J Milhaud

Université Paris 13 Nord, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (15)49.89 Total impact

  • Jeannine Milhaud, Nadia Bouchemal, Tomasz Rog, Edith Hantz
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholipid-based reverse micelles are composed of branched cylinders. Their branching points are known to attract themselves and to slide along branches. The rate of this sliding is governed by the lifetime of H(D)-bonded water bridges between phospholipid molecules. This lifetime is increased when the water is deuterated. On condition that the water contains at least 40 D atoms%, water/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/deuterated pyridine reverse micelles with the composition 1.1:1:250 (v/v) have been shown to self-organize into a liquid crystal in the 310-316 K temperature range. The mechanism of this self-organization is unraveled by following the FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra of more concentrated micelles upon heating. During the preparation of micelles, pyridine-(D(+))H(+) ions are formed. They give rise to hydron transfers, under the influence of the DPPC electric charges, evidenced by two broad FTIR absorptions above (BB1) and below (BB2) the nu(C-O) stretch. These hydron transfers occur along strong (D(+))H(+) bonds of pyridinium ions with pyridine (BB1) and DPPC C=O groups (BB2). The proton transfers at the interface of micelles, relayed in the continuous pyridine medium, create a tenuous link between separated micelles, thus facilitating their organization. Upon heating, DPPC heads shrink and DPPC chains expand to make wedge-shaped DPPC molecules. The micelles then change in shape: cylinders constrict and enclosed water drifts towards branching points, which swell. Branching points of neighboring micelles come into contact. Due to the deuteration of water these contacts are prolonged and H bonds are formed between DPPC molecules located in each branching point. Upon storage at 39 degrees C, these branching points fuse. The lateral diffusion of DPPC molecules becomes free, as evidenced by a narrowing of all (1)H NMR resonances. Upon further heating, reorganization into a liquid crystal occurs.
    ChemPhysChem 02/2010; 11(3):590-8. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physicochemical properties of heavy water (D2O) differ to some extent from those of normal water. Substituting D2O for H2O has been shown to affect the structural and dynamic properties of proteins, but studies of its effects on lipid bilayers are scarce. In this paper, the atomic level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method was used to determine the effects of this substitution on the properties of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer and its hydrating water. MD simulations of two DPPC bilayers, one fully hydrated with H2O and the other with D2O, were carried out for over 50 ns. For H2O, the simple point charge (SPC) model was used, and for D2O, the extended SPC-HW model was employed. Analyses of the simulation trajectories indicate that several properties of the membrane core and the membrane/water interface are affected by replacing H2O by D2O. However, the time-averaged properties, such as membrane compactness, acyl chain order, and numbers of PC-water H (D)-bonds and PC-PC water bridges, are much less affected than time-resolved properties. In particular, the lifetimes of these interactions are much longer for D2O molecules than for H2O ones. These longer lifetimes results in a slightly better ordering of the D2O molecules and average self-diffusion, which is 50% slower compared with the H2O molecules. This large isotope effect has been assigned to the repercussions of the longer lived D-bonding to DPPC headgroups insofar as all water molecules sense the presence of the DPPC bilayer.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 02/2009; 113(8):2378-87. · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Jeannine Milhaud, Edith Hantz, Jean Liquier
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    ABSTRACT: Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/water/pyridine reverse micelles have been found to transform from a clear liquid into a glass when the DPPC-to-water volume fraction is in the 0.78-0.89 range at 28 or 26 degrees C depending on whether water is H2O or D2O. Their study by SANS, FT-IR, and 1H NMR for this composition has shown remarkable effects of the isotopic nature of water on their structural and dynamic properties. By SANS, between 38 and 43.5 degrees C, micelles appear as either flexible polymer-like cylinders or short rods depending on whether water is H2O or D2O. On the basis of this dual aspect, micelles have been visualized as branched cylinders whose quasi-spherical branching points would be prone to assemble into short rods. In addition, when water contains more than 40% of D2O, a Bragg reflection emerges at 0.12 A(-1) on SANS spectra, evidencing an organization of micelles. In addition, FT-IR spectra show that DPPC phosphate groups are D bonded only when water is D2O. Consequently, we assumed that forces prone to organize the D2O-containing micelles are D-bonded water bridges between neighboring micelles at the level of their branching points. In fact, ab initio calculations have shown that water dimers are more stable when the bridging atom is D rather than H. These water bridges could be formed due to the fact that branching points, able to slide along micelles, keep close for a longer time when water is D2O than when it is H2O. Indeed, it has been shown experimentally that the lateral diffusion of phospholipid molecules in any layer is slower in the first case. Formation of such bridges triggers a deuteron migration between micelles evidenced by the 1/T1 relaxation rate of deuterons of water in D2O-containing micelles measured at 43 degrees C by 1H NMR.
