Publications (3)5.94 Total impact
Article: The caveolin-1 binding domain of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 (CBD1) contains several overlapping neutralizing epitopes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The CBD1 peptide (SLEQIWNNMTWMQWDK), corresponding to the consensus caveolin-1 binding domain in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41 (CBD1), elicits the production of antibodies that inhibit infection of primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes by various primary HIV-1 isolates. Here we show that HIV-neutralizing antibodies against CBD1 react with multiple conformational epitopes that overlap the highly conserved caveolin-1 binding motif (CBM) with the N-terminal conserved isoleucine residue. The CBM-based peptides IWNNMTWMQW and IWNNMTW when fused to a T helper epitope are immunogenic by inducing high titer CBM-specific antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 infection in primary T lymphocyte cultures. Interestingly, neutralizing immune sera raised against a given peptide do not cross-react with related CBM-derived peptides, thus suggesting the existence of distinct neutralizing epitopes that probably reflect the dynamic conformational features of CBD1. In accord with this, the mixture of neutralizing immune sera raised against several CBM-derived peptides exerts a synergistic neutralizing activity against HIV-1 infection. Finally, the existence of several distinct overlapping epitopes in CBD1 is confirmed by murine monoclonal antibodies that we generated against the CBM-derived chimeric peptides. Our results indicate that CBD1- and CBM-based peptides mimic distinct dynamic conformations of CBD1, and thus such peptides could provide specific immunogens for an efficient vaccine preparation against HIV/AIDS infection.Vaccine 07/2009; 27(27):3620-30. · 3.77 Impact Factor
Article: HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies elicited by the candidate CBD1 epitope vaccine react with the conserved caveolin-1 binding motif of viral glycoprotein gp41.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To date, candidate HIV-1 vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials have failed to induce broadly neutralizing activities and/or antibodies that inhibit infection by primary isolates of HIV-1. We recently identified a conserved caveolin-1 binding motif, WNNMTWMQW, in the ectodomain of HIV-1 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein gp41. We designed the synthetic CBD1 peptide SLEQIWNNMTWMQWDK, corresponding to the consensus caveolin-1 binding domain (CBD) in gp41, and showed that it elicits in rabbits the production of antibodies that inhibit infection of primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes by various primary HIV-1 isolates. Although a conserved and highly homologous caveolin-1 binding motif is present in the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein of different HIV-2 isolates, anti-CBD1 immune sera do not inhibit HIV-2 infection. Here we show that anti-CBD1 antibodies are directed against the conserved caveolin-1 binding motif WNNMTWMQW in the CBD1 epitope. In spite of this, anti-CBD1 antibodies do not react with the CBD2 peptide SLTPDWNNMTWQEWER, corresponding to the potential consensus caveolin-1 binding domain in HIV-2. The presence of a conserved proline residue upstream of the caveolin-1 binding motif in CBD2 might affect the presentation of this motif, and thus account for the lack of reactivity of the immune sera. Anti-CBD1 antibodies therefore appear to be directed against a conformational epitope mimicked by the synthetic CBD1 peptide. In accordance with this, anti-CBD1 immune sera react with the native but not denatured gp41. The reactivity of anti-CBD1 immune sera with a highly conserved conformational epitope could explain the broad inhibitory activity of such antipeptide antibodies against HIV-1 isolates of various clades.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 07/2006; 58(6):759-67. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Large amounts of histones, H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, were observed in total extracts of T4 lymphocytes and derived cell lines infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 or type 2. These histones were simply detectable by analysis of crude cellular extracts by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in SIDS and staining the proteins with Coomassie blue or by immunoblot assays using specific polyclonal antibodies. The histones were found to be localized in the nucleoplasm, bound to low molecular weight (LMW) DNA in the form of nucleosomes. The mechanism responsible for the accumulation of nucleosomes during HIV infection was found to be due to fragmentation of cellular DNA, a mechanism referred to as apoptosis or programmed cell death in which a nuclear endonuclease becomes activated and cleaves DNA at internucleosomal regions. Accordingly, the LMW DNA accumulated in the course of infection was found to have a characteristic pattern of nucleosomal ladder and its accumulation was reduced in the presence of zinc, a known inhibitor of the endonuclease. Routinely in acute HIV infections, the accumulation of nucleosomes was observed at least 24 hr before lysis of infected cells. In a particular HIV-1 infection, in which the first signals of the cytopathic effect (vacuolization of cells and appearance of syncytia) was observed at Days 6–7 whereas maximal virus production occurred at Days 10–17, the accumulation of nucleosomes was at its maximal level already on Day 6 postinfection. In the nucleoplasm of chronically infected cells producing virus but not manifesting a cytopathic effect, no LMW DNA or histones were detectable. These observations indicate that the cytopathic effect of HIV infection is associated with apoptosis. The detection of histones and oligonucleosomal DNA fragments in the nucleoplasm can be used as a convenient marker for chromatin fragmentation during this process.Virology.