[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify chemical resistant markers induced by fungal or mechanical injury, young trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were subjected to inoculations of blue stain fungi associated with the pine shoot beetles Tomicus piniperda and T. minor. Among the 20 trees selected for chemical analyses, 16 were divided into four groups: one as control and three were pretreated by wounding only, or by inoculation with either the blue stain fungus Leptographium wingfieldii or Ophiostoma canum. Four wk after pretreatment, all 16 pretreated trees were mass-inoculated with L. wingfieldii. The absolute and relative amounts, as well as the enantiomeric compositions of monoterpene hydrocarbons in the phloem, were determined via a small sample of the phloem before and after the pretreatment and mass inoculation, by using two-dimensional gas chromatography (2D GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). After mass inoculation, the absolute amounts of most of the monoterpenes decreased in the phloem sampled >20 cm from the fungal infection, and were higher in the phloem sampled within the infected reaction zone. The relative amounts of both (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-limonene increased in phloem samples taken >20 cm above the fungal inoculation in the preinoculated trees compared with phloem sampled from the remaining four control trees. The enantiomeric compositions of beta-pinene and limonene changed, after fungal growth, at defined distances from the inoculation site: the proportion of the (-)-enantiomers was highest in the phloem sampled >20 cm from the fungal inoculation. Four wk after pretreatment, monoterpene production in the phloem at the site of inoculation was more enhanced by L. wingfieldii than by O. canum. However, the different virulence levels of the fungi did not affect the enantiomeric composition of the monoterpenes. The biosynthesis of monoterpene enantiomers is discussed in relation to induced pathogen resistance.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 08/2006; 32(8):1779-95. DOI:10.1007/s10886-006-9109-9 · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the host selection capacity of the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda, in the shoot-feeding phase and analyze the chiral and non-chiral host volatiles by means of GC-MS and 2D-GC in five Pinus species originating from France (Pinus sylvestris, P. halepensis, P. nigra laricio, P. pinaster maritima, P. pinaster mesogeensis). Dominating monoterpenes were (-)-alpha-pinene, (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene and (+)-3-carene. The amounts of the enantiomers varied considerably within and among the species. In a principal component analysis-plot, based on the absolute amounts of 18 monoterpene hydrocarbons, separation of the pine species into two groups was obtained. P. halepensis and P. sylvestris were grouped according to the amount of (+)-alpha-pinene and (+)-3-carene, while P. nigra laricio, P. pinaster maritima and P. pinaster mesogeensis were grouped according to (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene. P. nigra laricio was the species most attacked and P, halepensis the one least attacked by T. piniperda.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cDNA encoding a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, PttXET16A, from hybrid aspen (Populus tremulaxtremuloides) has been isolated from an expressed sequence tag library and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Sequence analysis indicated a high degree of similarity with other proteins in the XTH (xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolase) gene subfamily of GH16 (glycoside hydrolase family 16). In addition to the conserved GH16 catalytic sequence motif, PttXET16A contains a conserved N-glycosylation site situated proximal to the predicted catalytic residues. MS analysis indicated that the recombinant PttXET16A expressed in P. pastoris is heterogeneous due to the presence of variable N-glycosylation and incomplete cleavage of the alpha-factor secretion signal peptide. Removal of the N-glycan by endoglycosidase H treatment did not influence the catalytic activity significantly. Similarly, site-directed mutagenesis of Asn93 to serine to remove the N-glycosylation site resulted in an enzyme which was comparable with the wild-type enzyme in specific activity and thermal stability but had clearly reduced solubility. Hydrolytic activity was detected neither in wild-type PttXET16A before or after enzymatic deglycosylation nor in PttXET16A N93S (Asn93-->Ser) mutant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Snapdragon flowers emit two monoterpene olefins, myrcene and (E)-beta-ocimene, derived from geranyl diphosphate, in addition to a major phenylpropanoid floral scent component, methylbenzoate. Emission of these monoterpenes is regulated developmentally and follows diurnal rhythms controlled by a circadian clock. Using a functional genomics approach, we have isolated and characterized three closely related cDNAs from a snapdragon petal-specific