[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RationaleChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disease. In COPD, the presence of emphysema is associated with increased mortality and risk of lung cancer. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans are useful in quantifying emphysema but are associated with radiation exposure and high incidence of false positive findings (i.e., nodules). Using a comprehensive biomarker panel, we sought to determine if there was a peripheral blood biomarker signature of emphysema.Methods114 plasma biomarkers were measured using a custom assay in 588 individuals enrolled in the COPDGene study. Quantitative emphysema measurements included percent low lung attenuation (%LAA)¿¿¿¿950 HU, ¿¿¿¿910 HU and mean lung attenuation at the 15th percentile on lung attenuation curve (LP15A). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine plasma biomarkers associated with emphysema independent of covariates age, gender, smoking status, body mass index and FEV1. The findings were subsequently validated using baseline blood samples from a separate cohort of 388 subjects enrolled in the Treatment of Emphysema with a Selective Retinoid Agonist (TESRA) study.ResultsRegression analysis identified multiple biomarkers associated with CT-assessed emphysema in COPDGene, including advanced glycosylation end-products receptor (AGER or RAGE, p¿<¿0.001), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM, p¿<¿0.001), and chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20, p¿<¿0.001). Validation in the TESRA cohort revealed significant associations with RAGE, ICAM1, and CCL20 with radiologic emphysema (p¿<¿0.001 after meta-analysis). Other biomarkers that were associated with emphysema include CDH1, CDH 13 and SERPINA7, but were not available for validation in the TESRA study. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated a benefit of adding a biomarker panel to clinical covariates for detecting emphysema, especially in those without severe airflow limitation (AUC 0.85).Conclusions
Our findings, suggest that a panel of blood biomarkers including sRAGE, ICAM1 and CCL20 may serve as a useful surrogate measure of emphysema, and when combined with clinical covariates, may be useful clinically in predicting the presence of emphysema compared to just using covariates alone, especially in those with less severe COPD. Ultimately biomarkers may shed light on disease pathogenesis, providing targets for new treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking and COPD are associated with decreased mucociliary clearance, and healthy smokers have shorter cilia in the large airway than nonsmokers. We hypothesized that changes in cilia length are consistent throughout the airway, and we further hypothesized that smokers with COPD have shorter cilia than healthy smokers. Because intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the process by which cilia of normal length are produced and maintained, and alterations in IFT lead to short cilia in model organisms, we also hypothesized that smoking induces changes in the expression of IFT-related genes in the airway epithelium of smokers and smokers with COPD. To assess these hypotheses, airway epithelium was obtained via bronchoscopic brushing. Cilia length was assessed by measuring 100 cilia (10 cilia on each of 10 cells) per subject and Affymetrix microarrays were used to evaluate IFT gene expression in nonsmokers and healthy smokers in 2 independent data sets from large and small airway as well as in COPD smokers in a data set from the small airway. In the large and small airway epithelium, cilia were significantly shorter in healthy smokers than nonsmokers, and significantly shorter in COPD smokers than in both healthy smokers and nonsmokers. The gene expression data confirmed that a set of 8 IFT genes were down-regulated in smokers in both data sets; however, no differences were seen in COPD smokers compared to healthy smokers. These results support the concept that loss of cilia length contributes to defective mucociliary clearance in COPD, and that smoking-induced changes in expression of IFT genes may be one mechanism of abnormally short cilia in smokers. Strategies to normalize cilia length may be an important avenue for novel COPD therapies.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85453. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Emphysema in COPD can be characterized by high resolution chest CT (HRCT); however, the repeated use of HRCT is limited due to concerns regarding radiation exposure and cost. Objectives: To evaluate biomarkers associated with emphysema and COPD-related clinical characteristics, and to assess the relationships of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), a candidate systemic biomarker identified in this study, with SNPs in the gene coding for RAGE (AGER locus) and with clinical characteristics. Methods and Measurements: Circulating levels of 111 biomarkers were analyzed for association with clinical characteristics in 410 COPD patients enrolled in the TESRA study. sRAGE was also measured in the ECLIPSE cohort in 1847 COPD patients, 298 smokers and 204 nonsmokers. The association between 21 SNPs in the AGER locus with sRAGE levels and clinical characteristics was also investigated. Main results: sRAGE was identified as a biomarker of DLCO and lung density in the TESRA cohort. In the ECLIPSE cohort, lower sRAGE levels were associated with increased emphysema, increased GOLD stage and COPD disease status. The associations with emphysema in both cohorts remained significant after covariate adjustment (p<0.0001). One SNP in the AGER locus, rs2070600, was associated with circulating sRAGE levels both in TESRA (p=0.0014) and ECLIPSE (7.07x10-16), which exceeded genome-wide significance threshold. Another SNP (rs2071288) was also associated with sRAGE levels (p=0.01) and DLCO (p=0.01) in the TESRA study. Conclusions: Lower circulating sRAGE levels are associated with emphysema severity and genetic polymorphisms in the AGER locus are associated with systemic sRAGE levels. Abstract word count: 249 words.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2013; · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CHRNA 3 and 5 genes on chromosome 15 encode the alpha subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, mediating airway cholinergic activity. Polymorphisms are associated with cigarette smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer.
