Steven O Addo-Yobo

The Children’s Medical Group, Poughkeepsie, New York, United States

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Publications (7)25.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Outcomes for average-risk medulloblastoma are excellent with 5-year event-free survival and overall survival>80%. Treatment failures include radiation-induced glioblastomas (RIG), which are often diagnosed solely on imaging. Recent studies suggest that RIGs differ from spontaneous glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), based on microarray gene-expression profiling. Retrospective review of children with average-risk medulloblastoma treated from 1996 to 2003 included 16 patients with 5 treatment failures. One died of disease progression, 1 died as a result of radiation necrosis, and 3 children died of pathology-confirmed GBM. Of these 3 GBMs, one was studied with electron microscopy, cytogenetics, and gene-expression microarray analysis. This tumor had focal medulloblastoma and similarity by gene-expression microarray with other RIGs. With both components in the recurrent tumor, we suggest it was in the process of transitioning from medulloblastoma to RIG, that is, "catching the tumor in the act." Some radiation-induced nervous system tumors may develop as a direct result of severe oncologic changes within the original tumor cells, with the tumor evolving into a different phenotypic tumor type. We recommend biopsy for tissue confirmation and genetic expression profile to shed light on the etiology of radiation-induced neoplasms.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 10/2010; 32(7):e272-8. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vandetanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Our initial studies demonstrated that this agent blocks vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor phosphorylation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated signaling in glioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Despite these effects, we observed that vandetanib had little effect on apoptosis induction at clinically achievable concentrations. Because histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been suggested to regulate signaling protein transcription and downstream interactions via modulation of protein chaperone function through the 90-kDa heat shock protein, we investigated whether combining vandetanib with an HDACI could synergistically potentiate signaling pathway inhibition and apoptosis induction in a panel of malignant human glioma cell lines. Proliferation assays, apoptosis induction studies, and Western immunoblot analysis were conducted in cells treated with vandetanib and HDACIs as single agents or in combination. Vandetanib and suberoylanalide hydroxamic acid reduced proliferation in all cell lines when used as single agents, and the combination produced marked potentiation of growth inhibition as assessed by combinatorial methods. These effects were paralleled by potentiation of Akt signaling inhibition and apoptosis induction. Our results indicate that inhibition of histone deacetylation enhances the antiproliferative effect of vandetanib in malignant human glioma cell lines by enhancing inhibition of MAPK, Akt, and other downstream effectors that may have application in combinatorial therapeutics for these tumors.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2009; 331(1):327-37. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced glioblastomas (RIGs) represent a significant proportion of glioblastomas (GBMs) seen in children and young adults and manifest poor prognosis. Little is known about their underlying biology, although limited studies have suggested no unique histologic or cytogenetic characteristics to distinguish them from de novo GBMs. In this study, we confirmed that a series of 5 RIGs showed no unique histologic or cytogenetic features compared with de novo pediatric GBMs, prompting us to further investigate RIGs using gene expression microarray profiling and Western blot analysis. Despite the inability of histologic and molecular genetic studies to identify distinguishing features between RIGs and pediatric GBMs, gene microarrays suggested significant differences between these 2 tumor types, at least those occurring in pediatric patients. Pediatric RIGs show greater homogeneity of gene expression than do de novo pediatric GBMs. Greater overlap was detected in gene expression patterns between RIGs and pilocytic astrocytomas than between RIGs and GBMs, medulloblastomas, ependymomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, or rhabdomyosarcomas, suggesting a common precursor cell for RIG and pilocytic astrocytoma. Western blot analyses confirmed that ErbB3, Sox10, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha proteins were consistently expressed in RIGs but rarely in pediatric GBMs.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 09/2007; 66(8):740-9. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene microarray has been used to identify prognostic markers and genes of interest for therapeutic targets; a less common use is to show possible histogenetic relationships between rare tumor types and more common neoplasms. Intracranial malignant ectomesenchymoma (MEM) is a pediatric tumor postulated to arise from neural crest cells that contain divergent neuroectodermal and mesenchymal tissues, principally mature ganglion cells and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). We investigated a case of MEM by molecular, cytogenetic, and gene array analyses and compared results with our previously unpublished series of 51 pediatric tumors including conventional RMS, Ewing sarcoma (EWS), medulloblastoma (MED), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST); the latter is a sarcoma also with potential for divergent differentiation. Standard cytogenetic analyses and RT-PCR testing for the classic gene rearrangements seen in RMS [t(2;13)-PAX3/FKHR] and EWS ([t(11;22) & t(21;22)-EWS/FLI-1 & EWS/ERG), were used for characterization of the MEM, with gene expression microarray analyses on all tumor types. Gene rearrangement studies were negative in MEM. Gene expression microarray analyses showed tight clustering of the MEM with the MPNST (n = 2), but divergence from other pediatric tumors. MEM and MPNST both showed complex karyotypes, but without diagnostic translocations. Despite the presence of malignant skeletal muscle differentiation in the MEM, gene array testing showed no overlap with RMS, MED, or ATRT, but rather with MPNST. This suggests a common stem cell origin or embryonic gene recapitulation for these tumors and provides novel insights into their underlying biology.
    Acta Neuropathologica 06/2007; 113(6):695-703. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methylation of the DNA-repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) causes gene silencing. This epigenetic modification has been associated with a favorable prognosis in adult patients with glioblastoma (GBM) who receive temozolomide and other alkylating agents. We explored MGMT promoter methylation in pediatric GBM and its relationship to survival and temozolomide sensitivity. We performed a retrospective study of MGMT promoter methylation in 10 pediatric GBM. The methylation status of the MGMT was determined using a 2-stage methylation specific PCR analysis on DNA extracted from tumor specimens which had been snap frozen at surgery. The relationships between MGMT promoter methylation and patient outcome and response to temozolomide were evaluated. Four of our 10 pediatric patients with GBM were found to have methylation of the MGMT gene promoter. Methylation of the MGMT promoter was shown to correlate (P = 0.0005) with survival. The average survival time for patients with methyltated MGMT was 13.7 months as compared to 2.5 months for the 6 patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter. Of the seven patients that received temozolomide, those patients that had the methylated MGMT gene promoter responded better to treatment (P = 0.007). As in adults, pediatric GBM patients with methylated MGMT promoter benefited from temozolomide. However, a stronger correlation with overall survival, regardless of treatment, was observed in this group of patients. These data suggest that MGMT methylation may be a prognostic factor for survival in pediatric GBM, as well as a marker for temozolomide sensitivity.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2007; 48(4):403-7. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - J NEUROPATHOL EXP NEUROL. 01/2007; 66(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma of childhood. Despite their relatively high incidence, the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumorigenesis and growth of PA are poorly understood. Previous in vitro studies in our laboratory showed that despite the absence of ErbB1, PA was sensitive to ErbB1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. To identify alternative targets of gefitinib in PA, we studied other members of the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family that have been identified in brain tumors. Using gene expression microarray and Western blot analyses, we found that ErbB3 is highly overexpressed in PA compared with other pediatric brain tumors (glioblastoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and choroid plexus papilloma). Developmental biology studies have identified Sox10 as a regulator of ErbB3 expression during development of the neural crest. Investigation of Sox10 in PA revealed that it is highly overexpressed relative to other pediatric brain tumors, lending support to the theory that Sox10-regulated overexpression of ErbB3 may be driving growth in PA. Sox10-regulated ErbB3 overexpression is a novel insight into the biology of PA, suggests possible recapitulation of developmental pathways in tumorigenesis, and presents possible targets for therapeutic intervention that might be used for hypothalamic variants not amenable to surgical cure.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 09/2006; 65(8):769-75. · 4.35 Impact Factor