[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1663–1668
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with acute respiratory tract infections, mainly in paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of two new commercial techniques available for the detection of hMPV in clinical samples from children: an enzyme immunoassay, hMPV EIA (Biotrin International Ltd), and a molecular assay, real-time RT-PCR (Pro hMPV Real Time Assay Kit; Prodesse). A total of 184 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from 173 children aged less than 5 years who were hospitalized with acute wheezing were analysed. Respiratory syncytial virus was detected in 27% of the samples, followed by influenza A virus (6%), parainfluenza virus (PIV)3 (2.2%), adenovirus (2%), PIV1 (1.1%), PIV2 (1.1%), and influenza B virus (0.5%). The presence of hMPV was tested in all samples, using the real-time RT-PCR and EIA. Real-time RT-PCR detected 13 hMPV-positive samples (8%), and EIA detected 17 (9.3%). When the EIA results were compared with those of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of hMPV, a good correlation was found (94%). A relatively low co-infection rate (15%) was observed in our patients. RT-PCR and EIA provide robust methods for the diagnosis of hMPV infection in children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical outcome of pneumonia depends on a multifaceted treatment approach. Not only diagnostic methods but also early indicators of the degree of inflammatory response can aid in therapeutic decisions. The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of procalcitonin and neopterin in distinguishing among aetiologies as well as severity in patients with pneumonia.
A total of one hundred sixteen patients with clinical, radiographic and microbiological diagnosis of pneumonia were grouped by aetiology, pneumonia severity index, and by the presence of unilobar or multilobar radiographic pulmonary infiltrates. Procalcitonin and neopterin were measured by immunoassays.
Patients with pneumococcal pneumonia presented elevated procalcitonin and neopterin levels, being higher in bacteraemic than in non-bacteraemic pneumonia. Patients with Legionella pneumonia presented elevated neopterin levels and slightly elevated procalcitonin levels. Patients with tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia presented elevated neopterin and low or not detectable procalcitonin. Procalcitonin and neopterin levels were increased in high-risk classes of pneumonia severity index. Both parameters yielded significant correlation to the radiographic extent and also to young age.
Procalcitonin and neopterin levels vary depending on age, aetiology and severity of pneumonia. Together with clinical and microbiological data, combined measurement can help to identify patients who might benefit from additional therapies.
The Journal of infection 04/2006; 52(3):169-77. DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2005.05.019 · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and Solprogel (Laboratorios Inibsa, S.A., Barcelona, Spain), a compound that contains NaDCC plus a biodegradable polymer of acrylic acid, on the activity of DNA polymerase (DNA-P) associated with hepatitis B virus in serum were evaluated. DNA-P positive and negative pools of human serum samples were used as positive and negative stock virus. Inhibition of DNA-P activity by NaDCC and the commercial product was found to be concentration-dependent. Two minutes exposure to the minimum effective concentration of NaDCC (1000 ppm available chlorine) or Solprogel 16% (960 ppm available chlorine) totally inhibited DNA-P activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiviral activities of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and a commercial product (Solprogel 2%) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were investigated using a quantitative suspension test method. Solprogel is a compound that contains NaDCC and a biodegradable polymer of acrylic acid. Viral suspensions were prepared containing 3.2 x 10(6) tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) in culture media. Syncytium formation in the MT-2 line and HIV antigen p24 on the supernatant of the cultures were used to determine viral titre. Results indicate that satisfactory disinfection (1000-fold reduction in 5 min) can be achieved using NaDCC and Solprogel at concentrations of 100 and 120 ppm available chlorine, respectively.