M. Spaans

University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (214)609.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Herschel/PACS observations of 29 local (Ultra-)Luminous Infrared Galaxies, including both starburst and AGN-dominated sources as diagnosed in the mid-infrared/optical, show that the equivalent width of the absorbing OH 65 um Pi_{3/2} J=9/2-7/2 line (W_{eq}(OH65)) with lower level energy E_{low}~300 K, is anticorrelated with the [C ii]158 um line to far-infrared luminosity ratio, and correlated with the far-infrared luminosity per unit gas mass and with the 60-to-100 um far-infrared color. While all sources are in the active L_{IR}/M_{H2}>50 Lsun/Msun mode as derived from previous CO line studies, the OH65 absorption shows a bimodal distribution with a discontinuity at L_{FIR}/M_{H2}~100 Lsun/Msun. In the most buried sources, OH65 probes material partially responsible for the silicate 9.7 um absorption. Combined with observations of the OH 71 um Pi_{1/2} J=7/2-5/2 doublet (E_{low}~415 K), radiative transfer models characterized by the equivalent dust temperature, Tdust, and the continuum optical depth at 100 um, tau_{100}, indicate that strong [C ii]158 um deficits are associated with far-IR thick (tau_{100}>~0.7, N_{H}>~10^{24} cm^{-2}), warm (Tdust>~60 K) structures where the OH 65 um absorption is produced, most likely in circumnuclear disks/tori/cocoons. With their high L_{FIR}/M_{H2} ratios and columns, the presence of these structures is expected to give rise to strong [C ii] deficits. W_{eq}(OH65) probes the fraction of infrared luminosity arising from these compact/warm environments, which is >~30-50% in sources with high W_{eq}({OH65}). Sources with high W_{eq}({OH65}) have surface densities of both L_{IR} and M_{H2} higher than inferred from the half-light (CO or UV/optical) radius, tracing coherent structures that represent the most buried/active stage of (circum)nuclear starburst-AGN co-evolution.
    12/2014;
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    W. A. Baan, A. F. Loenen, M. Spaans
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular emission-line observations of isolated Galactic star-forming regions are used to model the physical properties of the molecular interstellar medium in these systems. Observed line ratios are compared with the results predicted by models that incorporate gas-phase chemistry and the heating by stellar radiation and non-radiative feedback processes. The line ratios of characteristic tracer molecules may be interpreted using the contributions of two distinct components: a cold (40-50 K) and high-density (105-105.5 cm-3) photon-dominated region (PDR) with a nominal UV flux density and a warm (̃300 K) mechanical heating-dominated region (MHDR) with a slightly lower density (104.5-105 cm-3). The relative contributions of these structural components are used to model the observed line ratios. Ionized species may be better modelled by adopting an increase of the cosmic ray flux towards the Galactic Centre and the sulphur abundance should depleted by a factor of 200-400 relative to solar values. The line ratios of the Galactic sample are found to be very similar to those of the integrated signature of prominent (ultra)luminous IR Galaxies. The PDRs and MHDRs in the isolated Galactic regions may be modelled with slightly higher mean densities than in extragalactic systems and a higher MHDR temperature resulting from non-radiative mechanical heating. Multimolecular studies are effective in determining the physical and chemical properties of star formation regions by using characteristic line ratios to diagnose their environment. The addition of more molecular species will reduce the existing modelling redundancy.
    11/2014; 445(4).
