[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryotherapy is the therapeutic application for tissue ablation. Clinical applications of cryotherpy such as in pulmonology have increased. Until now, its development in gastroenterology has been insignificant. But, as clinical application such as mucosal ablation on Barrett's esophagus became possible, various applications have been developed. Therefore, it is important to make standards of tissue injury's extent in cryotherapy prior to clinical trial. We evaluated the tissue injury according to the application of cryoprobe with a pig model.
Cryoprobe was applied to several different segments of the esophagus and stomach for various lengths of time using various number of probe's contact in a pig model. After 48 hours, esophagus and stomach were harvested and histological tissue injury was assessed. The extent of tissue injury was decided by the injury of the deepest layer.
Endoscopic application of cryoprobe on esophagus and stomach resulted in a dose-dependent injury: esophageal necrosis was limited to the submucosa after 10 seconds of cryotherapy, and extended to involve the transmural necrosis after over 15 seconds. Necrosis on stomach was extended to involve the transmural necrosis after over 20 seconds.
Positive relationship was seen between the duration and frequency of cryoprobe application and the extent of tissue injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to measure the amount of ginsenoside content obtained from dried ginseng leaf powder treated with various enzymes, including Ultraflo L. Ultraflo L showed superior results to other enzymes and untreated ginseng leaf in catalyzing the liberation of biological compounds. The total ginsenoside content and metabolites showed the highest levels (406.1 μg/mg and 93.1 μg/mg, respectively) in ginseng leaf extract treated with Ultraflo L (UTGL). In particular, the content of ginsenoside F2 in UTGL was 8.5-fold greater compared to that found in the roots. UTGL showed significantly higher DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activities (2.77 mg/mL and 1.57 mg/mL of IC50 value, respectively) than untreated ginseng leaf. Ginseng leaf treated with Ultraflo L has advantages over untreated ginseng leaf in terms of cost and source availability. These data also suggest that the leaves and stems of ginseng may be used as food resources, functional food materials, and feedstuffs.
PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 03/2012; 47(3):538–543. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiphoton microscopy, relying on the simultaneous absorption of two or more photons by a fluorophore, has come to occupy a prominent place in modern biomedical research with its ability to allow real-time observation of a single cell and molecules in intact tissues. Multiphoton microscopy exhibits nonlinear optical contrast properties, which can make it possible to provide an exceptionally large depth penetration with less phototoxicity. This system becomes more and more an inspiring tool for a non-invasive imaging system to realize "optical biopsy" and to examine the functions of living cells. In this review, we briefly present the physical principles and properties of multiphoton microscopy as well as the current applications in biological fields. In addition, we address what we see as the future potential of multiphoton microscopy for gastroenterologic research.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2011; 17(40):4456-60. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies suggested that serum cystatin C (CysC) is more useful than serum creatinine (Cr) for the assessment of renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis. This study evaluated the clinical significance of CysC in patients with cirrhotic ascites and normal Cr level.
We enrolled patients with cirrhotic ascites and a normal serum Cr level (<1.2 mg/dL). GFR was measured by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal scan. Serum Cr, CysC, and Cr clearance (CCr) were measured on the same day. Significant renal impairment and severe renal impairment were defined as GFR <60 mL/min and GFR <30 mL/min, respectively.
Eighty-nine patients with cirrhotic ascites were enrolled in the study (63 men and 26 women; age, 55±11 years). Forty-seven (52.8%) and 42 (47.2%) patients were in Child-Pugh grade B and C, respectively. Serum Cr and CysC levels and GFR were 0.8±0.2 mg/dL, 1.1±0.3 mg/L, and 73.4±25.5 mL/min, respectively. Significant and severe renal impairment were noted in 28 (31.5%) and 2 (2.2%) patients, respectively. GFR was well correlated with serum Cr, CysC, and e-GFR(MDRD), while it was not correlated with e-GFR(C&G). In multivariate analysis, only CysC was significantly correlated with GFR (β, 45.620; 95% CI, 23.042-68.198; P<0.001). Serum CysC level was the only independent predictor for significant renal impairment.
Significant renal dysfunction was not rare in patients with cirrhotic ascites, even their serum Cr level is normal. Serum CysC is a useful marker for detecting significant renal dysfunction in these patients.