To determine possible associations between CHRNA 3/5 SNP rs8034191 and asthma or lung function in children in one local and one replicate multinational population, and assess if tobacco smoke modified the associations.
The rs8034191 SNP genotyped in 551 children from the environment and childhood asthma (ECA) birth cohort study in Oslo, Norway, and in 516 families from six European centers [the Genetics of Asthma International Network (GAIN) study] was tested for genotypic or allelic associations to current or history of asthma, allergic sensitization (≥ one positive skin prick tests), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and lung function (FEV(1%) of predicted and FEV(1) /FVC ratio over/ below the 5th percentile).
Although the TT and CT genotypes at SNP rs 8034191 were overall significantly associated with BHR (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.5-10.0, p = 0.005), stratified analyses according to exposure to maternal smoking in-utero or indoor smoking at 10 yrs of age showed significant association (OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.5-12.6, p = 0.006 and OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.7-18.5, p = 0.004, respectively) only in the non-exposed and not in exposed children. The SNP-BHR association was replicated in the non-tobacco-smoke-exposed subjects in one of the GAIN centers (BHR associated with the T allele (p = 0.034)), but not in the collated GAIN populations. Asthma, allergic sensitization, and lung function were not associated with the rs8034191 alleles.
An interaction between tobacco smoke exposure and a CHRNA3/5 polymorphism was found for BHR in children, but CHRNA3/5 was not associated with asthma or lung function.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 02/2012; 23(1):40-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification and validation of biomarkers to support the assessment of novel therapeutics for COPD continues to be an important area of research. The aim of the current study was to identify systemic protein biomarkers correlated with measures of COPD severity, as well as specific protein signatures associated with comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. 142 protein analytes were measured in serum of 140 patients with stable COPD, 15 smokers without COPD and 30 non-smoking controls. Seven analytes (sRAGE, EN-RAGE, NGAL, Fibrinogen, MPO, TGF-α and HB-EGF) showed significant differences between severe/very severe COPD, mild/moderate COPD, smoking and non-smoking control groups. Within the COPD subjects, univariate and multivariate analyses identified analytes significantly associated with FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC and DLCO. Most notably, a set of 5 analytes (HB-EGF, Fibrinogen, MCP-4, sRAGE and Sortilin) predicted 21% of the variability in DLCO values. To determine common functions/pathways, analytes were clustered in a correlation network by similarity of expression profile. While analytes related to neutrophil function (EN-RAGE, NGAL, MPO) grouped together to form a cluster associated with FEV(1) related parameters, analytes related to the EGFR pathway (HB-EGF, TGF-α) formed another cluster associated with both DLCO and FEV(1) related parameters. Associations of Fibrinogen with DLCO and MPO with FEV(1)/FVC were stronger in patients without metabolic syndrome (r = -0.52, p = 0.005 and r = -0.61, p = 0.023, respectively) compared to patients with coexisting metabolic syndrome (r = -0.25, p = 0.47 and r = -0.15, p = 0.96, respectively), and may be driving overall associations in the general cohort. In summary, our study has identified known and novel serum protein biomarkers and has demonstrated specific associations with COPD disease severity, FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC and DLCO. These data highlight systemic inflammatory pathways, neutrophil activation and epithelial tissue injury/repair processes as key pathways associated with COPD.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38629. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still largely unknown. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of limited size have identified several novel risk loci for COPD at CHRNA3/CHRNA5/IREB2, HHIP and FAM13A; additional loci may be identified through larger studies. We performed a GWAS using a total of 3499 cases and 1922 control subjects from four cohorts: the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE); the Normative Aging Study (NAS) and National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT); Bergen, Norway (GenKOLS); and the COPDGene study. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms with additional markers imputed using 1000 Genomes data; results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified a new genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 19q13 (rs7937, OR = 0.74, P = 2.9 × 10(-9)). Genotyping this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and another nearby SNP in linkage disequilibrium (rs2604894) in 2859 subjects from the family-based International COPD Genetics Network study (ICGN) demonstrated supportive evidence for association for COPD (P = 0.28 and 0.11 for rs7937 and rs2604894), pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (P = 0.08 and 0.04) and severe (GOLD 3&4) COPD (P = 0.09 and 0.017). This region includes RAB4B, EGLN2, MIA and CYP2A6, and has previously been identified in association with cigarette smoking behavior.