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution (0.3'') ALMA 870um imaging of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field and investigate the size and morphology of the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) emission on 2-10kpc scales. We derive a median intrinsic angular size of FWHM=0.30$\pm$0.04'' for the 23 SMGs in the sample detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >10. Using the photometric redshifts of the SMGs we show that this corresponds to a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4$\pm$0.2kpc. A stacking analysis of the SMGs detected at an SNR <10 shows they have sizes consistent with the 870um-bright SMGs in the sample. We compare our results to the sizes of SMGs derived from other multi-wavelength studies, and show that the rest-frame ~250um sizes of SMGs are consistent with studies of resolved 12CO (J=3-2 to 7-6) emission lines, but that sizes derived from 1.4GHz imaging appear to be approximately two times larger on average, which we attribute to cosmic ray diffusion. The rest-frame optical sizes of SMGs are around four times larger than the sub-millimeter sizes, indicating that the star formation in these galaxies is compact relative to the pre-existing stellar distribution. The size of the starburst region in SMGs is consistent with the majority of the star formation occurring in a central region, a few kpc in extent, with a median star formation rate surface density of 90$\pm$30Msol/yr/kpc$^2$, which may suggest that we are witnessing an intense period of bulge growth in these galaxies.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: CO, $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O ${\it J}$ = 3--2 observations are presented of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O emission is dominated by the Oph A clump, and the Oph B1, B2, C, E, F and J regions. The optically thin(ner) C$^{18}$O line is used as a column density tracer, from which the gravitational binding energy is estimated to be $4.5 \times 10^{39}$ J (2282 $M_\odot$ km$^2$ s$^{-2}$). The turbulent kinetic energy is $6.3 \times 10^{38}$ J (320 $M_\odot$ km$^2$ s$^{-2}$), or 7 times less than this, and therefore the Oph cloud as a whole is gravitationally bound. Thirty protostars were searched for high velocity gas, with eight showing outflows, and twenty more having evidence of high velocity gas along their lines-of-sight. The total outflow kinetic energy is $1.3 \times 10^{38}$ J (67 $M_\odot$ km$^2$ s$^{-2}$), corresponding to 21$\%$ of the cloud?s turbulent kinetic energy. Although turbulent injection by outflows is significant, but does ${\it not}$ appear to be the dominant source of turbulence in the cloud. 105 dense molecular clumplets were identified, which had radii $\sim$ 0.01--0.05 pc, virial masses $\sim$ 0.1--12 $M_\odot$, luminosities $\sim$ 0.001--0.1 K~km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{-2}$, and excitation temperatures $\sim$ 10--50K. These are consistent with the standard GMC based size-line width relationships, showing that the scaling laws extend down to size scales of hundredths of a parsec, and to sub solar-mass condensations. There is however no compelling evidence that the majority of clumplets are undergoing free-fall collapse, nor that they are pressure confined.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., ) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L IR[8-1000 μm] > 1011L ☉) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ~ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (~100 K) and dense (>104 cm–3) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for this component. The global CO spectral line energy distributions, which remain highly excited from J = 6-5 up to J = 13-12, are found to be a generic feature of the (U)LIRGs in our sample, and further support the presence of this gas component.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 794(2):142. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. To investigate the origin of SMBHs, we perform cosmological simulations that target the direct collapse black hole (DCBH) seed formation scenario in the presence of two different strong Lyman-Werner (LW) background fields. These simulations include the X-ray irradiation from a central massive black hole (MBH), $\rm{H}_2$ self-shielding and stellar feedback from metal-free and metal-enriched stars. We find in both simulations that local X-ray feedback induces metal-free star formation $\sim 0.5$ Myr after the MBH forms. The MBH accretion rate reaches a maximum of $10^{-3}$ $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ in both simulations. However, the duty cycle differs which is derived to be $6\%$ and $50\%$ for high and low LW cases, respectively. The MBH in the high LW case grows only $\sim 6\%$ in 100 Myr compared to $16\%$ in the low LW case. We find that the maximum accretion rate is determined by the local gas thermodynamics whereas the duty cycle is determined by the large scale gas dynamics and gas reservoir. We conclude that radiative feedback from the central MBH plays an important role in star formation in the nuclear regions and stifling initial MBH growth, relative to the typical Eddington rate argument, and that initial MBH growth might be affected by the local LW radiation field. This further complicates the explanation for the existence of SMBHs in the early universe.