The Korean Journal of Hepatology 06/2011; 17(2):130-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is still uncertain whether the accuracy of transient elastography (TE) in predicting the fibrosis stage is similar in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The present study was carried out to evaluate whether the underlying cause of chronic viral hepatitis affects the predictive accuracy of TE.
Patients with CHB or CHC who were admitted for a liver biopsy were enrolled. Patients underwent TE and laboratory tests on the same day as the liver biopsy. The predictive accuracy was analyzed by comparing the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs).
Two-hundred and seven patients were enrolled, comprising 121 CHB patients and 86 CHC patients). The patients were aged 44 ± 14 years, and 121 (58.5%) of them were men. AUCs for predicting significant fibrosis were significantly lower in CHB patients than in CHC patients (P = 0.043). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was associated with overestimation and underestimation of the fibrosis stage, while the cause of chronic hepatitis was not. AUCs for predicting significant fibrosis were significantly lower in patients with ALT levels >70 IU/L (AUC, 0.830; 95% CI, 0.742-0.898) than in patients with ALT levels ≤70 IU/L (0.944; 0.882-0.979; P = 0.015).
Although the predictive accuracy of TE in predicting significant fibrosis differed significantly with the cause of chronic hepatitis, this difference was due to the degree of serum ALT levels rather than to the cause of hepatitis itself. Avoiding performing TE in patients with elevated ALT levels is recommended to guarantee the predictive accuracy of TE.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2011; 26(3):492-500. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), which is T helper (Th)1-cell-mediated autoimmunity to thyrocytes, is associated with increased risk of miscarriages and highly prevalent in women with infertility. We aim at investigating the prevalence of TAI in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) or unexplained infertility (UI) and its relationship with cellular and humoral immune abnormalities.
prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies, anti-nuclear antibody, other non-organ-specific antibodies (NOSAs; anti-dsDNA, anti-ssDNA, anti-histone, anti-Scl70), peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cell levels (%) and cytotoxicity, and CD3(+) /CD4(+) Th1/Th2 cell ratios were compared in women with and without TAI. Thyroid functional tests (TFT) were analyzed in both groups before and after pregnancy.
tumor necrosis factor-α/IL-10 expressing CD3(+) /CD4(+) cell ratios (P < 0.05), CD56(+) NK cell levels (P < 0.05), the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies (P < 0.05) and other NOSAs (P < 0.005) were significantly higher in women with TAI when compared to women without TAI. Changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels between before and after pregnancy in women with TAI were significantly higher when compared to those of women without TAI (P < 0.05).
TAI is associated with impaired cellular and humoral immune responses in women with RSA or UI. In women with TAI, serial TFT is recommended when pregnancy is established.
American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 01/2011; 65(1):78-87. · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the potential of Terminalia chebula as a whitening agent, we measured antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS assays and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and depigmenting activity using B16F10 melanoma cells. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was monitored by fluorescence labeling, and melanin contents in B16F10 melanoma cells by 960 dose of UVA-induced oxidative stress. The radical-scavenging activities of T. chebula extract (TCE) were measured in terms of values using DPPH, ABTS assays and FRAP value were 280.0 , 42.2 and 113.1 , respectively. We found that ROS and melanin concentrations were reduced by TCE treatments of 25 under UVA-induced oxidative stress. Tyrosinase activity and melanin contents in -melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced melanoma cells both decreased dose-dependently in the treatment groups. TCE similarly reduced melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells stimulated by -MSH as compared to arbutin as a positive control. T. chebula may prove to be a useful therapeutic agent for hyperpigmentation and an effective component in skin whitening and.or lightening cosmetics.
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science. 09/2010; 15(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aim to determine whether peripheral blood T cell activation is associated with repeated implantation failures or recurrent pregnancy losses (RPLs).
Women with a history of repeated implantation failure (n = 18) or RPLs (n = 17) comprise the study group. Normal fertile women (n = 11) are included as controls. Proportion of activated peripheral blood T cells (CD69(+), CD154(+)) and Th1/Th2 cell ratios are measured by flow cytometric analysis.
