[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Us3 is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). We have identified UL47, a major virion protein, as a novel physiological substrate of Us3. In vitro kinase assays and systematic analysis of mutations at putative Us3 phosphorylation sites near the nuclear localization signal of UL47 showed that serine at residue 77 (Ser-77) was required for Us3 phosphorylation of UL47. Replacement of UL47 Ser-77 by alanine produced aberrant accumulation of UL47 at the nuclear rim and impaired the nuclear localization of UL47 in a significant fraction of infected cells. The same defect in UL47 localization was produced by an amino acid substitution in Us3 that inactivated its protein kinase activity. In contrast, a phosphomimetic mutation at UL47 Ser-77 restored wild-type nuclear localization. The UL47 S77A mutation also reduced viral replication in the mouse cornea and the development of herpes stromal keratitis in mice. In addition, UL47 formed a stable complex with Us3 in infected cells, and nuclear localization of Us3 was significantly impaired in the absence of UL47. These results suggested that Us3 phosphorylation of UL47 Ser-77 promoted the nuclear localization of UL47 in cell cultures and played a critical role in viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, UL47 appeared to be required for efficient nuclear localization of Us3 in infected cells. Therefore, Us3 protein kinase and its substrate UL47 demonstrated a unique regulatory feature in that they reciprocally regulated their subcellular localization in infected cells.
Journal of Virology 09/2011; 85(18):9599-613. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anterograde transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuronal cell bodies into, and down, axons is a fundamentally important process for spread to other hosts. Different techniques for imaging HSV in axons have produced two models for how virus particles are transported in axons. In the Separate model, viral nucleocapsids devoid of the viral envelope and membrane glycoproteins are transported in axons. In the Married model, enveloped HSV particles (with the viral glycoproteins) encased within membrane vesicles are transported in the anterograde direction. Earlier studies of HSV-infected human neurons involving electron microscopy (EM) and immunofluorescence staining of glycoproteins and capsids supported the Separate model. However, more-recent live-cell imaging of rat, chicken, and mouse neurons produced evidence supporting the Married model. In a recent EM study, a mixture of Married (75%) and Separate (25%) HSV particles was observed. Here, we studied an HSV recombinant expressing a fluorescent form of the viral glycoprotein gB and a fluorescent capsid protein (VP26), observing that human SK-N-SH neurons contained both Separate (the majority) and Married particles. Live-cell imaging of rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neuronal axons in a chamber system (which oriented the axons) also produced evidence of Separate and Married particles. Together, our results suggest that one can observe anterograde transport of both HSV capsids and enveloped virus particles depending on which neurons are cultured and how the neurons are imaged.
Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(12):5919-28. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the construction of a triply fluorescent-tagged herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expressing capsid protein VP26, tegument protein VP22, and envelope protein gB as fusion proteins with monomeric yellow, red, and cyan fluorescent proteins, respectively. The recombinant virus enabled us to monitor the dynamics of these capsid, tegument, and envelope proteins simultaneously in the same live HSV-1-infected cells and to visualize single extracellular virions with three different fluorescent emissions. In Vero cells infected by the triply fluorescent virus, multiple cytoplasmic compartments were found to be induced close to the basal surfaces of the infected cells (the adhesion surfaces of the infected cells on the solid growth substrate). Major capsid, tegument, and envelope proteins accumulated and colocalized in the compartments, as did marker proteins for the trans-Golgi network (TGN) which has been implicated to be the site of HSV-1 secondary envelopment. Moreover, formation of the compartments was correlated with the dynamic redistribution of the TGN proteins induced by HSV-1 infection. These results suggest that HSV-1 infection causes redistribution of TGN membranes to form multiple cytoplasmic compartments, possibly for optimal secondary envelopment. This is the first real evidence for the assembly of all three types of herpesvirus proteins-capsid, tegument, and envelope membrane proteins-in TGN.
Journal of Virology 07/2008; 82(11):5198-211. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 is a viral protein kinase that is expressed in the lytic phase of infection and is packaged in virions. We report here that BGLF4 is a tegument protein that dissociates from the virion in a phosphorylation-dependent process. We also present evidence that BGLF4 interacts with and phosphorylates BZLF1, a key viral regulator of lytic infection. These conclusions are based on the following observations. (i) In in vitro tegument release assays, a significant fraction of BGLF4 was released from virions in the presence of physiological NaCl concentrations. (ii) Addition of physiological concentrations of ATP and MgCl(2) to virions enhanced BGLF4 release, but phosphatase treatment of virions significantly reduced BGLF4 release. (iii) A recombinant protein containing a domain of BZLF1 was specifically phosphorylated by purified recombinant BGLF4 in vitro, and BGLF4 altered BZLF1 posttranslational modification in vivo. (iv) BZLF1 was specifically coimmunoprecipitated with BGLF4 in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated B95-8 cells and in COS-1 cells transiently expressing both of these viral proteins. (v) BGLF4 and BZLF1 were colocalized in intranuclear globular structures, resembling the viral replication compartment, in Akata cells treated with anti-human immunoglobulin G. Our results suggest that BGLF4 functions not only in lytically infected cells by phosphorylating viral and cellular targets but also immediately after viral penetration like other herpesvirus tegument proteins.
Journal of Virology 07/2006; 80(11):5125-34. · 4.65 Impact Factor