Ming-Chun Lu

Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (84)199.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this study, phosphate was removed from aqueous solution and recovered as struvite (MAP, MgNH4PO4·6H2O) by fluidized-bed crystallization (FBC) process. The effects of influent pH and Mg/P molar ratio on MAP crystallization were investigated. Thermal analysis and characterization of the MAP crystals collected from the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were performed. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the MAP decomposition reaction were determined using the Coats–Redfern method. Experimental results show that the total concentration of phosphate in the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) increased with influent pH and Mg/P molar ratio. Thermal analysis of MAP decomposition at different temperatures revealed two distinct stages: (1) removal of H2O from the crystal surface and (2) removal of NH3. H2O and NH3 removal were highly endothermic, non-spontaneous and thermodynamically unstable. Low pH and high Mg/P ratio favored the production of more stable MAP crystals. The FT-IR and XRD results verified the formation of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MgHPO4) by the evolution of ammonium from MAP at temperatures between 200 and 500 °C, and its further conversion to magnesium phosphate oxide (Mg2P2O7) at temperatures greater than 800 °C.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 09/2014; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the target compound is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used as a photoresist stripping solvent in the semiconductor and thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing processes. The effects of the operating parameters (pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations) on the degradation of DMSO in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were examined. This study used the Box-Behnken design (BBD) to investigate the optimum conditions of DMSO degradation. The highest DMSO removal was 98 % for pH 3, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 12. At pH 2 and 4, the highest DMSO removal was 82 %, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 6.5. The correlation of DMSO removal showed that the effect of the parameters on DMSO removal followed the order Fe(2+) > H2O2 > pH. From the BBD prediction, the optimum conditions were pH 3, 5 mM of Fe(2+), and 60 mM of H2O2. The difference between the experimental value (98 %) and the predicted value (96 %) was not significant. The removal efficiencies of DMSO, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and iron in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were higher than those in the traditional Fenton process.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2014; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, a novel photocatalyst K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 synthesized via a simple sol-gel method was utilized to degrade acetaminophen (ACT) under visible light with the use of blue and green LED lights. Parameters (medium pH, initial concentration of reactant, catalyst concentration, temperature, and number of blue LED lights) affecting photocatalytic degradation of ACT were also investigated. The experimental result showed that compared to commercially available Degussa P-25 (DP-25) photocatalyst, K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 gave higher degradation efficiency and rate constant (kapp) of ACT. The degradation efficiency or kapp decreased with increasing initial ACT concentration and temperature, but increased with increased number of blue LED lamps. Additionally, kapp increased as initial pH was increased from 5.6 to 6.9, but decreased at a high alkaline condition (pH 8.3). Furthermore, the degradation efficiency and kapp of ACT increased as K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 loading was increased to 1 g L(-1) but decreased and eventually leveled off at photocatalyst loading above this value. Photocatalytic degradation of ACT in K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 catalyst system follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation was also satisfactorily used to model the degradation of ACT in K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 catalyst system indicated by a satisfactory linear correlation between 1/kapp and Co, with kini = 6.54 × 10(-4) mM/min and KACT = 17.27 mM(-1).