    Langmuir 08/2006; 22(14):6068-77. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    Jeannine Milhaud
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    ABSTRACT: Modulating the relative humidity (RH) of the ambient gas phase of a phospholipid/water sample for modifying the activity of phospholipid-sorbed water [humidity-controlled osmotic stress methods, J. Chem. Phys. 92 (1990) 4519 and J. Phys. Chem. 96 (1992) 446] has opened a new field of research of paramount importance. New types of phase transitions, occurring at specific values of this activity, have been then disclosed. Hence, it is become recognized that this activity, like the temperature T, is an intensive parameter of the thermodynamical state of these samples. This state can be therefore changed (phase transition) either, by modulating T at a given water activity (a given hydration level), or, by modulating the water activity, at a given T. The underlying mechanisms of these two types of transition differ, especially when they appear as disorderings of fatty chains. In lyotropic transitions, this disordering follows from two thermodynamical laws. First, acting on the activity (the chemical potential) of water external to a phospholipid/water sample, a transbilayer gradient of water chemical potential is created, leading to a transbilayer flux of water (Fick's law). Second, water molecules present within the hydrocarbon region of this phospholipid bilayer interact with phospholipid molecules through their chemical potential (Gibbs-Duhem relation): the conformational state of fatty chains (the thermodynamical state of the phospholipid molecules) changes. This process is slow, as revealed by osmotic stress time-resolved experiments. In thermal chain-melting transitions, the first rapid step is the disordering of fatty chains of a fraction of phospholipid molecules. It occurs a few degrees before the main transition temperature, T(m), during the pretransition and the sub-main transition. The second step, less rapid, is the redistribution of water molecules between the different parts of the sample, as revealed by T-jump time-resolved experiments. Finally, in lyotropic and thermal transitions, hydration and conformation are linked but the order of anteriority of their change, in each case, is probably not the same. In this review, first, the interactions of phospholipid submolecular fragments and water molecules, in the interfacial and hydrocarbon regions of phospholipid/water multibilayer stacks, will be described. Second, the coupling of the conformational states of phospholipid and water molecules, during thermal and lyotropic transitions, will be demonstrated through examples.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2004; 1663(1-2):19-51. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amphotericin B (AmB) is an amphipathic polyene antibiotic which permeabilizes ergosterol-containing membranes, supposedly by formation of pores. In water, AmB forms chiral aggregates, modelled as stacks of planar dimers in which the joined polyene chains in each dimer turn round, from one dimer to the following in these stacks, by forming a helical array. Studies of the binding of AmB with L-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (L-DPPC) and L-dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (L-DLPC) bilayers disclose the main following results. (1) An inversion of the helicity of the L-DPPC-bound AmB aggregates, when the L-DPPC bilayers are in the gel phase, is inferred from the evolution of the circular dichroism spectra of AmB+L-DPPC mixtures. (2) An AmB-induced gel-to-subgel transformation of L-DPPC bilayers, in the previous mixtures, is revealed by a differential scanning calorimetry study. (3) The role played by ergosterol in the location of phospholipid-bound AmB aggregates with respect to a phospholipid bilayer is directly demonstrated from atomic force microscopy observations of mica-supported AmB+L-DLPC mixtures, in the presence or absence of ergosterol. While in the absence of ergosterol AmB aggregates remained at the surface of the bilayer, in the presence of ergosterol they appeared embedded within this bilayer and became hollow-centered. As such an embedding in the hydrophobic core of a bilayer requires a rearrangement of the aggregates with respect to their architecture in water, this rearrangement is held responsible for the hollowing of aggregates. The hollow-centered sublayer-embedded AmB aggregates are thought to be the precursors of the formation of AmB pores.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2002; 1558(2):95-108. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • J Milhaud, B Michels
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions of multilamellar vesicles (MLV) of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) with the polyene antibiotics, amphotericin B (AmB) and nystatin (Ny), were followed by circular dichroism (CD). These interactions proceed with both antibiotics through a slow association with high [DLPC]/[antibiotic] stoichiometric molar ratios (> or = 130), at room temperature for which DLPC membranes are in a fluid state. Microscopic investigations of the spatial distributions of the antibiotic and the MLV in the mixtures revealed that MLV form clusters inside which the antibiotic is strongly concentrated and lipid superstructures appear. Concomitantly with the appearance of these superstructures a DLPC dichroic signal emerges. This observation indicates that the chiral properties of antibiotic oligomers can induce a chirality of the DLPC molecules which are bound to them. These results support the hypothesis of a recent molecular modeling of AmB oligomers which postulates that their chiral properties result from a chiral assemblage of antibiotic molecules (Millié et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, in press).
    Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 10/1999; 101(2):223-35. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction of nystatin A1 with multilamellar vesicles (MLV) of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), observed either by adding nystatin to preformed MLV (mixtures I) or by incorporating it during the formation of vesicles (mixtures II, inner lamellas of MLV in contact with nystatin) was investigated for 0.002 < or = nystatin/DLPC = R(A) < or = 0.20, by four complementary methods. The main results were: (i) Ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of mixtures I revealed the occurrence of a saturable association with a stoichiometry (R(A) = 0.007 +/- 0.002) constant between 3 and 33 degrees C. (ii) By differential scanning calorimetry, thermograms of the two types of mixtures were similar only when water was in great excess. In the opposite (e.g., (H2O)/(DLPC) = R(W) < or = 300), mixture II thermograms displayed two features, upshifted by about 6.5 degrees C with respect to the sharp peak observed with mixture I, resembling those obtained for pure DLPC when the low-temperature phase was the subgel phase. For this R(W), the nystatin absolute concentrations were those for which nystatin form superaggregates as revealed by the nystatin CD spectra. It is proposed that these superaggregates are excluded from the interlamellar spacings of MLV and exert a pumping action on the interlamellar water. The subsequent dehydration of the inner lamellas is thought to convert them into the subgel state. (iii) 2H-NMR spectra of sn-2-perdeuterated DLPC MLV + nystatin mixtures II, confirmed such a temperature shift of the main transition. They showed, in addition, an ordering of the aliphatic chains immediately above the transition temperature, equivalent to a bilayer thickening of 2 A.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/1997; 1326(1):54-66. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of filipin III with multilamellar vesicles (MLV) of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC ) was studied by four complementary methods leading to the following results: (1) The modifications of the filipin dichroic spectrum, by adding preformed fluid DMPC MLV, provide evidence of a saturable association with the stoichiometry DMPC/filipin = 4.2 +/- 0.5, constant between 24 and 35 degrees Celsius. (2) Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on mixtures where filipin is incorporated during the formation of MLV exhibit a high-temperature tail the more marked the higher the filipin content and some structures at temperatures which depend on this content. The corresponding evolution with the temperature of the CD spectra reveals that the characteristic bound filipin spectrum appears at the temperature at which a structure emerges. (3) Titration calorimetry measurements reveal that the association process is exothermic in the temperature range of the DSC endotherms in agreement with the filipin-induced ordering of the lipid chains, previously established by 2H-NMR in the same temperature range (Milhaud et al.(1989) Eur. Biophys. J. 17, 151-158). A discussion of the relevancy of this exothermicity to the hydrophobic effect is developed by referring to the paper by Wimley and White ((1993) Biochemistry 32, 6307-6312).
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/1996; 1278(2):223-32. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • J Blais, J Milhaud, J Bolard, P Vigny
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    ABSTRACT: The dark interaction of 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) with plasma membranes was studied using human erythrocyte ghosts as a model. In the presence of ghosts, modifications of the fluorescence characteristics of 5-MOP were observed, together with a quenching of the fluorescence of the tryptophan (Trp) residues of membrane proteins (up to 25%). Moreover, the appearance of an induced circular dichroism indicates that 5-MOP is located in a chiral environment. In contrast, only slight effects were observed in the case of 8-MOP. It is concluded that 5-MOP molecules are located partly within chiral protein sites of the membrane in such a way that a Förster energy transfer can occur from the Trp residues to the psoralen molecules.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 06/1991; 9(2):161-70. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    H Ramos, J Milhaud, B E Cohen, J Bolard
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative study of the effect of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) on the viability of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes before and after their transformation by heat into amastigotelike forms was carried out. The kinetics of cell death were followed by spectrofluorometry with the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide. It was found that the rapid killing effect that is exerted by AmB on Leishmania promastigotes was even faster after their transformation into amastigotelike forms. Binding studies of AmB to Leishmania membranes by circular dichroism indicated that heat transformation modified it from noncooperative to cooperative binding, decreasing the amount of antibiotic that bound to the membranes. Thus, the increased rate of ethidium bromide incorporation into transformed cells was not related either to the amount of AmB bound or to an increased amount of ergosterol in the membrane (the ergosterol/phospholipid ratio was four times smaller after heat shock). An increase in the Mg2+ content of the external aqueous solution was able to prevent the AmB-induced incorporation of ethidium bromide into Leishmania promastigotes to a greater extent (Ki = 13.8 mM) than it was into heat-transformed cells (Ki = 64 mM), suggesting that there were significant changes at the Leishmania cell surface on heat transformation. The significance of these results for understanding the mechanism of action of AmB on sensitive organisms is discussed.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/1990; 34(8):1584-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction of the pentene antibiotic filipin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes has been monitored by 2H-NMR, circular dichroism (CD), electronic absorption and fluorescence in the temperature range 10 degrees to 60 degrees C. Interaction appears to depend on whether filipin is added before or after membrane formation and also upon the temperature of the system. When filipin is added to preformed DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), the association constants, as determined by electronic absorption are 39 x 10(3) M-1, 15 x 10(3) M-1 and 0.6 x 10(3) M-1 at 15 degrees, 30 degrees and 50 degrees C, respectively. Under identical conditions, CD spectra of bound filipin exhibit features characteristic of an aggregation over the whole temperature range. When filipin is incorporated in membranes during their preparation, the 2H-NMR spectra of deuterated DMPC indicate that the drug has a slight disordering effect on the lipid matrix below the temperature, Tc, of the gel-to-fluid phase transition and above Tc + 11 degrees C. Between these two temperature boundaries the system consists of two lipid regions of very different dynamic properties. One of the regions, which is attributed to a filipin-lipid complex, has the properties of gel-like lipids whereas the other has those of fluid-like lipids. The latter domain is however more ordered than the pure lipid at corresponding temperatures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    European Biophysics Journal 02/1989; 17(3):151-8. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • J Milhaud, M A Hartmann, J Bolard
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) (Fig. 1) with large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) was monitored by circular dichroism (CD) and carboxyfluorescein (CF) release. LUV afford a far better model for biological membranes than small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) which have been used until now. With dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline (DMPC) LUV (i.e., containing saturated acyl chains), a strong and not saturable binding for AmB/lipid ratios up to 0.5 was observed both above and below the phase transition temperature. Incorporation of cholesterol into the vesicles did not significantly change the interaction. With egg PC (EPC) LUV (i.e., containing unsaturated acyl chains), quite a different picture emerged: the binding reached saturation for AmB/lipid ratios of about 5 x 10(-3), a result not observed with EPC SUV. When sterols were introduced into membranes, the CD spectral features obtained in the presence of ergosterol were different from those obtained in the presence of cholesterol. Such a different behavior was not observed with SUV. We suggest that species whose CD spectrum was observed after 15 min in the presence of ergosterol-containing EPC LUV is the particular one which forms wide channels and induces a Ca2+ release. (H. Ramos, A. Attias, B.E. Cohen and J. Bolard, submitted for publication). The CF release from EPC LUV induced by AmB was very low, even at very high concentrations of the antibiotic (3 x 10(-4)M). In contrast, an important release of the fluorescent dye was observed with DMPC LUV at concentrations of approximately 10(-5)M.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biochimie 02/1989; 71(1):49-56. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Jeannine Milhaud, Jan Mazerski, Jacques Bolard
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of the polyene antibiotic filipin with large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) has been studied by circular dichroism (CD). (1) On the one hand, the interaction has been followed with preformed LUV. In the presence of cholesterol-free dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) LUV, monomeric filipin, above a critical concentration of about 1·10−6 mol/1 and up to a DMPC/filipin molar ratio of approximately 4, bound to LUV and self-associated in the membranes as demonstrated by the presence of an excitonic doublet. For increasing DMPC/filipin molar ratios, filipin remained bound to membranes but became more and more under monomeric form. In the presence of preformed cholesterol-containing DMPC LUV, for increasing concentrations of filipin, the formation of a 1:1 filipin-cholesterol complex was first observed; then, for an antibiotic/cholesterol molar ratio higher than 1 an interaction between filipin and phospholipid, identical to the one observed with cholesterol-free LUV, was observed. (2) On the other hand, the interaction with cholesterol-containing model membranes has been followed in the same experimental conditions as those used in recent studies by2H-NMR (Dufourc, E.J. and Smith, I.C.P. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 2420–2424) and by ESR (Maurin, L., Bancel, F., Morin, P. and Bienvenue, A. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 939, 102–110), that is with filipin incorporated into membranes during their preparation. For preparations with filipin/cholesterol molar ratios of about 1:1 we confirm the results obtained by both methods. In the presence of an excess of filipin (filipin/cholesterol molar ratio 10:1), the CD spectrum observed with egg-yolk PC at 6°C (conditions used in the ESR study) is identical to that observed in the presence of pure DMPC above the transition temperature (Milhaud, J., Mazerski, J., Bolard, J. and Dufourc, E.J. (1989) Eur. Biophys. J. 17, 151–158). We conclude that in these conditions a filipin-phospholipid association occurs once the sterolic sites of fixation have been occupied.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 01/1989;
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of the polyene antibiotic, filipin, with individual or mixed plant sterols (stigmasterol, sitosterol, campesterol and 24-methylpollinastanol) incorporated into large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as the filipin interaction with purified membrane fractions from maize roots containing these sterols was investigated by ultraviolet (UV) absorption and and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. With both types of membrane preparation, dramatic changes in the UV absorption and CD spectra of the antibiotic were evidenced. When LUV containing stigmasterol, sitosterol and/or campesterol were incubated with low filipin concentrations (i.e., for filipin/sterol molar ratios (rst) lower than 1), CD signal characteristic of the formation of filipin-sterol complexes were observed. At higher rst values, the filipin-sterol interaction was shown to be in competition with a filipin-phospholipid interaction. With 24-methylpollinastanol-containing LUV, the filipin-phospholipid interaction was detected even at rst values lower than 1, which suggests a lower affinity of filipin for this sterol and emphasizes the structural differences between delta 5-sterols and 9 beta,19-cyclopropylsterols. With sterol-free soybean PC LUV, a filipin-phospholipid interaction could also be evidenced. With maize root cell membranes containing either delta 5-sterols or 9 beta,19-cyclopropylsterols, CD spectra similar to those obtained in the presence of LUV having these sterols as components were observed. Thus, the protein component of the membranes does not appear to be an important feature.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/1988; 943(2):315-25. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: theeffect ofthepolyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB)on theviability of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes before andafter their transformation byheatinto amastigotelike forms was carried out.Thekinetics ofcell death werefollowed byspectrofluorometry withthenucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide. Itwasfoundthat therapid killing effect thatisexerted byAmB onLeishmania promastigotes was evenfaster after their transformation into amastigotelike forms. Binding studies ofAmB to Leishmania membranes bycircular dichroism indicated that heattransformation modified itfromnoncoop- erative tocooperative binding, decreasing theamountofantibiotic thatboundtothemembranes. Thus, the increased rateofethidium bromide incorporation into transformed cells was notrelated either totheamount ofAmB bound ortoanincreased amountofergosterol inthemembrane(the ergosterol/phospholipid ratio was four times smaller after heatshock). Anincrease intheMg2e content oftheexternal aqueoussolution wasable toprevent theAmB-induced incorporation ofethidium bromide into Leishmania promastigotes toa greater extent (Ki = 13.8mM)thanitwasintoheat-transformed cells (Ki = 64mM),suggesting thatthere were significant changes attheLeishmania cell surface onheattransformiltion. Thesignificance ofthese results for understanding themechanism ofaction ofAmB on sensitive organismsisdiscussed.

Publication Stats

129 Citations
49.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2010
    • Université Paris 13 Nord
      Île-de-France, France
  • 2006
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988–2004
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Université de Vincennes - Paris 8
      Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France