[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal hematologic values for African green monkeys have been reported, but these results are confounded by the effect of chemical restraint (for example, ketamine), physical restraint, and capture stress. The dual-lumen central venous catheter, jacket, and tether combination we describe here allows intravenous fluid administration and repeated blood sampling without the use of anesthesia or inducing capture-related stress. The use of a low-concentration heparin solution for catheter maintenance significantly increased the mean patency time, compared with a saline-only catheter flush solution. Adding a low-concentration heparin solution creates a suitable system for serial blood collection in the African green monkey for as long as 25 d.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 06/2007; 46(3):58-60.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevention of inhalational anthrax after Bacillus anthracis spore exposure requires a prolonged course of antibiotic prophylaxis. In response to the 2001 anthrax attack in the United States, approximately 10,000 people were offered 60 days of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax, but adherence to this regimen was poor. We sought to determine whether a short course of antibiotic prophylaxis after exposure could protect non-human primates from a high-dose spore challenge if vaccination was combined with antibiotics. Two groups of 10 rhesus macaques were exposed to approximately 1,600 LD50 of spores by aerosol. Both groups were given ciprofloxacin by orogastric tube twice daily for 14 days, beginning 1-2 h after exposure. One group also received three doses of the licensed human anthrax vaccine (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) after exposure. In the ciprofloxacin-only group, four of nine monkeys (44%) survived the challenge. In contrast, all 10 monkeys that received 14 days of antibiotic plus anthrax vaccine adsorbed survived (P = 0.011). Thus postexposure vaccination enhanced the protection afforded by 14 days of antibiotic prophylaxis alone and completely protected animals against inhalational anthrax. These data provide evidence that postexposure vaccination can shorten the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis required to protect against inhalational anthrax and may impact public health management of a bioterrorism event.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2006; 103(20):7813-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0602748103