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of high redshift quasars at $z>6$ indicate that they harbor supermassive black holes (SMBHs) of a billion solar masses. The direct collapse scenario has emerged as the most plausible way to assemble SMBHs. The nurseries for the direct collapse black holes are massive primordial halos illuminated with an intense UV flux emitted by population II stars. In this study, we compute the critical value of such a flux ($J_{21}^{\rm crit}$) for realistic spectra of pop II stars through three-dimensional cosmological simulations. We derive the dependence of $J_{21}^{\rm crit}$ on the radiation spectra, on variations from halo to halo, and on the impact of X-ray ionization. Our findings show that the value of $J_{21}^{\rm crit}$ is a few times $\rm 10^4$ and only weakly depends on the adopted radiation spectra in the range between $T_{\rm rad}=2 \times 10^4-10^5$ K. For three simulated halos of a few times $\rm 10^{7}$~M$_{\odot}$, $J_{21}^{\rm crit}$ varies from $\rm 2 \times 10^4 - 5 \times 10^4$. The impact of X-ray ionization is almost negligible and within the expected scatter of $J_{21}^{\rm crit}$ for background fluxes of $J_{\rm X,21} \leq 0.1$. The computed estimates of $J_{21}^{\rm crit}$ have profound implications for the quasar abundance at $z=10$ as it lowers the number density of black holes forming through an isothermal direct collapse by a few orders of magnitude below the observed black holes density. However, the sites with moderate amounts of $\rm H_2$ cooling may still form massive objects sufficient to be compatible with observations.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The seeds of the first supermassive black holes may result from the direct collapse of hot primordial gas in $\gtrsim 10^4$ K haloes, forming a supermassive or quasi-star as an intermediate stage. Aims. We explore the formation of a protostar resulting from the collapse of primordial gas in the presence of a strong Lyman-Werner radiation background. Particularly, we investigate the impact of turbulence and rotation on the fragmentation behaviour of the gas cloud. We accomplish this goal by varying the initial turbulent and rotational velocities. Methods. We have performed 3D adaptive mesh refinement simulations with a resolution of 64 cells per Jeans length using the ENZO code, simulating the formation of a protostar up to unprecedented high central densities of $10^{21}$ cm$^{-3}$, and spatial scales of a few solar radii. To achieve this goal, we have employed the KROME package to improve the modelling of the chemical and thermal processes. Results. We find that the physical properties of the simulated gas clouds become similar on small scales, irrespective of the initial amount of turbulence and rotation. After the highest level of refinement was reached, the simulations have been evolved for an additional ~5 freefall times. A single bound clump with a radius of $2 \times 10^{-2}$ AU and a mass of ~$7 \times 10^{-2}$ M$_{\odot}$ is formed at the end of each simulation, marking the onset of protostar formation. No strong fragmentation is observed by the end of the simulations, irrespective of the initial amount of turbulence or rotation, and high accretion rates of a few solar masses per year are found. Conclusions. Given such high accretion rates, a quasi-star of $10^5$ M$_{\odot}$ is expected to form within $10^5$ years.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed analysis of ALMA Bands 7 and 9 data of CO, HCO+, HCN and CS, augmented with Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) data of the ~ 200 pc circumnuclear disk (CND) and the ~ 1.3 kpc starburst ring (SB ring) of NGC~1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy. We aim at determining the physical characteristics of the dense gas present in the CND and whether the different line intensity ratios we find within the CND as well as between the CND and the SB ring are due to excitation effects (gas density and temperature differences) or to a different chemistry. We estimate the column densities of each species in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). We then compute large one-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer grids (using RADEX) by using first only the CO transitions, and then all the available molecules in order to constrain the densities, temperatures and column densities within the CND. We finally present a preliminary set of chemical models to determine the origin of the gas. We find that in general the gas in the CND is very dense (> 10^5 cm^-3) and hot (T> 150K), with differences especially in the temperature across the CND. The AGN position has the lowest CO/HCO+, CO/HCN and CO/CS column density ratios. RADEX analyses seem to indicate that there is chemical differentiation across the CND. We also find differences between the chemistry of the SB ring and some regions of the CND; the SB ring is also much colder and less dense than the CND. Chemical modelling does not succeed in reproducing all the molecular ratios with one model per region, suggesting the presence of multi-gas phase components. The LTE, RADEX and chemical analyses all indicate that more than one gas-phase component is necessary to uniquely fit all the available molecular ratios within the CND.