Xiangrong Liu

Fudan University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (21)77.29 Total impact

  • Haiping Zhao · Rongliang Wang · Zhen Tao · Feng Yan · Xiangrong Liu · Liu Ping · Xunming Ji · Yumin Luo ·

  • Ziping Han · Xiangrong Liu · Yumin Luo · Xunming Ji ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is the only proven and effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke; however, therapeutic hypothermia is increasingly recognized as having a tissue-protective function and positively influencing neurological outcome, especially in cases of ischemia caused by cardiac arrest or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. Yet, many aspects of hypothermia as a treatment for ischemic stroke remain unknown. Large-scale studies examining the effects of hypothermia on stroke are currently underway. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying the effect of hypothermia, as well as trends in hypothermia induction methods, methods for achieving optimal protection, side effects, and therapeutic strategies combining hypothermia with other neuroprotective treatments. Finally, outstanding issues that must be addressed before hypothermia treatment is implemented at a clinical level are also presented. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.06.006 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Local infusion of low dose erythropoietin (EPO) alleviates cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. The present study investigated the effect of low dose EPO treatment on I/R-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in brain tissue and isolated microvessels in rodents. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h ischemia/24 h reperfusion by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, then administered fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled EPO via MCA infusion (MCAI) or subcutaneous injection (SI) to compare the efficiency of two modes of delivery. Neurobehavioral deficits and infarct volume, and the expression of ER stress-associated proteins and apoptosis in brain tissue or isolated microvessels, as well as the transcriptional activity of 16 factors involved in ER stress and the unfolded protein response in brain tissue was asscessed. A higher EPO level in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue was observed in rats treated with EPO by MCAI (800 IU/kg) than by SI (5000 IU/kg). Moreover, neurobehavioral deficits and infarct volume were reduced in rats treated with EPO by MCAI and salubrinal. EPO suppressed the expression of ER stress signals glucose-regulated protein 78, activating transcription factor (ATF) 6α, and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), as well as that of the pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3 in brain microvessels, and decreased the number of CHOP-positive, apoptotic neurons. EPO treatment also reduced the transcriptional activities of CHOP, forkhead box protein O1, and ATF4. These results provide evidence that low dose EPO treatment via MCAI provides neuroprotection following acute ischemic stroke by inhibiting the ER stress response.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 01/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1007/s11481-014-9571-z · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that the microRNA miR-424 protects against permanent cerebral ischemic injury in mice by suppressing microglia activation. This study investigated the role of miR-424 in transient cerebral ischemia in mice with a focus on oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury. Transient cerebral ischemia was induced in C57/BL6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hour followed by reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion). The miR-424 level in the peri-infarct cortex was quantified. Mice were also administered miR-424 angomir by intracerebroventricular injection. Cerebral infarct volume, neuronal apoptosis, and levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were evaluated. In an in vitro experiment, primary cortical neurons were exposed to H2O2 and treated with miR-424 angomir, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 siRNA, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor; cell activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, malondialdehyde level, and manganese (Mn)SOD activity were then evaluated. MiR-424 levels in the peri-infarct cortex increased at 1 and 4 hours then decreased 24 hours after reperfusion. Treatment with miR-424 decreased infarct volume and inhibited neuronal apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion, reduced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels in the cortex, and increased the expression and activation of MnSOD as well as the expression of extracellular SOD and the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor. In neuronal cultures, miR-424 treatment abrogated H2O2-induced injury, as evidenced by decreased lactate dehydrogenase leakage and malondialdehyde level and increased cell viability and MnSOD activity; the protective effects of miR-424 against oxidative stress were reversed by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor knockdown and SOD inhibitor treatment. MiR-424 protects against transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting oxidative stress. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 12/2014; 46(2). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007482 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Intra-artery infusion of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has recently been reported to confer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in animal models; however, the molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. The present study focused on the specific mechanism involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Methods: Thirty-six male and nine female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion to induce focal cerebral ischemia, and administrated rhEPO at a dose of 800 U/kg through MCA infusion at the beginning of reperfusion. Neurobehavioral deficits, brain edema, and infarct volume were evaluated after 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. BBB permeability was assessed by quantifying the extravasation of Evans blue (EB) dye. The expression of tight junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (Claudin-5, Occludin, MMP-2, and MMP-9) in microvessels were detected by immunofluorescence and western blot. The activities of MMPs in the cerebral microvessels were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Treatment with rhEPO through the MCA strongly alleviated infarct volume, brain edema, and improved neurobehavioral outcomes in male and female rats. In addition, rhEPO remarkably suppressed the EB extravasation induced by brain ischemia. Furthermore, rhEPO prevented degradation of Claudin-5 and Occludin, and reduced the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in isolated brain microvessels. Conclusions: Treatment with rhEPO through MCA infusion prevented brain edema formation and infarction through inhibition of MMP-mediated BBB disruption in acute ischemic stroke.
