[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for antimicrobial functionalization of urinary catheters to prevent their colonization by microbes and biofilm formation. Here, the antimicrobial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was for the first time grafted onto polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) using an ultrasound assisted coating method. This resulted in the development of an effective in-situ continous H2O2 producing system able to continually prevent microbial colonization and biofilm formation on catheters. This enzyme has an added advantage that it uses various oligosaccharides including expolysaccharides (an important part of the bioflim produced by the microbes while colonizing biomaterials) as electron donors to produce H2O2. Successful immobilization of active CDH nanoparticles on PDMS was confirmed by ESEM and AFM analysis as well as quantification of H2O2. Depending on the initial enzyme concentration, CDH-nanoparticles of varying sizes from 65±17nm to 93±17nm were created by the ultrasonic waves and subsequently deposited on the PDMS surface. PDMS sheets treated for 3 min produced 18 µM of H2O2 within 2 hours which was sufficient to significantly reduce the amount of viable S. aureus cells as well as the total amount of biomass deposited on the surface. The ultrasound assisted coating of antimicrobial enzymes therefore provides an easy approach to immobilize enzymes and create a surface with antimicrobial properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection in wounds affects about 2% of the population in developed countires at least once in their lifetime, and the lack of tools for its rapid diagnosis is still a problem (1) . Standard procedures of infection detection include the judgement of the classical clinical signs, the detection of signals specific to secondary wounds, or the quantification of the microbial load (2-5) . The determination of the microbial load is a time-consuming standard procedure, although the presence of microbes per se is not indicative of infection (2) . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
British Journal of Dermatology 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/bjd.13896 · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of processing method on the properties of cross-linked chitosan microparticles and on the enzymatic activity of laccase immobilized in the particles has been investigated. Chitosan has been cross-linked by tri-polyphosphate (TPP) using two methods – the so called ex situ cross-linking whereby the solutions of chitosan, TPP and the enzyme have been pre-mixed and spray-dried by a standard two-fluid kinetic nozzle, and a novel in situ cross-linking method, whereby the solutions have been contacted at the tip of a three-fluid nozzle and cross-linking occurred within a drying droplet. The influence of the cross-linking method on the particle size and morphology, surface charge, and swelling ratio has been determined. The enzymatic activity of laccase toward the oxidation of a chromophore substrate (ABTS) has been systematically investigated and found to be superior in particles produced by the in situ cross-linking method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant cell wall structures represent a barrier in the biodegradation process to produce biogas for combustion and energy production. Consequently, approaches concerning a more efficient de-polymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars are required. Here, we show that natural activated zeolites (i.e. trace metal activated zeolites) represent eminently suitable mineral microhabitats and potential carriers for immobilisation of microorganisms responsible for anaerobic hydrolysis of biopolymers stabilising related bacterial and methanogenic communities. A strategy for comprehensive analysis of immobilised anaerobic populations was developed that includes the visualisation of biofilm formation via scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, community and fingerprint analysis as well as enzyme activity and identification analyses. Using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, hydrolytical active protein bands were traced by congo red staining. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy revealed cellulolytical endo- and exoglucanase (exocellobiohydrolase) as well as hemicellulolytical xylanase/mannase after proteolytic digestion. Relations to hydrolytic/fermentative zeolite colonisers were obtained by using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) based on amplification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA fragments. Thereby, dominant colonisers were affiliated to the genera Clostridium, Pseudomonas and Methanoculleus. The specific immobilisation on natural zeolites with functional microbes already colonising naturally during the fermentation offers a strategy to systematically supply the biogas formation process responsive to population dynamics and process requirements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes play a crucial role in the host defence against bacterial and fungal infections. They participate in the inflammatory response through the liberation of peptides and enzymes like myeloperoxidase (MPO). Therefore, MPO has a potential as a marker enzyme for the diagnosis of wound infection.
Substrate specificities and reaction pathways of MPO were investigated for new MPO substrates: crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, fast blue RR (4-benzoylamino-2,5-dimethoxybenzenediazonium chloride hemi(zinc chloride) salt) and various systematically substituted model substrates based on 2,7-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)naphtalene-3,6-disulphonic acid. In addition, fast blue RR was covalently bound to siloxanes allowing immobilization of the substrate, while cellobiosedehydrogenase was integrated for generation of hydrogen peroxide required by MPO.
Elevated concentrations of MPO were found in infected wounds compared with non-infected wounds (92.2 ± 45.0 versus 1.9 ± 1.8 U/mL). Various soluble and immobilized substrates were oxidized by MPO in wound samples and the influence of substrate structure and reaction pathways were elucidated for selected compounds.
Incubation of different MPO substrates with infected wound fluid samples resulted in a clear colour change in the case of elevated MPO concentrations, thus allowing early diagnosis of wound infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alkyd resins are polyesters containing unsaturated fatty acids that are used as binding agents in paints and coatings. Chemical drying of these polyesters is based on heavy metal catalyzed cross-linking of the unsaturated fatty acid moieties. Among the heavy-metal catalysts, cobalt complexes are the most effective, yet they have been proven to be carcinogenic. Therefore, strategies to replace the cobalt-based catalyst by environmentally friendlier and less toxic alternatives are under development. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a laccase–mediator system can effectively replace the heavy-metal catalyst and cross-link alkyd resins. Interestingly, the biocatalytic reaction does not only work in aqueous media, but also in a solid film, where enzyme diffusion is limited. Within the catalytic cycle, the mediator oxidizes the alkyd resin and is regenerated by the laccase, which is uniformly distributed within the drying film as evidenced by confocal laser scanning microscopy. During gradual build-up of molecular weight, there is a concomitant decrease of the oxygen content in the film. A new optical sensor to follow oxygen consumption during the cross-linking reaction was developed and validated with state of the art techniques. A remarkable feature is the low sample amount required, which allows faster screening of new catalysts.