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present FIR-CO luminosity relations ($\log L_{\rm FIR} = \alpha \log L'_{\rm CO} + \beta$) for the full CO rotational ladder from J=1-0 to J=13-12 for 62 local (z < 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 (sub)-millimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR-CO luminosity relations towards the high-IR-luminosity end while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-/high-J CO line data available prior to Herschel. This new data-set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR-CO luminosity relations ($\alpha \sim 1$) for J=1-0 up to J=5-4, with a nearly constant normalisation ($\beta \sim 2$). This is expected from the (also) linear FIR-(molecular line) relations found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However from J=6-5 and up to J=13-12 we find an increasingly sub-linear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (~100K) and dense ($>10^4{\rm cm^{-3}}$) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star formation powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for this component. The global CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs), which remain highly excited from J=6-5 up to J=13-12, are found to be a generic feature of the (U)LIRGs in our sample, and further support the presence of this gas component.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imaging the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Galaxy - Testing the theory of General Relativity an/or searching for alternative theories - Studying the origin of AGN jets and jet formation - Cosmological evolution of galaxies and BHs, AGN feedback - Masers in the Milky Way (in stars and star-forming regions) - Extragalactic emission lines and astro-chemistry - Redshifted absorption lines in distant galaxies and study of the ISM and circumnuclear gas - Pulsars, neutron stars, X-ray binaries - Testing cosmology - Testing fundamental physical constants
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Radiative feedback from populations II stars played a vital role in early structure formation. Particularly, photons below the Lyman limit can escape the star forming regions and produce a background ultraviolet (UV) flux which consequently may influence the pristine halos far away from the radiation sources. These photons can quench the formation of molecular hydrogen by photo-detachment of $\rm H^{-}$. In this study, we explore the impact of such UV radiation on fragmentation in massive primordial halos of a few times $\rm 10^{7}$~M${_\odot}$. To accomplish this goal, we perform high resolution cosmological simulations for two distinct halos and vary the strength of the impinging background UV field in units of $\rm J_{21}$. We further make use of sink particles to follow the evolution for 10,000 years after reaching the maximum refinement level. No vigorous fragmentation is observed in UV illuminated halos while the accretion rate changes according to the thermal properties. Our findings show that a few 100-10, 000 solar mass protostars are formed when halos are irradiated by $\rm J_{21}=10-500$ at $\rm z>10$ and suggest a strong relation between the strength of UV flux and mass of a protostar. This mode of star formation is quite different from minihalos, as higher accretion rates of about $\rm 0.01-0.1$ M$_{\odot}$/yr are observed by the end of our simulations. The resulting massive stars are the potential cradles for the formation of intermediate mass black holes at earlier cosmic times and contribute to the formation of a global X-ray background.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 792(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC1068, a nearby (D=14Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We have used ALMA to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3) and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r ~ 2kpc of NGC1068 with spatial resolutions ~ 0.3"-0.5" (~ 20-35pc). Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r ~ 200pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r ~ 1.3kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the AGN, betraying ongoing feedback. The gas kinematics from r ~ 50pc out to r ~ 400pc reveal a massive (M_mol ~ 2.7 (+0.9, -1.2) x 10^7 Msun) outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN-driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, dM/dt ~ 63 (+21, -37) Msun yr^-1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii, confirming that the outflow is AGN-driven. The power of the AGN is able to account for the estimated momentum and kinetic luminosity of the outflow. The CND mass load rate of the CND outflow implies a very short gas depletion time scale of <=1 Myr.