Human Molecular Genetics 11/2011; 21(4):947-57. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD, CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10 in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness is positively associated with fat mass index in both subjects with and without COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by airflow limitation, is a disorder with high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Pulmonary emphysema is a major but variable component of COPD; familial data suggest that different components of COPD, such as emphysema, may be influenced by specific genetic factors.
to identify genetic determinants of emphysema assessed through high-resolution chest computed tomography in individuals with COPD.
we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of emphysema determined from chest computed tomography scans with a total of 2,380 individuals with COPD in three independent cohorts of white individuals from (1) a cohort from Bergen, Norway, (2) the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) Study, and (3) the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT). We tested single-nucleotide polymorphism associations with the presence or absence of emphysema determined by radiologist assessment in two of the three cohorts and a quantitative emphysema trait (percentage of lung voxels less than -950 Hounsfield units) in all three cohorts.
we identified association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in BICD1 with the presence or absence of emphysema (P = 5.2 × 10(-7) with at least mild emphysema vs. control subjects; P = 4.8 × 10(-8) with moderate and more severe emphysema vs. control subjects).
our study suggests that genetic variants in BICD1 are associated with qualitative emphysema in COPD. Variants in BICD1 are associated with length of telomeres, which suggests that a mechanism linked to accelerated aging may be involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00292552).
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 01/2011; 183(1):43-9. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have shown significant associations between variants near hedgehog interacting protein HHIP, FAM13A, and cholinergic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA3/5 with increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers; however, the disease mechanisms behind these associations are not well understood.
To identify the association between replicated loci and COPD-related phenotypes in well-characterized patient populations.
The relationship between these three loci and COPD-related phenotypes was assessed in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-point (ECLIPSE) cohort. The results were validated in the family-based International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN).
The CHRNA3/5 locus was significantly associated with pack-years of smoking (P = 0.002 and 3 × 10⁻⁴), emphysema assessed by a radiologist using high-resolution computed tomography (P = 2 × 10⁻⁴ and 4.8 × 10⁻⁵), and airflow obstruction (P = 0.004 and 1.8 × 10⁻⁵) in the ECLIPSE and ICGN populations, respectively. However, variants in the IREB2 gene were only significantly associated with FEV₁. The HHIP locus was not associated with smoking intensity but was associated with FEV₁/FVC (P = 1.9 × 10⁻⁴ and 0.004 in the ECLIPSE and ICGN populations). The HHIP locus was also associated with fat-free body mass (P = 0.007) and with both retrospectively (P = 0.015) and prospectively (P = 0.024) collected COPD exacerbations in the ECLIPSE cohort. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FAM13A locus were associated with lung function.
The CHRNA3/5 locus was associated with increased smoking intensity and emphysema in individuals with COPD, whereas the HHIP and FAM13A loci were not associated with smoking intensity. The HHIP locus was associated with the systemic components of COPD and with the frequency of COPD exacerbations. FAM13A locus was associated with lung function.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2010; 182(12):1498-505. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is limited knowledge on the relationship between diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(L)CO) and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.
What is the relationship between D(L)CO and the quantitative CT measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in subjects with and without COPD?
We included 288 COPD subjects (70% men) and 425 non-COPD subjects (54% men). All subjects were current or ex-smokers older than 40 years and all subjects underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity tests and CT examination. Quantitative CT measures included % low attenuation areas < -950 HU (%LAA) and standardized airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10).
Multiple linear regression analyses showed significant associations between D(L)CO and both %LAA and AWT-Pi10 in the COPD group. The adjusted regression coefficients (SE) for D(L)CO (mmol min(-1) kPa(-1)) were -1.15 (0.11) per 10% increase in %LAA and 0.08 (0.03) per 0.1 mm increase in AWT-Pi10, and the models' adjusted R(2) was 0.65 and 0.49, respectively.
CT measured emphysema explains a large fraction of the variation of D(L)CO among COPD subjects, and more so in men. Airway wall thickness is also significantly associated with D(L)CO, but explains a much smaller fraction of the variation.
Respiratory medicine 11/2010; 105(3):343-51. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe α₁-antitrypsin deficiency is a known genetic risk factor for COPD. Heterozygous (protease inhibitor [PI] MZ) individuals have moderately reduced serum levels of α₁-antitrypsin, but whether they have an increased risk of COPD is uncertain.
