[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that IFN-alpha would enhance the apoptotic activity of bortezomib on melanoma cells. Combined treatment with bortezomib and IFN-alpha induced synergistic apoptosis in melanoma and other solid tumor cell lines. Apoptosis was associated with processing of procaspase-3, procaspase-7, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 and with cleavage of Bid and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Bortezomib plus IFN-alpha was effective at inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells that overexpressed Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, suggesting that this treatment combination can overcome mitochondrial pathways of cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The proapoptotic effects of this treatment combination were abrogated by a caspase-8 inhibitor, led to increased association of Fas and FADD before the onset of cell death, and were significantly reduced in cells transfected with a dominant-negative FADD construct or small interfering RNA targeting Fas. These data suggest that bortezomib and IFN-alpha act through the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis via FADD-induced caspase-8 activation to initiate cell death. Finally, bortezomib and IFN-alpha displayed statistically significant antitumor activity compared with either agent alone in both the B16 murine model of melanoma and in athymic mice bearing human A375 xenografts. These data support the future clinical development of bortezomib and IFN-alpha for malignant melanoma.
Cancer Research 11/2008; 68(20):8351-60. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and unmethylated cytosine-phosphothioate-guanine (CpG)-rich oligodexoynucleotides (CpG ODNs) would elicit potent antitumor activity due to the ability of this treatment combination to activate complimentary signal transduction intermediates.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with CpG ODNs, IFN-alpha, or both agents combined were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human melanoma cells, Jak-STAT signal transduction by flow cytometry, and ISG-15 gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of CpG ODNs and IFN-alpha were evaluated in murine models of melanoma in wild-type, IFN-gamma-deficient, and STAT1-deficient mice. Negative controls in all experiments included treatment with control ODN or phosphate-buffered saline.
Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a combination of CpG ODNs and IFN-alpha resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity, activation of natural killer cells, IFN-alpha-induced STAT1 phosphorylation, and transcription levels of ISG-15. These immunostimulatory effects of CpG ODNs were associated with increased expression of STAT1 and STAT2 proteins. Administration of CpG ODNs plus IFN-alpha elicited superior antitumor activity in a murine model of B16 melanoma compared with either agent alone. The antitumor properties of CpG ODNs were dependent on STAT1-mediated signal transduction within the host but independent of endogenously produced IFN-gamma.
CpG ODNs represent potent immune stimulants that elicit antitumor effects through STAT1-mediated signal transduction.
Surgery 09/2006; 140(2):297-306. · 3.37 Impact Factor