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on two regularly rotating galaxies at redshift z 2, using high-resolution spectra of the bright [C II] 158 μm emission line from the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Both SDSS090122.37+181432.3 ("S0901") and SDSSJ120602.09+514229.5 ("the Clone") are strongly lensed and show the double-horned line profile that is typical of rotating gas disks. Using a parametric disk model to fit the emission line profiles, we find that S0901 has a rotation speed of vsin (i) 120 ± 7 km s–1 and a gas velocity dispersion of σg < 23 km s–1 (1σ). The best-fitting model for the Clone is a rotationally supported disk having vsin (i) 79 ± 11 km s–1 and σg 4 km s–1 (1σ). However, the Clone is also consistent with a family of dispersion-dominated models having σg = 92 ± 20 km s–1. Our results showcase the potential of the [C II] line as a kinematic probe of high-redshift galaxy dynamics: [C II] is bright, accessible to heterodyne receivers with exquisite velocity resolution, and traces dense star-forming interstellar gas. Future [C II] line observations with ALMA would offer the further advantage of spatial resolution, allowing a clearer separation between rotation and velocity dispersion.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 787(1):8. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of metal free gas to cool by molecular hydrogen in primordial halos is strongly associated with the strength of ultraviolet (UV) flux produced by the stellar populations in the first galaxies. Depending on the stellar spectrum, these UV photons can either dissociate $\rm H_{2}$ molecules directly or indirectly by photo-detachment of $\rm H^{-}$ as the latter provides the main pathway for $\rm H_{2}$ formation in the early universe. In this study, we aim to determine the critical strength of the UV flux above which the formation of molecular hydrogen remains suppressed. We presume that such flux is emitted by PopII stars implying atmospheric temperatures of $\rm 10^{4}$ K. We performed three-dimensional cosmological simulations for five distinct halos and varied the strength of the UV flux below the Lyman limit in units of $\rm J_{21}$. Our findings show that the value of $\rm J_{21}^{crit}$ varies from halo to halo and is sensitive to the local thermal conditions of the gas. For the simulated halos it varies from 400-700 with the exception of one halo where $\rm J_{21}^{crit} \geq 1500$. This has important implications for the formation of direct collapse black holes and their estimated population at z > 6. It reduces the number density of direct collapse black holes by almost three orders of magnitude compared to the previous estimates.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of metal free gas to cool by molecular hydrogen in primordial halos is strongly associated with the strength of ultraviolet (UV) flux produced by the stellar populations in the first galaxies. Depending on the stellar spectrum, these UV photons can either dissociate $\rm H_{2}$ molecules directly or indirectly by photo-detachment of $\rm H^{-}$ as the latter provides the main pathway for $\rm H_{2}$ formation in the early universe. In this study, we aim to determine the critical strength of the UV flux above which the formation of molecular hydrogen remains suppressed. We presume that such flux is emitted by PopII stars implying atmospheric temperatures of $\rm 10^{4}$ K. We performed three-dimensional cosmological simulations for five distinct halos and varied the strength of the UV flux below the Lyman limit in units of $\rm J_{21}$. Our findings show that the value of $\rm J_{21}^{crit}$ varies from halo to halo and is sensitive to the local thermal conditions of the gas. For the simulated halos it varies from 400-700 with the exception of one halo where $\rm J_{21}^{crit} \geq 1500$. This has important implications for the formation of direct collapse black holes and their estimated population at z > 6. It reduces the number density of direct collapse black holes by almost three orders of magnitude compared to the previous estimates.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2014; 443(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CO observations in active galactic nuclei and star-bursts reveal high kinetic temperatures. Those environments are thought to be very turbulent due to dynamic phenomena such as outflows and high supernova rates. We investigate the effect of mechanical heating (MH) on atomic fine-structure and molecular lines, and their ratios. We use those ratios as a diagnostic to constrain the amount of MH in an object and also study its significance on estimating the H2 mass. Equilibrium PDRs models were used to compute the thermal and chemical balance for the clouds. The equilibria were solved for numerically using the optimized version of the Leiden PDR-XDR code. Large velocity gradient calculations were done as post-processing on the output of the PDR models using RADEX. High-J CO line ratios are very sensitive to MH. Emission becomes at least one order of magnitude brighter in clouds with n~10^5~cm^-3 and a star formation rate of 1 Solar Mass per year (corresponding to a MH rate of 2 * 10^-19 erg cm^-3 s^-1). Emission of low-J CO lines is not as sensitive to MH, but they do become brighter in response to MH. Generally, for all of the lines we considered, MH increases excitation temperatures and decreases the optical depth at the line centre. Hence line ratios are also affected, strongly in some cases. Ratios involving HCN are a good diagnostic for MH, such as HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) and HCN(1-0)/HCO^+(1-0). Both ratios increase by a factor 3 or more for a MH equivalent to > 5 percent of the surface heating, as opposed to pure PDRs. The first major conclusion is that low-J to high-J intensity ratios will yield a good estimate of the MH rate (as opposed to only low-J ratios). The second one is that the MH rate should be taken into account when determining A_V or equivalently N_H, and consequently the cloud mass. Ignoring MH will also lead to large errors in density and radiation field estimates.