate and distinct galaxy population than AGN undergoing powerful mechanically dominated accretion (radio AGN). Consistent with some previous studies, radiatively efficient AGN appear to be preferentially hosted in modest star-forming galaxies, with little dependence on AGN or galaxy luminosity. AGN exhibiting radio-emitting jets due to mechanically-dominated accretion are almost exclusively observed in massive, passive galaxies. Crucially, we now provide strong evidence that the observed host-galaxy trends are independent of redshift. In particular, these different accretion-mode AGN have remained as separate galaxy populations throughout the last 9 Gyr. Furthermore, it appears that galaxies hosting AGN have evolved along the same path as galaxies that are not hosting AGN with little evidence for distinctly separate evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 783(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/783/1/40 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Every object in the Solar system emits X-rays, although the nature and magnitude of this emission varies. In every case sensitive X-ray imaging and spectroscopic measurements would provide direct information about a wide range of atmospheric, magnetospheric, and geologic processes that cannot be gleaned from observations in other energy bands. We are developing a CMOS-based sensor that when combined with existing X-ray telescope technologies would provide a significant advance in capability to the planetary community. Advantages of this sensor technology over other Si-based imagers such as CCDs include near Fano-limited performance to 100 eV, extreme radiation hardness, high speed windowing, high frame rates to handle high fluxes in single counting mode, and low power mW). Our instrument could detect all the CHNOPS elements, and most importantly carbon, via X-ray fluorescence from rocky bodies in the Solar system. Additionally, our sensor could be used for plasma investigations in the magnetospheres of the gas giants in particle environments that would rapidly destroy other Si imaging technologies. In this poster we describe the unique planetary investigations that could be made with this instrument, and present the current status of our instrumentation development.
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Chandra observations of Abell 2199 that show evidence of gas sloshing due to a minor merger, as well as impacts of the radio source, 3C 338, hosted by the central galaxy, NGC 6166, on the intracluster gas. The new data are consistent with previous evidence of a Mach 1.46 shock 100" from the cluster center, although there is still no convincing evidence for the expected temperature jump. Other interpretations of this feature are possible, but none is fully satisfactory. Large scale asymmetries, including enhanced X-ray emission 200" southwest of the cluster center and a plume of low entropy, enriched gas reaching 50" to the north of the center, are signatures of gas sloshing induced by core passage of a merging subcluster about 400 Myr ago. An association between the unusual radio ridge and low entropy gas are consistent with this feature being the remnant of a former radio jet that was swept away from the AGN by gas sloshing. A large discrepancy between the energy required to produce the 100" shock and the enthalpy of the outer radio lobes of 3C 338 suggests that the lobes were formed by a more recent, less powerful radio outburst. Lack of evidence for shocks in the central 10" indicates that the power of the jet now is some two orders of magnitude smaller than when the 100" shock was formed.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 775(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/775/2/117 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Feedback from supermassive black holes is an essential ingredient in this process and in most galaxy evolution models, but it is not well understood. X-ray observations can uniquely reveal the mechanisms launching winds close to black holes and determine the coupling of the energy and matter flows on larger scales. Due to the effects of feedback, a complete understanding of galaxy evolution requires knowledge of the obscured growth of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, out to the redshifts where the first galaxies form. X-ray emission is the most reliable way to reveal accreting black holes, but deep survey speed must improve by a factor ~100 over current facilities to perform a full census into the early Universe. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena+) mission provides the necessary performance (e.g. angular resolution, spectral resolution, survey grasp) to address these questions and revolutionize our understanding of the Hot and Energetic Universe. These capabilities will also provide a powerful observatory to be used in all areas of astrophysics.