Proportions (%) of CD4(+)/154(+) of CD4(+) and CD8(+)/154(+) of CD8(+) cells were significantly higher in study group than those of controls. Proportions (%) of CD3(+)/69(+) of CD3(+) cells and CD8(+)/69(+) of CD8(+) cells were significantly increased in study group compared to controls. Proportion (%) of CD4(+)/69(+) cells significantly correlated with % CD4(+)/154(+) cells (P = 0.003). Activated cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)/154(+), CD8(+)/69(+)) inversely correlated with INF-gamma/IL-10 producing CD3(+)/4(+) T cell ratios. Proportion of activated CD3(+)/8(+)/69 and CD3(+)/8(+)/154(+) cells was inversely correlated with IFN-gamma/IL-10 expressing CD3(+)/4(+) T cell ratios.
Women with MIFs or RPLs have increased T cell activation in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and T cell suppressor activation seems to be associated with decreased Th1 immunity. Further studies on T cell activation may elucidate molecular mechanisms controlling Th1 effectors.
American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 03/2010; 63(5):370-8. · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the possible influence of G-->T substitution at the Sp1-binding site of the COLIA1 gene on the risk of pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
The study group consisted of 15 women with advanced stage POP. Fifteen control subjects with uterine myomas among the postmenopausal women were matched for age and parity. DNA was obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes. The fragments of the first intron of the COLIA1 gene were amplified by real time polymerase chain reaction. The polymorphism was identified using LightCycler Technology with hybridization probes. Sequencing reactions were performed on each template using commercial primer.
Two groups had no significant difference in medical history, surgical, and smoking history. The homozygous peaks in two groups were noted at 57 on melting curve analysis. Sequencing reactions confirmed the G/G alleles in the 30 specimens tested. We could not find any polymorphism at the Sp1-binding site in COLIA1 gene with advanced stage POP. Statistical significance was considered to be p < .05.
The polymorphism of the Sp1-binding site in the COLIA1 gene did not contribute to the development of POP in Korea.
Yonsei medical journal 08/2009; 50(4):564-8. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of anemia in the cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy is estimated to be more than 50%. Transfusion has been the mainstay of hematologic support with its inherent hazards including infection and transfusion reaction. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intravenously administered iron sucrose on the prevention of anemia in the cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
From Oct. 2003 to Dec. 2005, 75 patients were treated with platinum-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Thirty patients received 200 mg of iron sucrose intravenously (study group) and 45 patients did not receive it (control group).
In the study group, only 12 (40.0%) patients required blood transfusions, whereas 29 (64.0%) patients in the control group needed blood transfusions (P=0.04). Mean transfusion units were 1.87 units in the study group and 3.58 units in the control group (P=0.04).
This study showed that intravenous supply of iron sucrose could decrease transfusion requirement and increase serum hemoglobin level in patients with cervical carcinoma undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, intravenously administered iron sucrose would be effective in the prevention of anemia of cervical cancer patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report the enhanced performance of multi-giga bit NAND flash memory through the combined effects of uniaxial compressive stress and <100>-oriented channel engineering. Using this method, cell current increased more than 29% owing to the mobility enhancement of the narrow width (60 nm) flash cell. Reduced interface trap with the active edge of <100> channel resulted in the endurance characteristic improvement ~5%.
Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference, 2006. NMDC 2006. IEEE; 11/2006
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to compare perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) with those unaffected by GDM. A total of 1,154 twin pregnancies who delivered at Cheil General Hospital, between January 1998 and December 2002 were recruited to participate in a retrospective analysis. Out of these twin pregnancies, 37 women were had GDM. Four pregnancies exposed to GDM were excluded due to the loss of medical records; therefore 33 twin pregnancies exposed to GDM were enrolled. We matched the GDM pregnancies with pregnancies unaffected by GDM in a 1:2 ratio; therefore there were 33 GDM/66 without GDM who delivered during the study period. Our findings show that there were no significant differences including birth weight, Apgar score, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration pneumonia, transient tachypnea of new born, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and congenital anomalies. Therefore, well controlled GDM may not increase perinatal complications in twin pregnancies. Careful pregnancy management and fetal surveillance in twin pregnancies is important to decrease perinatal complications and maintain a sound pregnancy and healthy offspring.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 07/2006; 21(3):457-9. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fully integrated SONOS memory cell arrays with BT (body tied)-FinFET structure have been fabricated successfully by using manufacturable NOR flash technology. The uniformity of threshold voltage (V<sub>th</sub>) distribution of the fabricated FinFET SONOS cells is fairly better than that of conventional flash cells thanks to both the widening effective channel width of FinFET structure and negligible coupling interference of SONOS device. New two-step channel implantation process has been introduced for the compensation for the boron out-diffusion of a three-dimensional silicon fin structure. The measured FinFET SONOS cells with a two-step channel doping profile show the improved program and erase characteristics. For the improvement of program/erase and retention characteristics all together, we have investigated the modulation of erase bias condition with respect to back tunneling effect.
IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 06/2006; · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper,the operational six-transistor SRAM cell characteristic was demonstrated using body-tied triple-gate MOSFETs (bulk FinFETs). A cell size of 0.79 μm<sup>2</sup> was achieved with 90-nm node technology, using four levels of W and Al interconnects. A static noise margin of 280 mV was obtained at V<sub>CC</sub> of 1.2 V by applying bulk FinFETs, and compared with those of typical optimized control devices and nanoscale planar channel MOSFETs. The characteristics of the bulk FinFETs were compared with those of nanoscale planar channel MOSFETs, and analyzed in detail by changing nanoscale active width (or fin width). Fabrication process issues for the bulk FinFETs were explained in terms of poly-Si gate over-etching and silicidation on nanoscale fin bodies. Also, input and output characteristics of the individual and parallel arrayed transistors were shown and analyzed.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 04/2006; · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A p-channel silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) flash memory device based on bulk fin shaped field effect transistor (FinFET) structure was fabricated and characterized as a highly scalable device structure. Key process steps were explained in detail and electrical characteristics were measured. The threshold voltage shift (ΔVth) was checked in the proposed device with the source/drain floating and grounded. This result means that the proposed device structure can be applicable to NAND and NOR flash memories. In this structure, program/erase times can be controlled by fin body width, which is the unique parameter of FinFET structure. In the endurance test, about 1.3 V of the ΔVth was kept until 104 P/E cycles. The ΔVth of the proposed flash memory device was extrapolated to about 0.5 V after 10 y retention. The ΔVth with crystal orientation of the side-channel also was checked.
Journal of vacuum science & technology. B, Microelectronics and nanometer structures: processing, measurement, and phenomena: an official journal of the American Vacuum Society 01/2006; 24(3). · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a 2-bit/cell SONOS memory transistor and investigate its scalability and reliability beyond 50nm NVM technology. This new memory, which is implemented by the damascene gate and our newly developed outer sidewall spacer processes, shows not only stable 2-bit operation but also high reliabilities (>10<sup>5</sup> endurance and good retention at 150°C) down to 80nm gate length that applies to next-generation NVM technology. In addition, dimensional effect (the lateral distance between two storage nodes) on the memory operation is reported to estimate the ultimate scaling limit of 2-bit/cell SONOS memory transistor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report for the first time on 256Mb NOR-type body tied FinFET flash memory using Hf silicate IPD (inter poly dielectric) and compare with FinFET flash memory using traditional ONO IPD. An enlarged coupling ratio through Hf silicate IPD enhanced a CHEI (channel hot electron injection) programming speed and made the operation voltage down. And we could obtain a higher erasing speed resulted from HHI (hot hole injection) erase than that of F-N tunneling without degrading endurance characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate a 5nm width body-tied CMOS finFET on bulk Si for the first time. Also the threshold voltage control of the 5nm finFET is shown by using channel and pocket doping profile optimization along the narrow active fin. The excellent performance of finFET such as an excellent subthreshold swing (SS), and drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) characteristics were found. And the systemic analyses of electrical characteristics dependencies on the fin width were evaluated for various fin width (5 ∼ 100nm).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 3D MOSFET have been recognized as the main technology to substitute planar MOSFET beyond 50 nm. The development of various test structures is required to evaluate the characteristics of the new dimension. FinFET having 0, 45° rotated active directions from flat zone were evaluated, because those are critical for Si orientation of surface channel on the fin. In this paper, the performance and the reliability evaluation of 3D FinFET were performed by using two different test structures. The body tied FinFET having two different rotation angles θ=0, 45° were designed. The "θ" indicates the angle between the channel direction of the FinFET and the <110> flat zone. The electrical characteristics and reliability of the FinFET θ(45°) were measured and compared to those of the FinFET θ(0°).
Microelectronic Test Structures, 2005. ICMTS 2005. Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on; 05/2005