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) 1.1 mm continuum imaging towards two extremely red H-[4.5]>4 (AB) galaxies at z>3, which we have previously discovered making use of Spitzer SEDS and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) CANDELS ultra-deep images of the UDS field. One of our objects is detected on the PdBI map with a 4.3 sigma significance, corresponding to Snu(1.1mm)=(0.78 +/- 0.18) mJy. By combining this detection with the Spitzer 8 and 24 micron photometry for this source, and SCUBA2 flux density upper limits, we infer that this galaxy is a composite active galactic nucleus (AGN)/star-forming system. The infrared (IR)-derived star formation rate is SFR~(200 +/- 100) Msun/yr, which implies that this galaxy is a higher-redshift analogue of the ordinary ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) more commonly found at z~2-3. In the field of the other target, we find a tentative 3.1 sigma detection on the PdBI 1.1 mm map, but 3.7 arcsec away of our target position, so it likely corresponds to a different object. In spite of the lower significance, the PdBI detection is supported by a close SCUBA2 3.3 sigma detection. No counterpart is found on either the deep SEDS or CANDELS maps, so, if real, the PdBI source could be similar in nature to the sub-millimetre source GN10. We conclude that the analysis of ultra-deep near- and mid-IR images offers an efficient, alternative route to discover new sites of powerful star formation activity at high redshifts.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 788(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection at 850um of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB), a 100kpc-scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z=3.1. The flux density of the source, $S_{850}=4.6\pm1.1$mJy implies the presence of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, with a total luminosity of $L_{\rm IR}\approx10^{12}L_\odot$. The position of an active source at the center of a ~50kpc-radius ring of linearly polarized Ly-alpha emission detected by Hayes et al. (2011) suggests that the central source is leaking Ly-alpha photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in HI clouds at large galactocentric radius. The Ly-alpha morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of biconical outflow, and the average Ly-alpha line profiles of the two `lobes' are dominated by a red peak, expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Ly-alpha emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Ly-alpha: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 793(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structure of protoplanetary disks is thought to be linked to the temperature and chemistry of their dust and gas. Whether the disk is flat or flaring depends on the amount of radiation that it absorbs at a given radius, and on the efficiency with which this is converted into thermal energy. The understanding of these heating and cooling processes is crucial to provide a reliable disk structure for the interpretation of dust continuum emission and gas line fluxes. Especially in the upper layers of the disk, where gas and dust are thermally decoupled, the infrared line emission is strictly related to the gas heating/cooling processes. We aim to study the thermal properties of the disk in the oxygen line emission region, and to investigate the relative importance of X-ray (1-120 Angstrom) and far-UV radiation (FUV, 912-2070 Angstrom) for the heating balance there. We use [OI] 63 micron line fluxes observed in a sample of protoplanetary disks of the Taurus/Auriga star forming region and compare it to the model predictions presented in our previous work. The data were obtained with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the Herschel Open Time Key Program GASPS (GAS in Protoplanetary diskS), published in Howard et al. (2013). Our theoretical grid of disk models can reproduce the [OI] absolute fluxes and predict a correlation between [OI] and the sum Lx+Lfuv. The data show no correlation between the [OI] line flux and the X-ray luminosity, the FUV luminosity or their sum. The data show that the FUV or X-ray radiation has no notable impact on the region where the [OI] line is formed. This is in contrast with what is predicted from our models. Possible explanations are that the disks in Taurus are less flaring than the hydrostatic models predict, and/or that other disk structure aspects that were left unchanged in our models are important. ..abridged..
    02/2014;

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Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Niels Bohr Institute
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Hertfordshire
      • Centre for Astrophysics Research (CAR)
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2014
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1998–2009
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2008
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States