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of luminous hot X-ray coronae in the dark matter halos of massive spiral galaxies is a basic prediction of galaxy formation models. However, observational evidence for such coronae is very scarce, with the first few examples having only been detected recently. In this paper, we study the large-scale diffuse X-ray emission associated with the massive spiral galaxy NGC266. Using ROSAT and Chandra X-ray observations we argue that the diffuse emission extends to at least ~70 kpc, whereas the bulk of the stellar light is confined to within ~25 kpc. Based on X-ray hardness ratios, we find that most of the diffuse emission is released at energies <1.2 keV, which indicates that this emission originates from hot X-ray gas. Adopting a realistic gas temperature and metallicity, we derive that in the (0.05-0.15)r_200 region (where r_200 is the virial radius) the bolometric X-ray luminosity of the hot gas is (4.3 +/- 0.8) x 10^40 erg/s and the gas mass is (9.1 +/- 0.9) x 10^9 M_sun. These values are comparable to those observed for the two other well-studied X-ray coronae in spiral galaxies, suggesting that the physical properties of such coronae are similar. This detection offers an excellent opportunity for comparison of observations with detailed galaxy formation simulations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 772(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/772/2/98 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectral investigation of X-ray binaries in NGC 5128 (Cen A), using six 100 ks Chandra observations taken over two months in 2007. We divide our sample into thermally and non-thermally dominated states based on the behavior of the fitted absorption column, and present the spectral parameters of sources with L >2x10^37 erg/s. The majority of sources are consistent with being neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs) and we identify three transient black hole (BH) LMXB candidates coincident with the dust lane, which is the remnant of a small late-type galaxy. Our results also provide tentative support for the apparent `gap' in the mass distribution of compact objects between ~2-5 Msol. We propose that BH LMXBs are preferentially found in the dust lane, and suggest this is because of the younger stellar population. The majority (~70-80%) of potential Roche-lobe filling donors in the Cen A halo are >12 Gyr old, while BH LMXBs require donors >1 Msol to produce the observed peak luminosities. This requirement for more massive donors may also explain recent results that claim a steepening of the X-ray luminosity function with age at Lx >= 5x10^38 erg/s for the XB population of early-type galaxies; for older stellar populations, there are fewer stars >1 Msol, which are required to form the more luminous sources.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2013; 766(2):88. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/88 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structure formation models predict that clusters of galaxies contain numerous massive subhalos. The gravity of a subhalo in a cluster compresses the surrounding intracluster gas and enhances its X-ray emission. We present a simple model, which treats subhalos as slow moving and gasless, for computing this effect. Recent weak lensing measurements by Okabe et al. have determined masses of ~ 10^13 solar masses for three mass concentrations projected within 300 kpc of the center of the Coma Cluster, two of which are centered on the giant elliptical galaxies NGC 4889 and NGC 4874. Adopting a smooth spheroidal beta-model for the gas distribution in the unperturbed cluster, we model the effect of these subhalos on the X-ray morphology of the Coma Cluster, comparing our results to Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray data. The agreement between the models and the X-ray morphology of the central Coma Cluster is striking. With subhalo parameters from the lensing measurements, the distances of the three subhalos from the Coma Cluster midplane along our line of sight are all tightly constrained. Using the model to fit the subhalo masses for NGC 4889 and NGC 4874 gives 9.1 x 10^12 and 7.6 x 10^12 solar masses, respectively, in good agreement with the lensing masses. These results lend strong support to the argument that NGC 4889 and NGC 4874 are each associated with a subhalo that resides near the center of the Coma Cluster. In addition to constraining the masses and 3-d location of subhalos, the X-ray data show promise as a means of probing the structure of central subhalos.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 766(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/107 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Luminous X-ray gas coronae in the dark matter halos of massive spiral galaxies are a fundamental prediction of structure formation models, yet only a few such coronae have been detected so far. In this paper, we study the hot X-ray coronae beyond the optical disks of two normal massive spirals, NGC1961 and NGC6753. Based on XMM-Newton X-ray observations, hot gaseous emission is detected to ~60 kpc - well beyond their optical radii. The hot gas has a best-fit temperature of kT~0.6 keV and an abundance of ~0.1 Solar, and exhibits a fairly uniform distribution, suggesting that the quasi-static gas resides in hydrostatic equilibrium in the potential well of the galaxies. The bolometric luminosity of the gas in the (0.05-0.15)r_200 region (r_200 is the virial radius) is ~6e40 