library that encode two myrcene synthases (ama1e20 and ama0c15) and an (E)-beta-ocimene synthase (ama0a23). Although the two myrcene synthases are almost identical (98%), except for the N-terminal 13 amino acids, and are catalytically active, yielding a single monoterpene product, myrcene, only ama0c15 is expressed at a high level in flowers and contributes to floral myrcene emission. (E)-beta-Ocimene synthase is highly similar to snapdragon myrcene synthases (92% amino acid identity) and produces predominantly (E)-beta-ocimene (97% of total monoterpene olefin product) with small amounts of (Z)-beta-ocimene and myrcene. These newly isolated snapdragon monoterpene synthases, together with Arabidopsis AtTPS14 (At1g61680), define a new subfamily of the terpene synthase (TPS) family designated the Tps-g group. Members of this new Tps-g group lack the RRx(8)W motif, which is a characteristic feature of the Tps-d and Tps-b monoterpene synthases, suggesting that the reaction mechanism of Tps-g monoterpene synthase product formation does not proceed via an RR-dependent isomerization of geranyl diphosphate to 3S-linalyl diphosphate, as shown previously for limonene cyclase. Analyses of tissue-specific, developmental, and rhythmic expression of these monoterpene synthase genes in snapdragon flowers revealed coordinated regulation of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid scent production.
The Plant Cell 06/2003; 15(5):1227-41. · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (E)-beta-Ocimene is one of the most commonly found monoterpenes of the volatile blends that are emitted from leaves in response to damage by herbivores or mechanical wounding. (E)-beta-Ocimene is also a component of many floral scents. Airborne (E)-beta-ocimene emitted from plants can serve as a chemical cue for the attraction of parasitoids or predators of plant herbivores and also as an attractant for pollinating insects. Furthermore, exposure of plants to (E)-beta-ocimene can activate defense gene expression. In this paper, we describe cDNA cloning and functional characterization of a gene encoding a highly specialized (E)-beta-ocimene synthase, AtTPS03, from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. AtTPS03 was identified as a member of the large AtTPS gene family of putative terpene synthases. A cDNA for AtTPS03 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzyme function identified in vitro. The A. thaliana (E)-beta-ocimene synthase produces almost exclusively (E)-beta-ocimene (94%) with minor amounts of the related acyclic monoterpenes (Z)-beta-ocimene (4%) and myrcene (2%). Transcripts for AtTPS03 were up-regulated in leaves of Arabidopsis in response to mechanical wounding and treatment with jasmonic acid, concurrent with induced emission of (E)-beta-ocimene. AtTPS03 provides an important gene for probing plant-insect and possibly plant-plant interactions mediated by terpenoid volatiles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) employs constitutive and induced resin terpenoids as major chemical and physical defense-shields against insects and pathogens. In recent work, we showed that a suite of terpenoids, monoterpenoids and diterpenoids was induced in stems of Norway spruce after treatment of trees with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) (Martin et al., 2002). Increase of enzyme activities of terpenoid biosynthesis and accumulation of terpenoids was associated with MeJA-induced de novo differentiation of xylem resin ducts. The formation of defense-related traumatic resin ducts was also found in Norway spruce after attack by stem boring insects or after infestation with fungal pathogens. In the present study, we analyzed the traumatic resin response in Norway spruce further at the molecular genetic level. Treatment of trees with MeJA induced transient transcript accumulation of monoterpenoid synthases and diterpenoid synthases in stem tissues of Norway spruce. In screening for defense-related terpenoid synthase (TPS) genes from Norway spruce, a full-length monoterpenoid synthase cDNA, PaJF67, was isolated and the recombinant enzyme expressed in E. coli and functionally characterized in vitro. The cloned PaJF67 cDNA represents a new monoterpenoid synthase gene and the gene product was identified as 3-carene synthase. The enzyme encoded by PaJF67 forms stereospecifically (+)-3-carene (78% of total product) together with minor acyclic and cyclic monoterpenes, including the mechanistically closely related terpinolene (11% of total product). (+)-3-Carene is a characteristic monoterpene of constitutive and induced oleoresin defense of Norway spruce and other members of the Pinaceae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been used together with GC-MS to analyze organic substances directly in a soil, heavily contaminated with PAHs/creosote (approximately 300 mg/kg soil), from an old gaswork site in Stockholm, Sweden. The HS-SPME results, both qualitative and quantitative, were compared with traditional liquid extraction using ethyl acetate/hexane (20:80). It was shown that the concentrations determined with HS-SPME at 60 degrees C correlated