    International Journal of Neuroscience 09/2014; 125(9):1-27. DOI:10.3109/00207454.2014.966354 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) has been proved to protect the brain from stroke, but the precise mechanism remains not fully understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether RIPostC attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. CHOP, a multifunctional transcription factor in ER stress, regulates the expression of genes related to apoptosis, such as Bim and Bcl-2. Male SD rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion, and RIPostC was induced by three cycles of 10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion on bilateral femoral arteries immediately after ischemia. CHOP siRNA (CHOPi) and control siRNA (Coni) were injected into the right lateral ventricle 30 min before the beginning of ischemia. RIPostC, CHOPi, or RIPostC + CHOPi application reduced infarct volume, improved the neurological function, and decreased cell apoptosis. RIPostC increased the protein level of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and decreased the protein level of phosphorylated-EIF2α, caspase-12, and CHOP. Furthermore, the expression of CHOP, Bim and cleaved-caspase-3 was decreased, while Bcl-2 expression was increased in response to application of RIPostC, CHOPi, or RIPostC + CHOPi. In sum, RIPostC protects against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury in rats by attenuating ER stress response-induced apoptosis.
    Translational Stroke Research 07/2014; 5(6). DOI:10.1007/s12975-014-0359-5 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Haiping Zhao · Rongliang Wang · Zhen Tao · Li Gao · Feng Yan · Zhi Gao · Xiangrong Liu · Xunming Ji · Yumin Luo ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects against ischemic brain injury. To date, no study has examined the role of T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) in IPostC-afforded neuroprotection. We explored the molecular mechanism related with TOPK in antioxidant effect of IPostC against ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: Focal ischemia was induced in rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Reactive oxygen species production in the peri-infarct cortex was detected using dihydroethidium. Malondialdehyde, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and 3-nitrotyrosine, as a marker of protein oxidation, were detected by ELISA. The expression or location of antioxidant proteins and signal molecules TOPK, phosphatase, and tensin homolog, and Akt was analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Results: Our results revealed that IPostC relieved transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced oxidative damage by reducing reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and 3-nitrotyrosine accumulation in the peri-infarct cortex and raised levels of antioxidants perioxiredoxin-1, peroxiredoxin-2, and thioredoxin-1. In addition, IPostC increased p-AKT and p-TOPK levels, which colocalized in neural cells. In vitro TOPK knockdown by small interfering RNA decreased the levels of antioxidants peroxiredoxin-1, thioredoxin, and manganese superoxide dismutase activity in PC12 cells. In vivo intracerebroventricular injection of TOPK small interfering RNA reversed IPostC-induced neuroprotection by increasing infarct volume and nitric oxide content and reducing manganese superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, IPostC-evoked Akt activation was blocked by TOPK small interfering RNA in vivo, but the decreased phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog level in ischemia/reperfusion was not influenced by IPostC or by TOPK small interfering RNA treatment. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the antioxidative effects of TOPK/Akt might contribute to the neuroprotection of IPostC treatment against transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.
