Xueyan Duan

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (7)53.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor protein PML is aberrantly degraded in multiple types of human cancers through mechanisms that incompletely understood. Here, we show that the phosphatase SCP1 and its isoforms SCP2/3 dephosphorylate PML at S518, thereby blocking PML ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 and the ubiquitin ligase KLHL20. Clinically, SCP1 and SCP3 are downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and these events correlated with PMLS518 phosphorylation, PML turnover and high-grade tumors. Restoring SCP1-mediated PML stabilization not only inhibited malignant features of ccRCC, including proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis, but also suppressed the mTOR/HIF pathway. Further, blocking PML degradation in ccRCC by SCP1 overexpression or Pin1 inhibition enhanced the tumor suppressive effects of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway of PML degradation in ccRCC that involves SCP downregulation, revealing contributions of this pathway to ccRCC progression and offering a mechanistic rationale for combination therapies that jointly target PML degradation and mTOR inhibition for ccRCC treatment.
    Cancer research. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates a wide range of cellular responses in metazoans. A key step in the canonical BMP signaling is the phosphorylation and activation of transcription factors Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8 (collectively Smad1/5/8) by the type I BMP receptors. We previously identified PPM1A as a phosphatase towards dephosphorylation of all R-Smads, including Smad1/5/8. Here we report another nuclear phosphatase named SCP4/CTDSPL2, belonging to the FCP/SCP family, as a novel Smad phosphatase in the nucleus. SCP4 physically interacts with and specifically dephosphorylates Smad1/5/8, and as a result attenuates BMP-induced transcriptional responses. Knockdown of SCP4 in multipotent mesenchymal C2C12 cells leads to increased expression of BMP target genes and consequently promotes BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SCP4, as a Smad phosphatase, play a critical role in BMP-induced signaling and cellular functions.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-β superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins that regulate a wide array of cellular functions. The key step in BMP signal transduction is the BMP receptor-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factors Smad1, 5, and 8 (collectively Smad1/5/8), which leads to the subsequent activation of BMP-induced gene transcription in the nucleus. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of PPM1H as a novel cytoplasm-localized Smad1/5/8-specific phosphatase. PPM1H directly interacts with Smad1/5/8 through its Smad-binding domain, and dephosphorylates phospho-Smad1/5/8 (P-Smad1/5/8) in the cytoplasm. Ectopic expression of PPM1H attenuates BMP signaling, whereas loss of PPM1H activity or expression greatly enhances BMP-dependent gene regulation and mesenchymal differentiation. In conclusion, this study suggests that PPM1H acts as a gatekeeper to prevent excessive BMP signaling through dephosphorylation and subsequent nuclear exclusion of P-Smad1/5/8 proteins.Cell Research advance online publication 15 April 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.48.
    Cell Research 04/2014; · 10.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR5) mediates the inhibitory effect of somatostatin and its analogs on insulin expression/secretion and islet cell proliferation. We provide biochemical and genetic evidence that SSTR5 exerted its physiological actions via down-regulating pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), a β-cell-specific homeodomain-containing transcription factor. Cotransfection of SSTR5 with PDX-1 resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of PDX-1 expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. SSTR5 agonist RPL-1980 inhibited PDX-1 expression and abolished glucagon-like peptide 1-stimulated PDX-1 expression in mouse insulinoma β-TC-6 cells. SSTR5 knockdown by short hairpin RNA led to increased PDX-1 expression that was accompanied by enhanced insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose in β-TC6 cells and alternated expressions of cell cycle proteins that favor cell proliferation in mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that cotransfected SSTR5 inhibited PDX-1 mRNA expression, whereas knockdown of SSTR5 increased PDX-1 mRNA expression. In addition, we found that cotransfected wild-type SSTR5 increased PDX-1 ubiquitination in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, whereas SSTR5 P335L, a hypofunctional single nucleotide polymorphism of SSTR5, inhibited PDX-1 ubiquitination. SSTR5 knockout resulted in increased expression of PDX-1, insulin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the islets of sstr(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that SSTR5 P335L was associated with elevated expression of PDX-1 in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that SSTR5 is a negative regulator for PDX-1 expression and that SSTR5 may mediate the inhibitory effects of somatostatin and its analogs on insulin expression/secretion and cell proliferation via down-regulating PDX-1 at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels.
    Molecular Endocrinology 06/2012; 26(7):1225-34. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, regulation of signaling mediators/effectors in the nucleus is one of the principal mechanisms that govern duration and strength of signaling. Smads are a family of structurally related intracellular proteins that serve as signaling effectors for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and TGF-beta-related proteins. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that Smads possess intrinsic nucleocytoplasmic shuttling capacity, which enables them to transmit TGF-beta signals from cell membrane to nucleus. We recently identified two important steps in the termination of nuclear Smad signaling. The first step is initiated by a serine/threonine phosphatase PPM1A that dephosphorylates Smad2/3 in the nucleus, thereby shutting down signaling capacity of phosphorylated Smad2/3. The second step involves nuclear export of dephosphorylated Smad2/3 with the aid of nuclear protein RanBP3 to terminate Smad signaling. This chapter introduces methods for examining nuclear export of Smad2/3 in TGF-beta signaling.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 647:125-37. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted polypeptides belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily that activates a broad range of biological responses in the metazoan organism. The BMP-initiated signaling pathway is under tight control by processes including regulation of the ligands, the receptors, and the key downstream intracellular effector Smads. A critical point of control in BMP signaling is the phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 in their C-terminal SXS motif. Although such phosphorylation, which is mediated by the type I BMP receptor kinases in response to BMP stimulation, is well characterized, biochemical mechanisms underlying Smad dephosphorylation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have found that PPM1A, a metal ion-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase, physically interacts with and dephosphorylates Smad1 both in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, overexpression of PPM1A abolishes BMP-induced transcriptional responses, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PPM1A enhances BMP signaling. Collectively, our study suggests that PPM1A plays an important role in controlling BMP signaling through catalyzing Smad dephosphorylation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2007; 281(48):36526-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TGFbeta signaling controls diverse normal developmental processes and pathogenesis of diseases including cancer and autoimmune and fibrotic diseases. TGFbeta responses are generally mediated through transcriptional functions of Smads. A key step in TGFbeta signaling is ligand-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) catalyzed by the TGFbeta type I receptor kinase. However, the potential of Smad dephosphorylation as a regulatory mechanism of TGFbeta signaling and the identity of Smad-specific phosphatases remain elusive. Using a functional genomic approach, we have identified PPM1A/PP2Calpha as a bona fide Smad phosphatase. PPM1A dephosphorylates and promotes nuclear export of TGFbeta-activated Smad2/3. Ectopic expression of PPM1A abolishes TGFbeta-induced antiproliferative and transcriptional responses, whereas depletion of PPM1A enhances TGFbeta signaling in mammalian cells. Smad-antagonizing activity of PPM1A is also observed during Nodal-dependent early embryogenesis in zebrafish. This work demonstrates that PPM1A/PP2Calpha, through dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, plays a critical role in terminating TGFbeta signaling.
    Cell 07/2006; 125(5):915-28. · 31.96 Impact Factor