erg/s for both galaxies. The baryon mass fractions of NGC1961 and NGC6753 are f_b~0.1, which fall short of the cosmic baryon fraction. The hot coronae around NGC1961 and NGC6753 offer an excellent basis to probe structure formation simulations. To this end, the observations are confronted with the moving mesh code Arepo and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget. Although neither model gives a perfect description, the observed luminosities, gas masses, and abundances favor the Arepo code. Moreover, the shape and the normalization of the observed density profiles are better reproduced by Arepo within ~0.5r_200. However, neither model incorporates efficient feedback from supermassive black holes or supernovae, which could alter the simulated properties of the X-ray coronae. With the further advance of numerical models, the present observations will be essential in constraining the feedback effects in structure formation simulations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 772(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/772/2/97 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a 140 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the hot gas around the canonical FR I radio galaxy 3C 449. An earlier, shorter 30 ks Chandra observation of the group gas showed an unusual entropy distribution and a surface brightness edge in the gas that could be a strong shock around the inner radio lobes. In our deeper data we find no evidence for a temperature increase inside of the brightness edge, but a temperature decrease across part of the edge. This suggests that the edge is a "sloshing" cold front due to a merger within the last ~1.3-1.6 Gyrs. Both the northern and the southern inner jets are bent slightly to the west in projection as they enter their respective lobes, suggesting that the sloshing core is moving to the east. The straight inner jet flares at approximately the position where it crosses the contact edge, suggesting that the jet is entraining and thermalizing some of the hot gas as it crosses the edge. We also detect filaments of X-ray emission around the southern inner radio jet and lobe which we attribute to low entropy entrained gas. The lobe flaring and gas entrainment were originally predicted in simulations of Loken et al. (1995) and are confirmed in our deep observation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; 764(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/764/1/83 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are developing monolithic backside illuminated CMOS detectors as soft X-ray imaging spectrometers for high energy astrophysics missions. These devices represent a significant advance over CCD technology and have unique properties that would make them ideal sensors for various planetary mission concepts. The benefits of CMOS include higher levels of integration which provide maximum pixel gain and therefore very low noise, very fast parallel output signal chains for high frame rates. CMOS imaging detectors have zero or one charge transfer so that they can withstand many orders of magnitude more radiation than conventional CCDs before degradation. The capability of high read rates provides dynamic range and temporal resolution. Additionally, the rapid read rates minimize shot noise from thermal dark current and optical light. CMOS detectors can therefore run at warmer temperatures and with ultra-thin optical blocking filters. Thin OBFs provide near unity quantum efficiency below 1 keV, thus maximizing response at the C and O lines. Possible mission concepts for these sensors include X-ray fluorescence studies of rocky bodies, and investigation of the magnetospheres of the gas giants and their moons. In this presentation, we discuss the current state of our technology development and outline its scientific potential for planetary physics with particular emphasis on studies of the Jovian magnetosphere. We contrast the capabilities of our instrument with that which has been achieved by the current generation of Earth-orbiting X-ray observatories.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Massive galaxies harbor a supermassive black hole at their centers. At high redshifts, these galaxies experienced a very active quasar phase, when, as their black holes grew by accretion, they produced enormous amounts of energy. At the present epoch, these black holes still undergo occasional outbursts, although the mode of their energy release is primarily mechanical rather than radiative. The energy from these outbursts can reheat the cooling gas in the galaxy cores and maintain the red and dead nature of the early-type galaxies. These outbursts also can have dramatic effects on the galaxy-scale hot coronae found in the more massive galaxies. We describe research in three areas related to the hot gas around galaxies and their supermassive black holes. First we present examples of galaxies with AGN outbursts that have been studied in detail. Second, we show that X-ray emitting low-luminosity AGN are present in 80% of the galaxies studied. Third, we discuss the first examples of extensive hot gas and dark matter halos in optically faint galaxies.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2012; 8(S295). DOI:10.1017/S1743921313004961

Publication Stats

400 Citations
169.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Hertfordshire
      • School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Washington State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Pullman, Washington, United States