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 07/2014; 49(8):892-899. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) in water, sediment, and fish muscle samples taken from Kaohsiung Harbor and Kaoping River estuary, Taiwan. TBT concentrations in water and sediment samples ranged from less than 18.5 to 34.1 ng Sn L(-1) and from 2.44 to 29.7 ng Sn g(-1) weight per weight (w/w), respectively. Concentrations in the TBT-contaminated fish muscle samples ranged from 10.8 to 79.6 ng Sn g(-1) w/w. The TBT concentrations in fish muscle were higher than those in water and sediment samples. The fish muscle/water TBT bioconcentration factor (BCF) ranged from 590 to 3363 L kg(-1). Additionally, the water samples were assessed for androgenic activity with an MCF7-AR1 human breast cancer cell line. The androgenic activity ranged from 0.94 to 3.1 ng-dihydrotestosterone per litre water (ng-DHT L(-1)). Higher concentrations of TBT in water and sediment samples occurred in the dry season, but the androgenic activity had higher values in the rainy season.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 06/2014; 49(6):432-8. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Struvite crystallization has been widely studied for phosphate removal and recovery from aqueous systems. In this study, struvite crystallization was carried out in a fluidized-bed reactor. Multivariate optimization was conducted using Box–Behnken design (BBD) with influent pH, influent phosphate concentration, and Mg/P molar ratio as independent variables. The output variables comprised total and dissolved phosphate concentrations, ammonium and magnesium concentrations, and fines concentrations. Experimental values of the total phosphate and dissolved phosphate concentrations ranged from 25.6 to 109.4 mg/L and from 7.6 to 39.3 mg/L, respectively, while the fines concentration varied from 5.2 to 101.6 mg/L. Quadratic mathematical models describing the response behavior of experimental BBD data were generated for total phosphate, dissolved phosphate, and fines concentration. The model p-values ( <0.0001) were significant and their lack-of-fit p-values ( >0.05) were insignificant. Numerical optimization of process parameters was conducted to minimize total and dissolved phosphate, ammonium and magnesium concentrations, and fines concentration in the effluent. At influent phosphate concentration of 300 mg/L, the results converged to a set of operating conditions: pH 9.5 and Mg/P = 1.3. The close agreement between the data from the validation experiment and the model-predicted values (relative error < 10%) indicates the robustness of the models.
    Desalination and water treatment 05/2014; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of influent pH, the magnesium:phosphate (Mg:P) molar ratio, seed type and inorganic ions (F−, SO42- and NO3-) on phosphate removal were investigated in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR). Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the products collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that pH and the Mg:P molar ratio played significant roles in phosphate removal. Increasing the influent solution pH from 10 to 12 increased the final phosphate removal from 55% to around 100%. At influent solution pH of 8, increasing the Mg:P molar ratio from 1 to 1.5, and 2 raised the phosphate removal as well to 17%, 28% and 34%, respectively. The seed used and its presence had an effect on the initial phosphate removal rate. Phosphate removal efficiencies were 86%, 88% and 93% for the unseeded FBR, the FBR seeded with calcium phosphate and the FBR seeded with magnesium phosphate, respectively. The inorganic ions in simulated thin film transistors-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater did not significantly impact the phosphate removal. The XRD analysis confirmed that several magnesium phosphate species formed in all FBR experiments.
    Separation and Purification Technology 04/2014; 125:90–96. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of important parameters, Fe2+, H2O2 and initial acetaminophen concentrations, on the initial rate and efficiency of ACT degradation in the electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes were investigated. The effect of organic acids on the degradation of ACT molecules was also studied. Experimental results show that the initial rate and removal efficiency of ACT in the EF and PEF processes varied insignificantly with Fe2+ concentration. The initial rate and removal efficiency of ACT in the PEF process were higher than those in the EF process. At a high initial ACT concentration, the initial rate of ACT degradation in the EF process was lower than that in the PEF process. Acetic acid improved ACT degradation efficiency while malonic and oxalic acids reduced it. Oxalic acid exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect, reducing ACT degradation efficiency by 18%. In the presence of oxalic acid in solution, EF yielded a degradation efficiency of 79%, which should be compared to efficiencies of 9% and 3%, for the fluidized-bed and conventional Fenton processes, respectively, showing that the EF process involves beneficial Fe2+ regeneration.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 03/2014; 45(2):565–570. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of process conditions, including upward velocity inside the column, the amount of added seed and seed size, the pH value of the precipitant or the phosphate stream and the Ba/P molar ratio in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were studied with a view to producing BaHPO4 crystals of significant size and maximize the removal of barium. XRD were used to identify the products that were collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that an upward velocity of 48cmmin(-1) produced the largest BaHPO4 crystals with a size of around 0.84-1.0mm. The addition of seed crystals has no effect on barium removal. The use of a seed of a size in the ranges unseeded<0.149-0.29mm<0.149mm<0.29-0.42mm produced increasing amounts of increasingly large crystals. The largest BaHPO4 crystals were obtained at pH 8.4-8.8 with a Ba/P molar ratio of 1.0. In the homogeneous and heterogeneous processes, around 98% of barium was removed at pH 8.4-8.6 and [Ba]/[P]=1.0. The XRD results show that a significant amount of barium phosphate (Ba3(PO4)2) was obtained at pH 11. The compounds BaHPO4 and BaO were present at a pH of below 10.