well, for compounds containing up to two and three aromatic rings (naphthalenes, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorenes, while a lower concentration was obtained for phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The total concentrations for each compound determined with HS-SPME ranged from 2 to 25 microg/g soil. Quantification was done using standard addition of compounds directly to the soil samples. The bioavailable fraction of the compounds in the contaminated soil at 20 degrees C was analyzed using external calibration by spiking sterile uncontaminated sand (same texture and particle size as the contaminated soil but without a heavily sorbed organic fraction) with hydrocarbon standards in different concentrations. Storage of exposed fibers at 20 degrees C showed that analysis should be done within two days to make qualitative measurements and earlier (as soon as possible) for quantitative determinations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary. The compositions of 23 monoterpene hydrocarbons of six pine species (Pinus sylvestris, P. yunnanensis, P. armandii, P. tropicalis, P. cubensis and P. caribaea) were compared, using multivariate data analysis. Four of the six species were clearly different from the other species in a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) model, based on the relative amounts (selective normalization) of the monoterpenes. The correlation coefficients between constituents were determined separately for each species and the strongest correlations were found between (+)-f-pinene and (+)-camphene and between the corresponding (--)-enantiomers, in all species. This pattern, i.e. a good correlation in all species, was neither shown by the correlation of the structurally more similar (+)-f/g-pinenes, nor by the (--)-f/g-pinenes or within the enantiomeric pairs of f-pinene and g-pinene. For these pairs of monoterpenes, good correlations were found in some species. None of the species showed good correlations in all the investigated monoterpene pairs presented here. Correlations between monoterpenes in insect-attacked trees (P. cubensis and P. caribaea, attacked by Dioryctria horneana, and P. yunnanensis, attacked by Tomicus piniperda) were also determined. The results are discussed from chemotaxonomic and biosynthetic points of view.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants release hundreds of volatiles that are important in interactions with insects or other organisms. However, knowledge is scarce as to which of the compounds are detected by the organism's olfactory receptor neurons. In the present study, single receptor neurons on the antennae of the tobacco budworm moth, Heliothis virescens, were screened for their sensitivities to naturally produced plant volatiles by the use of gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single cells (GC-SCR). Plant volatiles, collected by aeration of host and non-host plants, were tested on each receptor neuron via parallel GC-columns. Thus, simultaneous recordings of the gas chromatogram and the neuron responses to each component were obtained. One type of receptor neuron, appearing in 80% of all experiments, responded with high sensitivity and selectivity to one particular component, present in host as well as non-host mixtures. The component, identified as a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon by linked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was isolated from a sesquiterpene fraction of cubebe oil and identified by NMR as germacrene D. The purified compound was then re-tested via gas chromatography on the same receptor neuron type, verifying the identification. A weaker response to another sesquiterpene hydrocarbon was also recorded.
Chemical Senses 05/2000; 25(2):141-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commonly used dynamic sorption techniques for collecting biologically active volatile compounds have been compared. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) using two types of fibers (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS, 100 μm, and carbowax/divinylbenzene, CW/DVB, 65 μm) was compared to purge and trap methods (Porapak Q, Tenax TA and charcoal) and a technique based on absorption in methanol in a cooling bath. Sampling was done in a stream of purified air (20 ml/min) in a closed and temperature-regulated (27 °C) glass tube, passing over a capillary tube containing a hexane solution of tridecane, heptadecane, 1-octen-3-ol, 1- hexadecanol, ethyl tetradecanoate, α-pinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, cis-verbenol, verbenone, β-caryophyllene, E,E-farnesol, and geranylgeraniol. With all of the methods, the sampling was performed for a period of 30 min before extraction and analysis was done on a GC-FID system. In general, SPME gave a higher response for all compounds except for a-pinene, which was only extracted by the CW/DVB fiber. Purge and trap methods and methanol absorption gave the same response for all substances extracted. None of the methods extracted hexadecanol and geranylgeraniol under the conditions used. However, the SPME equipped