    Stroke 07/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006135 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), a MAPKK-like kinase, is crucial for neural progenitor cell proliferation; however, the function of TOPK and the molecular mechanism underlying cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of TOPK in experimental stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion, and TOPK siRNA was delivered by intracerebroventricular injection at the beginning of MCAO. After TOPK overexpression and H2O2 stimulation in PC12 neuronal cells, anti-oxidative proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, and signal pathways were detected by western blot analysis, the levels of the peroxidation products (MDA and 3-Nitrotyrosine) were measured with ELISA. Phosphorylation of TOPK was increased in rat cortical neurons following transient MCAO. TOPK overexpression in PC12 cells augmented levels of anti-oxidative proteins (peroxiredoxin 1 [Prx-1], Prx-2, heme oxygenase 1 [HO-1] and MnSOD), as well as activity of total SOD, along with inhibition of MDA and 3-nitrotyrosine upon H2O2 stimulation. TOPK overexpression increased cell viability and reduced expression of caspase-3 and caspase-12 in PC12 cells in response to H2O2. The p-ERK level was increased by TOPK overexpression, and anti-oxidative protection afforded by TOPK was abolished by blocking the ERK pathway in PC12 cells. TOPK siRNA increased the infarct volume and reduced total SOD activity in the cortex in vivo after MCAO. Conclusions: These data reveal that activating TOPK confers neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by anti-oxidative function, in part through activation of the ERK pathway.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 07/2014; 281(19). DOI:10.1111/febs.12948 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our recent research revealed that adoptively transferred regulatory T cells (Tregs) reduced acute ischemic brain injury by inhibiting neutrophil-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and protecting against blood-brain barrier damage. The mechanisms underlying Treg interactions with neutrophils remain elusive. This study evaluates the contribution of program death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1) to Treg-mediated neutrophil inhibition and neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia. In vitro experiments were performed using a transwell system or a coculture system allowing cell-to-cell contact. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice for 60 minutes. Tregs (2×10(6)) isolated from donor animals (wild-type or PD-L1(-/-)) were intravenously injected into ischemic recipients 2 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MMP-9 production, blood-brain barrier permeability, and brain infarct were assessed at 1 or 3 days after MCAO. In vitro experiments reveal that Treg-mediated inhibition of neutrophil MMP-9 required direct cell-to-cell contact. The suppression of MMP-9 was abolished when Tregs were pretreated with PD-L1 neutralizing antibodies or when neutrophils were pretreated with PD-1 antibodies. In vivo studies confirmed that intravenous administration of Tregs pretreated with PD-L1 antibodies or Tregs isolated from PD-L1-deficient mice failed to inhibit MMP-9 production by blood neutrophils 1 day after 60 minutes MCAO. Furthermore, the blood-brain barrier damage after MCAO was greatly ameliorated in PD-L1-competent Treg-treated mice but not in PD-L1-compromised Treg-treated mice. Consequently, PD-L1 dysfunction abolished Treg-mediated brain protection and neurological improvements 3 days after MCAO. PD-L1 plays an essential role in the neuroprotection afforded by Tregs against cerebral ischemia by mediating the suppressive effect of Tregs on neutrophil-derived MMP-9.
    Stroke 02/2014; 45(3). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.004100 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To compare the neuroprotection of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO fusion protein containing transduction domain derived from HIV TAT (EPO-TAT) against ischemic brain injury, inclusive of the side effect, and explore the mechanism underlying the role of EPO-TAT in a transient focal cerebral ischemia model in rats. Methods: Transient focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Rats were treated, respectively, with following regimens: saline, 1000 U/kg EPO, 5000 U/kg EPO, 1000 U/kg EPO-TAT, 1000 U/kg EPOTAT+5 µl of 10 mM LY294002 (or/plus 5 µl of 5 mM PD98059). Neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, and hematologic side effect were assessed at 72 hours after MCAO. Apoptotic cells were determined with TUNEL staining. The expression and localization of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were detected with Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence, respectively. Results: 1000 U/kg EPO-TAT exhibited a comparable neuroprotection to 5000 U/kg EPO, as evidenced by a comparable attenuation in neurological deficit, infarct volume, and number of apoptotic cells in the rat ischemic cortex after MCAO. The pAKT and pERK levels were significantly elevated solely in neurons of rodents receiving EPO or EPO-TAT treatments, suggesting the concurrent activation of these two pathways. Specific inhibition of either AKT or ERK pathway partially abolished EPO-TAT protection, but exhibited no influence on the activation status of its counterpart, suggesting no cross-modulation between these two protective pathways. Conclusion: Our study indicates that EPO-TAT at 1000 U/kg displays neuroprotection with no detectable side effects. The mechanism for neuroprotection may be attributable to the simultaneous activation of the AKT and ERK pathways, which preserve neuronal cell viability and attenuate behavioral deficits.
    CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 08/2013; 13(8). DOI:10.2174/18715273113129990108 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: p53-mediated neuronal death is a central pathway of stroke pathophysiology, but its mechanistic details remain unclear. Here, we identified a novel microRNA mechanism that downregulation of inhibitory member of the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 family (iASPP) by the brain-specific microRNA-124 (miR-124) promotes neuronal death after cerebral ischemia. Methods: In a mouse model of focal permanent cerebral ischemia, the expression of iASPP and miR-124 was quantified by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was used to validate whether miR-124 can directly bind to the 3'-untranslated region of iASPP mRNA. To evaluate the role of miR-124, miR-124 mimic and its inhibitor were transfected into Neuro-2a cells and C57 mice. Results: There was no change in the iASPP mRNA level in cerebral ischemia. However, iASPP protein was remarkably decreased, with a concurrent elevation in miR-124 level. Furthermore, miR-124 can bind to the 3'-untranslated region of iASPP in 293T cells and downregulate its protein levels in Neuro-2a cells. In vivo, infusion of miR-124 decreased brain levels of iASPP, whereas inhibition of miR-124 enhanced iASPP levels and significantly reduced infarction in mouse focal cerebral ischemia. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that p53-mediated neuronal cell death after stroke can be nontranscriptionally regulated by a novel mechanism involving suppression of endogenous cell death inhibitors by miR-124. Further dissection of microRNA regulatory mechanisms may lead to new therapeutic opportunities for preventing neuronal death after stroke.
    Stroke 05/2013; 44(7). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000613 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: We observed that microRNA-424 (miR-424) significantly decreased in an miRNA profile of circulating lymphocytes of patients with ischemic stroke. The present study focused on the potential and mechanism of miR-424 in protecting ischemic brain injury in mice. Methods: Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in C57/BL6 mice. Cerebral infarction volume, neuronal apoptosis, and microglia activation were determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. BV2 microglial cell activity, cell cycle, mRNA, and protein levels of miR-424 targets were accessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot, respectively. Results: MiR-424 levels were decreased in the plasma of patients with acute ischemic stroke, as well as in mouse plasma and ipsilateral brain tissue at 4, 8, and 24 hours after ischemia, likewise, in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia, respectively, after 8-hour ischemia. Interestingly, pre- and post-treatment with overexpression of miR-424 both decreased cerebral infarction size and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Meanwhile, lentiviral overexpression of miR-424 inhibited neuronal apoptosis and microglia activation, including suppressing ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 immunoreactivity and protein level, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-α production. In vitro study demonstrated that miR-424 mimics caused G1 phase cell-cycle arrest, inhibited BV2 microglia activity, and reduced the mRNA and protein levels of CDC25A, cyclin D1, and CDK6 in BV2 microglial cells, which were upregulated in brain of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice. Conclusions: MiR-424 overexpression lessened the ischemic brain injury through suppressing microglia activation by translational depression of key activators of G1/S transition, suggesting a novel miR-based intervention strategy for stroke.
    Stroke 04/2013; 44(6). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000504 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal cell cycle re-entry is pro-apoptotic. The neuroprotective effects and anti-apoptosis of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) are well established but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. We explored this critical gap in the present study by genomic comparison of ischemic rat cortex following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) alone and tMCAO+IPostC. The gene expression profiles of ipsilateral cortices were subjected to microarray analysis. RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence were subsequently used to quantify or localize the cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), positive and negative cell cycle regulators, and related signaling molecules. Microarray analysis revealed that tMCAO-induced transcriptional changes in 40 cell cycle regulators were ameliorated by IPostC, suggesting that IPostC reversed neuronal cell cycle re-entry. IPostC reversed the rise in mRNA levels of positive cell cycle regulators ccnb1, cdk1, cdca2, cdca3, and cdca7. Elevations in cyclin D1 and neuronal cyclin A2 were similarly inhibited as well. tMCAO-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β), and cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) were also all depressed by IPostC. Furthermore, p-ERK colocalized with neuronal cyclin A2. The present study demonstrates the potent inhibitory effect of IPostC treatment on tMCAO-induced cell-cycle reentry and on ERK/CREB and GSK-3β/CREB signaling. Because neuronal cell cycle re-entry is pro-apoptotic, these findings lend insight into potential mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of IPostC.
    CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 02/2013; 12(3). DOI:10.2174/1871527311312030008 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Ischemic/reperfusion neuronal injury is characterized by accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage, which can trigger cell death by various signaling pathways. Two of these modes of death include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1-mediated death or p53- and Bax-mediated apoptosis. The present study tested the hypothesis that peroxiredoxin 2 (PRX2) attenuates DNA damage-mediated prodeath signaling using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic injury. The impact of this peroxide scavenger on p53- and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1-mediated ischemic death is unknown. Methods: Neuronal PRX2 overexpression in primary cortical cultures and transgenic mice was combined with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitor AG14361. AG14361 was also applied to p53 and Bax knockout cultures and mice and combined with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. DCF fluorescence, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, single-strand breaks, Comet tail-length, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, and viability were assessed in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultures or transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Results: PRX2 attenuated reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, and cell death. PRX2 knockdown exacerbated neuronal death after oxygen and glucose deprivation. PRX2 ameliorated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, p53, Bax, and caspase activation after ischemia. AG14361 reduced ischemic cell death in wild-type and p53 or Bax knockout cultures and animals but had no additional effect in PRX2-overexpressing mice. AG14361 and p53 knockout elicited additive effects with SP600125 on viability in vitro. Our findings support the existence of multiple parallel prodeath pathways with some crosstalk. Conclusions: The promising therapeutic candidate PRX2 can clamp upstream DNA damage and efficiently inhibit multiple prodeath cascades operating in both parallel and interactive fashions.
