[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the interleukin (IL)-12 family constitute subunits of IL-12, -23, and -27. These ILs represent pivotal mediators in the regulation of cell-mediated immune responses and in animal models of human inflammatory bowel disease. Recent work has suggested that intestinal endothelial cells might serve as a second line of defense in bacterial sensing of invading pathogens. The purpose of this study was to examine the production of IL-12 family members in intestinal endothelial cells (HIMEC). HIMEC were stimulated with proinflammatory agents (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta) and microbial antigens [LPS, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, CpG-DNA, flagellin, poly(I:C)]. Expression of IL-12 family members and of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 in HIMEC was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, immunostaining, flow cytometry, and immunoblot analysis. HIMEC display an induction of Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), IL-12p35, and IL-23p19, whereas no expression of IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 was detectable. The strongest induction was induced by proinflammatory factors known to utilize the NF-kappaB pathway, and expression of EBI3 and IL-23p19 was diminished by an NF-kappaB inhibitor. HIMEC display regulated expression of TLR3. Adhesion and transmigration assays showed proinflammatory responses after HIMEC stimulation. HIMEC are capable of producing IL-12 family members as a response to microbial stimuli. The TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), was shown to enhance leukocyte adhesion in vitro in HIMEC. Our data suggest that the intestinal microvasculature is responsive to ligands of TLR3 expressed on intestinal endothelial cells, thereby adding to the regulation of adaptive immunity and leukocyte recruitment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defective apoptosis of mucosal cell populations seems to be a relevant pathogenetic mechanism in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It has been suggested that the induction of apoptosis in various effector cells may be a relevant therapeutic mechanism in IBD. Indeed, it was shown that different drugs used for treatment of IBD have the capacity to induce apoptosis in T cells or monocytes in vitro and in vivo. However, it remains unclear whether these observations are related to clinical efficacy of these agents. TNF-alpha is one of the most relevant proinflammatory mediators in IBD and anti-TNF treatment has been shown to be of particular benefit for patients with IBD. It could subsequently be shown that various anti-TNF-alpha agents, such as infliximab and adalimumab, can induce apoptosis in activated monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. This mechanism requires reverse signaling via transmembranous TNF, thereby eliciting a signal transduction cascade that results in programmed cell death. Although other mechanisms might also contribute to the clinical effect of anti-TNF-alpha, current data suggest that apoptosis is a relevant mechanism that is associated with clinical efficacy of anti-TNF agents. Induction of apoptosis in activated monocytes or T cells may be regarded as therapeutic tool not only for anti-TNF agents, but also for other drugs used in IBD. Future strategies should focus on identification of mechanisms that prevent apoptosis in the mucosa of patients with IBD and in targeting apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic strategy in IBD.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2006; 1072:62-77. · 4.38 Impact Factor