We compared PI MZ and PI MM individuals in two large populations: a case-control study from Norway (n = 1,669) and a multicenter family-based study from Europe and North America (n = 2,707). We sought to determine whether PI MZ was associated with the specific COPD-related phenotypes of lung function and quantitative CT scan measurements of emphysema and airway disease.
PI MZ was associated with a 3.5% lower FEV₁/FVC ratio in the case-control study (P = .035) and 3.9% lower FEV₁/vital capacity (VC) ratio in the family study (P = .009). In the case-control study, PI MZ also was associated with 3.7% more emphysema on quantitative analysis of chest CT scans (P = .003). The emphysema result was not replicated in the family study. PI MZ was not associated with airway wall thickness or COPD status in either population. Among subjects with low smoking exposure (< 20 pack-years), PI MZ individuals had more severe emphysema on chest CT scan than PI MM individuals in both studies.
Compared with PI MM individuals, PI MZ heterozygotes had lower FEV₁/(F)VC ratio in two independent studies. Our results suggest that PI MZ individuals may be slightly more susceptible to the development of airflow obstruction than PI MM individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cachexia, whether assessed by body mass index (BMI) or fat-free mass index (FFMI), affects a significant proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is an independent risk factor for increased mortality, increased emphysema, and more severe airflow obstruction. The variable development of cachexia among patients with COPD suggests a role for genetic susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to determine genetic susceptibility loci involved in the development of low BMI and FFMI in subjects with COPD. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI was conducted in three independent cohorts of European descent with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II or higher COPD: Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-Points (ECLIPSE; n = 1,734); Norway-Bergen cohort (n = 851); and a subset of subjects from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT; n = 365). A genome-wide association of FFMI was conducted in two of the cohorts (ECLIPSE and Norway). In the combined analyses, a significant association was found between rs8050136, located in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, and BMI (P = 4.97 × 10(-7)) and FFMI (P = 1.19 × 10(-7)). We replicated the association in a fourth, independent cohort consisting of 502 subjects with COPD from COPDGene (P = 6 × 10(-3)). Within the largest contributing cohort of our analysis, lung function, as assessed by forced expiratory volume at 1 second, varied significantly by FTO genotype. Our analysis suggests a potential role for the FTO locus in the determination of anthropomorphic measures associated with COPD.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 10/2010; 45(2):304-10. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Susceptibility to asthma is influenced by genes and environment; implicated genes may indicate pathways for therapeutic intervention. Genetic risk factors may be useful in identifying subtypes of asthma and determining whether intermediate phenotypes, such as elevation of the total serum IgE level, are causally linked to disease.
We carried out a genomewide association study by genotyping 10,365 persons with physician-diagnosed asthma and 16,110 unaffected persons, all of whom were matched for ancestry. We used random-effects pooled analysis to test for association in the overall study population and in subgroups of subjects with childhood-onset asthma (defined as asthma developing before 16 years of age), later-onset asthma, severe asthma, and occupational asthma.
We observed associations of genomewide significance between asthma and the following single-nucleotide polymorphisms: rs3771166 on chromosome 2, implicating IL1RL1/IL18R1 (P=3×10(−9)); rs9273349 on chromosome 6, implicating HLA-DQ (P=7×10(−14)); rs1342326 on chromosome 9, flanking IL33 (P=9×10(−10)); rs744910 on chromosome 15 in SMAD3 (P=4×10(−9)); and rs2284033 on chromosome 22 in IL2RB (P=1.1×10(−8)). Association with the ORMDL3/GSDMB locus on chromosome 17q21 was specific to childhood-onset disease (rs2305480, P=6×10(−23)). Only HLA-DR showed a significant genomewide association with the total serum IgE concentration, and loci strongly associated with IgE levels were not associated with asthma.
Asthma is genetically heterogeneous. A few common alleles are associated with disease risk at all ages. Implicated genes suggest a role for communication of epithelial damage to the adaptive immune system and activation of airway inflammation. Variants at the ORMDL3/GSDMB locus are associated only with childhood-onset disease. Elevation of total serum IgE levels has a minor role in the development of asthma. (Funded by the European Commission and others.)
New England Journal of Medicine 09/2010; 363(13):1211-1221. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) is a major extracellular antioxidant enzyme, and previous studies have indicated a possible role of this gene in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the SOD3 gene would be associated with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes. We genotyped three SOD3 polymorphisms (rs8192287 (E1), rs8192288 (I1), and rs1799895 (R213G)) in a case-control cohort, with severe COPD cases from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT, n = 389) and smoking controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS, n = 472). We examined whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with COPD status, lung function variables, and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema and airway wall thickness. Furthermore, we tried to replicate our initial findings in two family-based studies, the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN, n = 3061) and the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study (EOCOPD, n = 949). In NETT COPD cases, the minor alleles of SNPs E1 and I1 were associated with a higher percentage of emphysema (%LAA950) on chest CT scan (p = .029 and p = .0058). The association with E1 was replicated in the ICGN family study, where the minor allele was associated with more emphysema (p = .048). Airway wall thickness was positively associated with the E1 SNP in ICGN; however, this finding was not confirmed in NETT. Quantitative CT data were not available in EOCOPD. The SNPs were not associated with lung function variables or COPD status in any of the populations. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the SOD3 gene were associated with CT emphysema but not COPD susceptibility, highlighting the importance of phenotype definition in COPD genetics studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by alveolar destruction and abnormal inflammatory responses to noxious stimuli. Surfactant protein-D (SFTPD) is immunomodulatory and essential to host defense. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in SFTPD could influence the susceptibility to COPD. We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in surfactant protein D in 389 patients with COPD in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 472 smoking control subjects from the Normative Aging Study (NAS). Case-control association analysis was performed using Cochran-Armitage trend tests and multivariate logistic regression. The replication of significant associations was attempted in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) Study, and the Bergen Cohort. We also correlated SFTPD genotypes with serum concentrations of surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in the ECLIPSE Study. In the NETT-NAS case-control analysis, four SFTPD SNPs were associated with susceptibility to COPD: rs2245121 (P = 0.01), rs911887 (P = 0.006), rs6413520 (P = 0.004), and rs721917 (P = 0.006). In the family-based analysis of the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, rs911887 was associated with prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV(1) (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, respectively). An intronic SNP in SFTPD, rs7078012, was associated with COPD in the ECLIPSE Study and the Bergen Cohort. Multiple SFTPD SNPs were associated with serum SP-D concentrations in the ECLIPSE Study. We demonstrated an association of polymorphisms in SFTPD with COPD in multiple populations. We demonstrated a correlation between SFTPD SNPs and SP-D protein concentrations. The SNPs associated with COPD and SP-D concentrations differed, suggesting distinct genetic influences on susceptibility to COPD and SP-D concentrations.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 05/2010; 44(3):316-22. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several family-based studies have identified genetic linkage for lung function and airflow obstruction to chromosome 2q.
We hypothesized that merging results of high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in four separate populations would lead to the identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility genes on chromosome 2q.
Within the chromosome 2q linkage region, 2,843 SNPs were genotyped in 806 COPD cases and 779 control subjects from Norway, and 2,484 SNPs were genotyped in 309 patients with severe COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial and 330 community control subjects. Significant associations from the combined results across the two case-control studies were followed up in 1,839 individuals from 603 families from the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN) and in 949 individuals from 127 families in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study.
Merging the results of the two case-control analyses, 14 of the 790 overlapping SNPs had a combined P < 0.01. Two of these 14 SNPs were consistently associated with COPD in the ICGN families. The association with one SNP, located in the gene XRCC5, was replicated in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, with a combined P = 2.51 x 10(-5) across the four studies, which remains significant when adjusted for multiple testing (P = 0.02). Genotype imputation confirmed the association with SNPs in XRCC5.
By combining data from COPD genetic association studies conducted in four independent patient samples, we have identified XRCC5, an ATP-dependent DNA helicase, as a potential COPD susceptibility gene.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 05/2010; 182(5):605-13. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking is a leading global cause of disease and mortality. We established the Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline study (Ox-GSK) to perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of SNP association with smoking-related behavioral traits. Our final data set included 41,150 individuals drawn from 20 disease, population and control cohorts. Our analysis confirmed an effect on smoking quantity at a locus on 15q25 (P = 9.45 x 10(-19)) that includes CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4, three genes encoding neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. We used data from the 1000 Genomes project to investigate the region using imputation, which allowed for analysis of virtually all common SNPs in the region and offered a fivefold increase in marker density over HapMap2 (ref. 2) as an imputation reference panel. Our fine-mapping approach identified a SNP showing the highest significance, rs55853698, located within the promoter region of CHRNA5. Conditional analysis also identified a secondary locus (rs6495308) in CHRNA3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a genome-wide association study for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in three population cohorts, including 2,940 cases and 1,380 controls who were current or former smokers with normal lung function. We identified a new susceptibility locus at 4q22.1 in FAM13A and replicated this association in one case-control group (n = 1,006) and two family-based cohorts (n = 3,808) (rs7671167, combined P = 1.2 x 10(-11), combined odds ratio in case-control studies 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.83).