    Stroke 02/2013; 44(4). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.680157 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stress-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a central regulator in neuronal death cascades. In animal models of cerebral ischemia, acute inhibition of JNK reduces infarction and improves outcomes. Recently however, emerging data suggest that many neuronal death mediators may have biphasic properties-deleterious in the acute stage but potentially beneficial in the delayed stage. Here, we hypothesized that JNK may also have biphasic actions, so some caution may be required in the development of JNK inhibitors for stroke. Sprague Dawley rats underwent 90 min transient occlusions of the middle cerebral artery. Acute treatment (10 min poststroke) with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced infarction volumes. In contrast, delayed treatment (7 d poststroke) worsened infarction volumes and neurological outcomes. Immunostaining of peri-infarct cortex showed that JNK inhibition suppressed surrogate markers of neurovascular remodeling, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 in GFAP-positive astrocytes and microvascular density. Consistent with these in vivo data, SP600125 significantly suppressed in vitro angiogenesis in rat brain endothelial cultures. Our data provide initial proof-of-concept that the neuronal death target JNK may also participate in endogenous processes of neurovascular remodeling and recovery after cerebral ischemia.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 06/2012; 32(24):8112-5. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0219-12.2012 · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Shangfeng Zhao · Jidi Fu · Xiangrong Liu · Tony Wang · Jialiang Zhang · Yuanli Zhao ·
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell death is an important factor influencing the prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Akt/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling plays a critical role in the apoptosis of neurons in several models of neurodegeneration. The goal of this study was to determine if the mechanism of cell survival mediated by the Akt/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin pathway is involved in a rat model of TBI. TBI was performed by a controlled cortical impact device. Expression of Akt, phospho-Akt, GSK-3beta, phospho-GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, phospho-beta-catenin were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Double immunofluorenscent staining was used to observe the neuronal expression of the aforementioned subtrates. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed to identify apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that phospho-Akt significantly increased at 4 hours post-TBI, but decreased after 72 hours post-TBI. Phospho-GSK-3beta - phosphorylated by phospho-Akt - slightly increased at 4 hours post-TBI and peaked at 72 hours post-TBI. These changes in Phospho-GSK-3beta expression were accompanied by a marked increase in expression of phospho-beta-catenin at 4 hours post-TBI which was sustained until 7 days post-TBI. Double staining of phospho-Akt and NeuN revealed the colocalization of phospho-Akt positive cells and neuronal cells. In addition, double staining of phospho-Akt and TUNEL showed no colocalization of phospho-Akt cells and TUNEL-positive cells. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and GSK3beta (Ser9) was accelerated in the injured cortex, and involved in the neuronal survival after TBI. Moreover, neuroprotection of beta-catenin against ischemia was partly mediated by enhanced and persistent activation of the Akt/GSK3beta signaling pathway.
    Neurological Research 05/2012; 34(4):400-7. DOI:10.1179/1743132812Y.0000000025 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Ying Zhang · Xiangrong Liu · Feng Yan · Lianqiu Min · Xunming Ji · Yumin Luo ·
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    ABSTRACT: Three cycles of remote ischemic pre-conditioning induced by temporarily occluding the bilateral femoral arteries (10 minutes) prior to 10 minutes of reperfusion were given once a day for 3 days before the animal received middle artery occlusion and reperfusion surgery. The results showed that brain infarct volume was significantly reduced after remote ischemic pre-conditioning. Scores in the forelimb placing test and the postural reflex test were significantly lower in rats having undergone remote ischemic pre-conditioning compared with those who did not receive remote ischemic pre-conditioning. Thus, neurological function was better in rats having undergone remote ischemic pre-conditioning compared with those who did not receive remote ischemic pre-conditioning. These results indicate that remote ischemic pre-conditioning in rat hindlimb exerts protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    Neural Regeneration Research 03/2012; 7(8):583-7. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.00.004 · 0.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) are a newly characterized family of peroxide scavenging enzymes that not only help maintain cellular redox homeostasis but also may directly engage in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. PRX2 is a neuronal-specific PRX believed to participate in cerebral antioxidant responses in several neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the potential neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanism of PRX2 in models of ischemic neuronal injury. Transgenic mice overexpressing PRX2 showed reduced brain injury and improved neurological recovery up to 3 weeks after transient focal cerebral ischemia compared to wild-type littermates. In primary cultures of cortical neurons, transfection of PRX2 but not the loss-of-catalytic-site PRX2 mutant conferred neuroprotection against cell death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. PRX2 exhibited potent pro-survival effects in ischemic neurons by maintaining thioredoxin (Trx) in its reduced state, thereby preventing oxidative stress-mediated activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and the downstream MKK/JNK pro-death signaling pathway. PRX2 failed to provide additional neuroprotection against ischemic injury in Trx- or ASK1-knockdown neuron cultures and in mice treated with a JNK inhibitor. This study provides evidence that neuronal overexpression of PRX2 confers prolonged neuroprotection against ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. Moreover, the results suggest a signaling pathway by which PRX2 suppresses ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis. Enhanced neuronal expression and activity of PRX2 protect against ischemic neuronal injury by directly modulating the redox-sensitive Trx-ASK1 signaling complex.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 02/2012; 17(5):719-32. DOI:10.1089/ars.2011.4298 · 7.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While recent studies suggest that remote ischemic postconditioning (RIP) therapy may be of benefit to patients with acute ischemic stroke, RIP's effects on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) still remains unclear. In the present study, the use of RIP in a rat model ICH was investigated to elucidate any potential beneficial or detrimental effects as determined by motor testing, blood brain barrier integrity, and brain water content, as well as aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. ICH was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats and they were randomized into either a control (n = 24) or RIP treatment (n = 24) group. RIP was performed by repetitive, brief occlusion and release of the bilateral femoral arteries. Functional outcome in each group was assessed by neurologic deficits on vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing test and a 12-point outcome scale. At 72 hours, brain blood volume, water content, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and protein expression of AQP-4 and MMP-9 were determined. This collagenase model yielded well-defined striatal hematomas. Vibrissae-elicited forelimb placement was significantly (P<0·01) affected by ICH. However, there was no significant difference between the RIP and control groups at either 24 or 72 hours. A 12-point neurological deficit score also failed to differentiate between the RIP and control. There were no significant differences between the two groups in cerebral blood volumes, brain water content, Evans blue extravasations, and expressions of AQP-4 and MMP-9. Although RIP did not show a beneficial effect in our ICH model, treatment with RIP did not exacerbate ICH.
    Neurological Research 01/2012; 34(2):143-8. DOI:10.1179/1743132811Y.0000000073 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Sha Dang · Xiangrong Liu · Paul Fu · Wei Gong · Feng Yan · Pingxin Han · Yuchuan Ding · Xunming Ji · Yumin Luo ·
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    ABSTRACT: The neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin has been demonstrated by ischemia and reperfusion models in adult and neonatal rodents. However, administration of high-dose erythropoietin has potential complications. The goal of this study was to determine whether local infusion of low dose erythropoietin offers neuroprotective effects after ischemia and reperfusion injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats subject to middle cerebral artery occlusion were randomly divided into three groups: (1) sham group: the rats received the same procedure as the other two groups except that no suture was inserted; (2) vehicle group: intra-artery local infusion of saline was administered via middle cerebral artery after reperfusion; and (3) treatment group: 50 U/kg intra-artery local infusion of erythropoietin was administered via middle cerebral artery after reperfusion. Neurological deficit scores and infarct volume (determined by hematoxylin-eosin staining) were evaluated 48 hours after reperfusion. Apoptosis was measured through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase were investigated by immunohistochemistry method. The results show that intra-artery local infusion of erythropoietin, via the middle cerebral artery, significantly reduced neurological deficit scores, foot fault number, and the infarct volume at 48 hours after reperfusion. Significant reductions were also found in the number of positive cells stained by TUNEL assay within the ischemic core and penumbra. Furthermore, local infusion of erythropoietin increased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Local infusion of low-dose erythropoietin via the middle cerebral artery is shown to be neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. The mechanism of neuroprotection may be associated with the increased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor.
    Neurological Research 06/2011; 33(5):520-8. DOI:10.1179/016164111X13007856084287 · 1.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

196 Citations
77.29 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Fudan University
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2012-2014
    • Capital Medical University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2010-2012
    • Xuanwu hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China