    Chemosphere 01/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses,
    International Journal of Green Energy 01/2014; 11(8):833-848. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effects of the Fe2+ concentration and synthetic iron oxide catalysts on o-toluidine degradation using a fluidized-bed Fenton process. The mineralization ofo-toluidine in the synthetic catalyst system is also examined. The H3.5 and H7.3 Fe/SiO2 and A7.8 and A 12.5 Fe/SiO2 catalysts were successfully synthesized by adding H202 and injecting air process, respectively. The optimum initial ferrous ion concentration for degradation of 1 mM o-toluidine was 1 mM. Experimental results reveal that 1 mM o-toluidine can be 100% degraded at 60 and 120 min in the modified fluidized-bed Fenton process with A7.8 Fe/SiO2 and the conventional fluidized-bed Fenton process with SiO2 carrier, respectively, when the optimum conditions of 1mM Fe2+ and 17mM H202 at pH 3 were used. The A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst had a stronger oxidation ability than the H3.5 Fe/SiO2, H7.3 Fe/SiO2 and A12.5 Fe/SiO2 catalysts, and was attributed to the high iron content on the surface of the SiO2 support. The Fenton and Fenton-like reactions occurred in the A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst system. Degradation of o-toluidine in the Fenton-like process follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst efficiently enhanced o-toluidine oxidation under the pH range of 2-4.
    Environmental Technology 01/2014; 35(1-4):89-94. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, concentrations of several heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd) were measured in Katelysia hiantina, Anomalocardia squamosa, Perna viridis, Anadara antiquata, Paphia undulata, and Sanguinolaria diphos bivalve mollusks from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon near the south-southwestern coast of Taiwan. The metal pollution index (MPI) values were highest and lowest in winter and autumn, respectively. The MPI value in the viscera of P. viridis was higher than in muscles. In all four seasons, Zn concentrations in viscera and muscles of P. viridis were higher than for other metals. The capacities of A. squamosa to accumulate the concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr and of A. antiquata to accumulate concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were significant. Analytical results suggested that A. squamosa and A. antiquata may be used as bioindicators for monitoring Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd heavy-metal pollution in Da-Peng Bay Lagoon throughout the year.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2014; 77(4):214-22. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, oxidative desulfurization of sulfur compounds using hydrogen peroxide, phosphotungstic acid, and phase-transfer agent using high-intensity probe ultrasonication, and high shear mixer was investigated. The effect of agitation speed (7600--14,000 rpm), reaction temperature (50--70°C), and treatment time (10--30 min) on sulfur conversion was examined and optimized using response surface methodology. A box-behnken design was employed to determine the significance of various process parameters and their interactions using analysis of variance. Analytical results for the model sulfur compounds by ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization and high shear showed comparable results. Both treatment systems provided a 98% conversion of dibenzothiopene and benzothiopene to polar sulfones at 70°C in 30 min. In both systems, the experimental data followed the pseudo-first-order equation with activation energy of 60 kJ°mol. Results indicate that ultrasound energy produce greater reaction rates when compared to mixing with no significant difference in activation energy. In addition, the advantages and drawbacks of ultrasound-assisted extraction with respect to the high shear oxidative desulfurization were discussed.
    International Journal of Green Energy 01/2014; 11(8). · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a natural lagoon, rich in biological resources including fish, crabs, and bivalves, Da-Peng Bay Lagoon receives the discharges from the neighboring rivers, Kao-ping, Dong-gang, and Lin-Bian, which have harmed the ecology and reduced the water quality of the lagoon. This study analyzes seasonal variation of heavy metals concentration (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle and viscera of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon. Data from this study may provide information on the use of Perna viridis as a bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in the lagoon. The heavy metals concentrations were greater in viscera than in muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. Results showed that the mussel is capable of accumulating high contents of Cu and Zn. Generally, the order of concentrations in the muscle by season was Zn > Cu > Cr or As. In viscera, the general order of concentrations was Zn > Cu > Pb or Cr or As. Mercury was not detected in winter and spring in muscle and viscera. Cadmium displayed significant variation with season. There was also significant correlation between tissue concentration and heavy metals, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, and As.
    Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 01/2014; 77(20):1222-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Triclosan is used as an antimicrobial in many processes. Fenton’s reagents were used to degrade triclosan in combination with an electrochemical system, and the effects of operating parameters were investigated. The pH, current density, Fenton’s reagents ratio, and H2O2 feeding modes were investigated to determine their effect on the process efficiency. The results showed that higher efficiency could be achieved by increasing the H2O2 concentration during Fenton’s reagents ratio modification and by changing the H2O2 feeding mode development from a one-time initial feeding mode to a step feeding mode of operation. This could also reduce the toxicity potential of the one-time initial feeding mode. Under optimum pH, Fenton’s reagents ratio, and electrical current density conditions, 1 mM triclosan could be completely removed in the initial H2O2 feeding operation. Additionally, the initial degradation rate for the first-order model and relative oxidation performance ratio was used to indicate process optimization. High performance liquid chromatography, ion chromatograph data, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer confirmation results were used to identify the intermediates that comprised 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-catechol, phenol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, maleic, acetic, oxalic, and formic acids, that were present among the degradation reactions. The main oxidation intermediates present depended on the H2O2 operating feeding mode.
    Desalination and water treatment 01/2014; 52. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adsorption of benzothiophene sulfone and dibenzothiophene sulfone from diesel using six different types of adsorbents were investigated. Adsorbents used were commercial adsorbents granular-activated carbon (GAC), aluminum oxide (ALU), novel adsorbents chitosan-coated bentonite (CHB), and metal-ion impregnated activated carbons, where there types of metal ions, Cu2+, Fe3+, and Ni2+, were loaded (Cu2+/AC, Fe3+/AC, Ni2+/AC). Kinetic studies conducted showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium studies indicated that the heterogeneous and homogenous monolayer adsorption and are present in the process. Moreover, based on the results of sulfone removal using the synthetic diesel fuel, increasing removal efficiencies of Benzothiophene sulfone followed the order of ALU 2+/AC 3+/AC 2+/AC ≈ Fe3+/AC ≈ Ni2+/AC.
    Desalination and water treatment 01/2014; 52. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aniline degradation was investigated using the conventional Fenton process and an electro-Fenton (EF) process with plate and rod electrode EF reactors. The performance of the two EF reactors was evaluated by determining the effect of important parameters (Fe2+, H2O2, and aniline concentrations) on the aniline removal efficiency and the initial aniline degradation rate. The change in the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and ratio BOD5/COD of a high concentration of aniline were also studied. Experimental results reveal that compared with conventional Fenton process, aniline degradation and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the EF process increased 43% and 10%, respectively. In the two EF reactors, the aniline was completely degraded (100%) when the ratio of [H2O2]:[Fe2+]:[aniline] was 5.8:0.1:1. Within the range of Fenton's reagent used in the two reactors, controlling the H2O2 concentration was the key point of promoting the aniline oxidation. The plate electrode system had a higher efficiency than rod electrode system in terms of H2O2 efficiency, due to the reactor design of decreasing the electrical resistance. Treatment with a high concentration aniline increased biodegradability (BOD5 and ratio BOD5/COD) of pollutant when plate and rod electrode EF reactors were used. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 1111–1117, 2013
    Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 12/2013; 32(4). · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen (ACT) was used as the target pollutant in this study. The effects of Fenton’s reagent by electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes were investigated to determine the ACT degradation. At pH 3, increasing the Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations to maximum (from 0.01 to 0.10 mM and 5 to 25 mM), leads to increase on the hydroxyl radicals which improved the degradation efficiency of ACT. The results of Box–Benhken design show that Fe2+ and H2O2 positively affect the degradation efficiency of ACT, while pH was the reverse. The maximum ACT degradation efficiency for EF and PEF processes was 99% at 40 min under pH 3, initial [Fe2+] of 0.10 mM and initial [H2O2] of 25 mM. Result shows that H2O2 to Fe2+ molar ratio obviously affect acetaminophen degradation of both EF and PEF processes. Added UVA irradiation for first stage (PEFi/EFi) increased the acetaminophen degradation, when H2O2 to Fe2+ molar ratio was less than 300. On the contrary, applied UVA efficiency for second stage (PEFk/EFk) was decreased, because there was few hydrogen peroxide available in the solution.