with the PDMS coating extracted heptadecane, E,E-farnesol and ethyl tetradecanoate. Our results show that SPME, when selecting the fibers to fit the polarity and volatility of the compounds, is an outstanding extraction method compared to purge and trap and methanol absorption, especially for a qualitative analysis. The best conditions for storing fibers exposed to compounds of high volatility were at low temperatures (6 °C) in sealed vials, while the worst way was to leave the exposed fiber unprotected at room temperature (22 °C). The dynamic sampling system was effectively tested on a fruiting body of a polypore fungus ( Ganoderma applanatum) emitting 1-octen-3-ol, and again SPME showed to be the most sensitive technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative amounts and enantiomeric compositions of monoterpene hydrocarbons in branch and trunk xylem, in needles, and in resin from apical buds in 18 Pinus sylvestris trees have been determined and compared with the terpene content in branch xylem and needles of Picea abies. Besides the high amount of (+)-3-carene, an excess of (+)--pinene has been found in P. sylvestris, whereas in P. abies (–)--pinene dominates over (+)--pinene. In P. sylvestris, clear positive correlations were found between (+)--pinene and (+)-camphene in the four tissues analyzed. Good positive correlations were also observed between (–)--pinene and (–)-camphene in the two types of xylem, between (+)--pinene and (+)--pinene in the resin, and between tricyclene and (–)-camphene in resin and needles. In P. abies, positive correlations were found between (+)--pinene and (+)-camphene in the branch xylem and between tricyclene and (–)-camphene as well as between (–)--pinene and (–)-camphene in the needles. Complex relationships between (–)--pinene and (–)--pinene were found both in the P. abies and in the P. sylvestris tissues. The importance of the enantiomeric composition of -pinene for the host selection of Ips typographus, Tomicus piniperda, and Hylobius abietis is discussed.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 01/2000; 26(7):1701-1720. DOI:10.1023/A:1005547131427 · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volatiles released from fruiting bodies of the polypores Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomes fomentarius (Polyporaceae) were collected by entrainment and SPME techniques and analyzed by GC-MS. The most significant difference between the two species was found in the terpene fraction. F. fomentarius emitted a more complex blend, with more than 10 sesquiterpenes. During the sporulating phase, the release of (R)- and (S)-oct-1-en-3-ol, octan-3-one, and some sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (mainly -barbatene) increased in F. pinicola, whereas in F. fomentarius the release of octan-3-one, cis-furanoid linalool oxide, -phellandrene, -myrcene, and several sesquiterpene hydrocarbons increased. -Barbatene was identified for the first time in fungi. Chopping of the fruiting bodies altered the odor composition more in F. fomentarius than in F. pinicola. Five volatiles giving a typical fungal odor (rac-oct-1-en-3-ol, nonan-1-ol, rac-octan-3-ol, octan-1-ol, and octan-3-one) were tested for insect attraction in the field. Females of the three wood-living generalist beetles Malthodes fuscus, Anaspis marginicollis, and A. rufilabris and both sexes of the moth Epinotia tedella were attracted to rac-oct-1-en-3-ol. The generalist predator on fungus-insects Lordithon lunulatus was attracted to rac-oct-1-en-3-ol and octan-3-one in combination. Previous results regarding the host-specific attraction of beetles to the odors emanating from chopped fruiting bodies of F. pinicola and F. fomentarius are discussed in the light of this investigation.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 02/1999; 25(3):567-590. DOI:10.1023/A:1020958005023 · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) was used for monitoring degradation of hydrocarbons in diesel-fuel-contaminated (1% v/v) water and soil. Natural soil bacteria with and without external addition of inoculum were used. Directly after a 10-s exposure of the sample, the polydimethylsiloxane fibre was injected into the GC-MS. This method strongly reduced the time of analysis compared to a conventional liquid/liquid extraction. A comparison of SPME and pentane extraction of diesel oil was made and found to be consistent. The degradation of diesel fuel in water was monitored for 10 weeks using SPME. After 5 weeks all hydrocarbons were degraded except for the decahydronaphthalenes. These compounds were approximately 3% of the total hydrocarbons in the diesel oil used and remained undegraded throughout the study although none of the chemical or physical parameters was limiting. In the soil study the degradation of diesel fuel in normal soil was completed after 3 weeks, when the only remaining substances were decahydronaphthalenes. All samples were compared to sterile references to make up for evaporation losses. SPME proved to be a fast and reliable method to monitor changes in concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds.