Alice Georgiu

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (4)28.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV; FluMist) is a trivalent vaccine containing cold-adapted influenza vaccine viruses that infect and replicate in cells lining the nasopharynx to induce immunity. Recovery of viruses (shedding) is measured by culture of nasal specimens. Shedding of vaccine viruses is not equated with transmission because transmission requires more virus than is detected in many nasal swabs. Previous studies with LAIV did not detect transmission to close contacts. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the probability of transmission to placebo contacts in a day care setting. One hundred ninety-seven healthy children aged 9 to 36 months attending day care were randomized to receive vaccine or placebo. Postvaccination viral shedding, safety, genotype and phenotype of shed viruses and probability of transmission were assessed. Eighty percent of 98 vaccine recipients shed at least one vaccine strain. No clinically significant differences in solicited adverse events attributable to vaccine occurred; safety profiles were similar in both groups. Vaccine virus isolates retained their phenotypic characteristics (cold adaptation and temperature sensitivity) and did not revert at nucleotides known to confer an attenuating phenotype. There was one confirmed transmission of a vaccine strain to a single placebo recipient. According to the Reed-Frost model, the calculated probability of transmission to a child after contact with a single vaccinated child was 0.58% (95% confidence interval, 0-1.7%). There was no increased reactogenicity or other safety concerns in the recipient child. Young children in a day care setting had a high rate of shedding and a low rate of transmission. No clinically significant illness occurred among children who received vaccine or placebo or in the child to whom the vaccine virus was transmitted.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/2006; 25(7):590-5. DOI:10.1097/01.inf.0000220229.51531.47 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A phase 2 evaluation of live attenuated parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3)-cold passage mutant 45 (cp45) vaccine was conducted in 380 children 6-18 months old; 226 children (59%) were seronegative for PIV3. Of the 226 seronegative children, 114 received PIV3-cp45 vaccine, and 112 received placebo. No significant difference in the occurrence of adverse events (i.e., runny nose, cough, or temperature > or =38 degrees C) was noted during the 14 days after vaccination. There was no difference between groups in the occurrence of acute otitis media or serous otitis media. Paired serum samples were available for 109 of the seronegative vaccine recipients and for 110 of the seronegative placebo recipients; 84% of seronegative vaccine recipients developed a > or =4-fold increase in antibody titers. The geometric mean antibody titer after vaccination was 1 : 25 in the vaccine group and <1 : 4 in the placebo group. PIV3-cp45 vaccine was safe and immunogenic in seronegative children and should be evaluated for efficacy in a phase 3 field trial.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2004; 189(3):462-70. DOI:10.1086/381184 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A live, cold-passaged (cp) candidate vaccine virus, designated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) B1 cp-52/2B5 (cp-52), replicated efficiently in Vero cells, but was found to be overattenuated for RSV-seronegative infants and children. Sequence analysis of reverse-transcription-PCR-amplified fragments of this mutant revealed a large deletion spanning most of the coding sequences for the small hydrophobic (SH) and attachment (G) proteins. Northern blot analysis of cp-52 detected multiple unique read-through mRNAs containing SH and G sequences, consistent with a deletion mutation spanning the SH:G gene junction. Immunological studies confirmed that an intact G glycoprotein was not produced by the cp-52 virus. Nonetheless, cp-52 was infectious and replicated to high titer in tissue culture despite the absence of the viral surface SH and G glycoproteins. Thus, our characterization of this negative-strand RNA virus identified a novel replication-competent deletion mutant lacking two of its three surface glycoproteins. The requirement of SH and G for efficient replication in vivo suggests that selective deletion of one or both of these RSV genes may provide an alternative or additive strategy for developing an optimally attenuated vaccine candidate.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1998; 94(25):13961-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.94.25.13961 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A live, cold-passaged (cp) candidate vaccine virus, designated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) B1 cp-52/2B5 (cp-52), replicated efficiently in Vero cells, but was found to be overattenuated for RSV-seronegative infants and children. Sequence analysis of reverse-transcription–PCR-amplified fragments of this mutant revealed a large deletion spanning most of the coding sequences for the small hydrophobic (SH) and attachment (G) proteins. Northern blot analysis of cp-52 detected multiple unique read-through mRNAs containing SH and G sequences, consistent with a deletion mutation spanning the SH:G gene junction. Immunological studies confirmed that an intact G glycoprotein was not produced by the cp-52 virus. Nonetheless, cp-52 was infectious and replicated to high titer in tissue culture despite the absence of the viral surface SH and G glycoproteins. Thus, our characterization of this negative-strand RNA virus identified a novel replication-competent deletion mutant lacking two of its three surface glycoproteins. The requirement of SH and G for efficient replication in vivo suggests that selective deletion of one or both of these RSV genes may provide an alternative or additive strategy for developing an optimally attenuated vaccine candidate.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1997; 94(25):13961-13966. · 9.81 Impact Factor