Green Chemistry 02/2013; 15(2):381. DOI:10.1039/C2GC36666E · 8.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activated synovial macrophages play a key role in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Recent studies have shown that folate receptor beta (FRβ) is specifically expressed by activated macrophages. Therefore a folate-based nanodevice would provide the possibility of delivering therapeutic agents to activated macrophages without affecting normal cells and tissues. This study shows for the first time the sonochemical preparation of HSA nanocapsules avoiding toxic cross linking chemicals and emulsifiers used in other methods. Production of HSA nanocapsules was optimized leading to a diameter of 443.5 ± 9.0 nm and a narrow size distribution indicated by a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.066 ± 0.080. Nanocapsules were surface modified with folic acid (FA) and the FA content was determined to be 0.38 and 6.42 molecules FA per molecule HSA, depending on the surplus of FA employed. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine size, PDI and zetapotential of the produced nanocapsules before and after surface modification. FA distribution on the surface of HSA nanocapsules was localized three-dimensionally after fluorescence labeling using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Furthermore, specific binding and internalization of HSA nanocapsules by FRβ-positive and FRβ-negative macrophages, obtained from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was demonstrated by flow cytometry. FRβ-expressing macrophages showed an increased binding for FA-modified capsules compared with those without FA.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 02/2012; 427(2):460-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.02.028 · 3.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large strain collection comprising antagonistic bacteria was screened for novel detergent proteases. Several strains displayed protease activity on agar plates containing skim milk but were inactive in liquid media. Encapsulation of cells in alginate beads induced protease production. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia emerged as best performer under washing conditions. For identification of wash-active proteases, four extracellular serine proteases called StmPr1, StmPr2, StmPr3 and StmPr4 were cloned. StmPr2 and StmPr4 were sufficiently overexpressed in E. coli. Expression of StmPr1 and StmPr3 resulted in unprocessed, insoluble protein. Truncation of most of the C-terminal domain which has been identified by enzyme modeling succeeded in expression of soluble, active StmPr1 but failed in case of StmPr3. From laundry application tests StmPr2 turned out to be a highly wash-active protease at 45°C. Specific activity of StmPr2 determined with suc-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Pro-l-Phe-p-nitroanilide as the substrate was 17±2U/mg. In addition we determined the kinetic parameters and cleavage preferences of protease StmPr2.
Journal of Biotechnology 01/2012; 157(1):140-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2011.09.025 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for microbial transglutaminase (mTG) from Streptomyces mobaraensis to overcome the lack of a quantification method for mTG. We further performed a detailed follow-on-analysis of insoluble porcine collagen type I enzymatically modified with mTG primarily focusing on residuals of mTG. Repeated washing (4 ×) reduced mTG-levels in the washing fluids but did not quantitatively remove mTG from the material (p < 0.000001). Substantial amounts of up to 40% of the enzyme utilized in the crosslinking mixture remained associated with the modified collagen. Binding was non-covalent as could be demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Acidic and alkaline dialysis of mTG treated collagen material enabled complete removal the enzyme. Treatment with guanidinium chloride, urea, or sodium chloride was less effective in reducing the mTG content.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 11/2011; 80(2):282-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2011.10.018 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study cutinases from Thermobifida cellulosilytica DSM44535 (Thc_Cut1 and Thc_Cut2) and Thermobifida fusca DSM44342 (Thf42_Cut1) hydrolyzing poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were successfully cloned and expressed in E.coli BL21-Gold(DE3). Their ability to hydrolyze PET was compared with other enzymes hydrolyzing natural polyesters, including the PHA depolymerase (ePhaZmcl) from Pseudomonas fluorescens and two cutinases from T. fusca KW3. The three isolated Thermobifida cutinases are very similar (only a maximum of 18 amino acid differences) but yet had different kinetic parameters on soluble substrates. Their k(cat) and K-M values on pNP-acetate were in the ranges 2.4-211.9 s(-1) and 127-200 AIM while on pNP-butyrate they showed k(cat) and K-m values between 5.3 and 195.1 s(-1) and between 1483 and 2133 mu M. Thc_Cut1 released highest amounts of MHET and terephthalic acid from PET and bis(benzoyloxyethyl) terephthalate (3PET) with the highest concomitant increase in PET hydrophilicity as indicated by water contact angle (WCA) decreases. FTIR-ATR analysis revealed an increase in the crystallinity index A(1340)/A(1410) upon enzyme treatment and an increase of the amount of carboxylic and hydroxylic was measured using derivatization with 2-(bromomethyl)naphthalene. Modeling the covalently bound tetrahedral intermediate consisting of cutinase and 3PET indicated that the active site His-209 is in the proximity of the 0 of the substrate thus allowing hydrolysis. On the other hand, the models indicated that regions of Thc_Cut1 and Thc_Cut2 which differed in electrostatic and in hydrophobic surface properties were able to reach/interact with PET which may explain their different hydrolysis efficiencies.