    Separation and Purification Technology 12/2013; 120:43–51. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was examined under varying parameters, including initial pH, initial Fe2+, initial H2O2, initial DMSO concentrations and current density. Efficiency in terms of degradation of DMSO and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was also compared among Fenton, photo-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes. Effects of inorganic ions, namely Cl−, F− and View the MathML source, on DMSO degradation by the electro-Fenton (EF) process were also studied. The experimental results showed that the optimum pH was 2. The DMSO degradation in the double-cathode EF reactor reached 100% when current density and Fe2+ concentration exceeded 1.5 A and 2.0 mM, respectively. During DMSO degradation, application of electricity by EF process obtained a higher DMSO degradation rate compared to UV-assisted Fenton process. The DMSO degradation rate after 20 min was 2.5 times higher in the PEF process than in the Fenton process. Between 20 min and 120 min, the DMSO degradation rates of the Fenton, photo-Fenton, single-cathode EF, double-cathode EF and PEF processes differed by 34%, 50%, 62%, 57% and 59%, respectively. The rate constant of double-cathode EF process was six times higher than the conventional Fenton process. The order of inhibiting effects of inorganic ions on DMSO degradation was View the MathML source > F− > Cl−.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 10/2013; 232:418-424. · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen (ACT) in synthetic titanium dioxide (TiO2) solution under a visible light (λ >440 nm). The TiO2 photocatalyst used in this study was synthesized via sol-gel method and doped with potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2) and sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). The influence of some parameters on the degradation of acetaminophen was examined, such as initial pH, photocatalyst dosage, and initial ACT concentration. The optimal operational conditions were also determined. Results showed that synthetic TiO2 catalysts presented mainly as anatase phase and no rutile phase was observed. The results of photocatalytic degradation showed that LED alone degraded negligible amount of ACT but with the presence of TiO2/KAl(SO4)2, 95 % removal of 0.10-mM acetaminophen in 540-min irradiation time was achieved. The synthetic TiO2/KAl(SO4)2 presented better photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen than commercially available Degussa P-25. The weak crystallinity of synthesized TiO2/NaAlO2 photocatalyst showed low photocatalytic degradation than TiO2/KAl(SO4)2. The optimal operational conditions were obtained in pH 6.9 with a dose of 1.0 g/L TiO2/KAl(SO4)2 at 30 °C. Kinetic study illustrated that photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen fits well in the pseudo-first order model. Competitive reactions from intermediates affected the degradation rate of ACT, and were more obvious as the initial ACT concentration increased.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of applying the Fered-Fenton process to the degradation of m-phenylenediamine, by examining the effect of varying the initial H2O2 and Fe(2+) concentrations, the initial pH and electric current on the process efficiency. The degradation behavior of m-phenylenediamine was also compared to that of aniline. The Fered-Fenton reactor consists of anodes and cathodes with mesh-type titanium metal coated with IrO2/RuO2 and stainless steel, respectively. The experiments showed that m-phenylenediamine was rapidly degraded by the Fered-Fenton process. Initial pH of 3.2 is optimal for the removal of m-phenylenediamine and chemical oxygen demand (COD). m-Phenylenediamine and COD removal efficiencies increased with the increasing electrical current from 0 A to 4 A, and decreased with a further increase in electrical current. Optimum efficiency resulting in 100% degradation of m-phenylenediamine and elimination of 30% of COD was achieved at pH 3.2 at 60 min in the presence of 10 mM of m-phenylenediamine, 0.268 mM of Fe(2+), 43.6 mM of H2O2, and under a current of 4 A.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2013; 48(9):1012-8.

Publication Stats

483 Citations
199.10 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science
      • • Department of Environmental Resources Management
      • • Department of Environmental Engineering and Science
      • • Department of Environmental Engineering and Health
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2012–2013
    • University of the Philippines Diliman
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Diliman, Central Luzon, Philippines
    • University of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital
      Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines
  • 2010–2011
    • King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
      • Faculty of Engineering
      Thon Buri, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2009–2011
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Graduate School
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2008–2011
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2004
    • Yuanpei University
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2003
    • National Chiao Tung University
      • Institute of Environmental Engineering
      Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan