Shu-Ying Liu

Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (4)14.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a global problem. The purpose of this study was to elucidate current resistance mechanisms of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) in Taiwan and their correlation with patient outcomes. Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from two teaching hospitals in Taiwan were collected in 2009 and were examined by Etest for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Primers specific for carbapenemase genes and upstream regions were designed for PCR amplification. Bacterial isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Clinical presentations of patients were analysed retrospectively. Upstream insertion sequence ISAba1 was found in 34 isolates that carried bla(OXA-23), including 28 with transposon Tn2006 (ISAba1-bla(OXA-23)-ISAba1) in an AbaR4-type resistance island and 6 with Tn2008 (ISAba1-bla(OXA-23)), as well as in 8 isolates carrying ISAba1-bla(OXA-51-like). All of these isolates expressed full resistance to imipenem (MIC>32 mg/L). Forty-one different PFGE genotypes were found among 62 isolates. Tn2006 was found in 19 genotypes (46.3%), which is more common than ISAba1-bla(OXA-51-like) (12.2%) (P=0.001). Prior use of carbapenems or extended-spectrum cephalosporins for ≥5 days was the only independent risk factor significantly associated with IRAB infection (odds ratio=361.175). Higher mortality was significantly associated with infection caused by IRAB and ISAba1-bla(OXA-23)-carrying strains compared with infection caused by imipenem-susceptible A. baumannii and ISAba1-bla(OXA-51-like)-carrying strains (P=0.009 and 0.027, respectively). Tn2006 is currently the most common imipenem resistance determinant, which showed a higher ability to spread among A. baumannii and was associated with a higher mortality in IRAB-infected patients.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 06/2012; 40(2):163-7. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major pathogen causing nosocomial infections, particularly in critical patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Increasing resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii has been observed worldwide. Here we report the clinical impact and mechanism of imipenem heteroresistance (imipenem minimum inhibitory concentration of 6-32 μg/mL with the presence of resistant cells inside the inhibition zone of Etest strips or disks) in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB). To identify risk factors associated with the emergence of imipenem heteroresistance, a retrospective case-control study was undertaken involving cases with subsequent clinical isolates of the same genotype showing loss of imipenem susceptibility and matched controls with isolates belonging to imipenem-susceptible MDR-AB. The molecular mechanism of heteroresistance was examined. From April 2006 to March 2007, 126 consecutive isolates of MDR-AB were identified from 29 patients. Switch from imipenem susceptibility to heteroresistance was more likely to occur in successive MDR-AB derived from patients who had been exposed to imipenem (length of use 10.9 ± 6.5 days for cases vs. 5.3 ± 4.8 days for controls; P=0.02). An insertion sequence (ISAba1) was found in the promoter region of a class C β-lactamase gene (bla(ADC-29)) in most imipenem-heteroresistant MDR-AB isolates. In vitro experiments indicated that imipenem heteroresistance, which was associated with overexpression of bla(ADC-29), could be induced by imipenem. Carbapenem use was the only risk factor identified for the emergence of carbapenem-heteroresistant MDR-AB. Physicians should weigh the benefits and risks of each carbapenem-based treatment in managing carbapenem-susceptible MDR-AB infection.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 02/2011; 37(4):302-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii have been increasing in recent years, posing a threat to public health worldwide. The susceptibility to eight antimicrobial agents of 35 clinical A. baumannii isolates from Taiwan was tested. Isolates were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for beta-lactamase genes and mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. Expression of AdeB, an efflux pump protein, was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. The level of adeB expression correlated with resistance to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin/sulbactam in A. baumannii isolates. Almost all isolates with full resistance to ciprofloxacin had both high adeB expression and point mutations in parC and gyrA, but 4 intermediate-resistant isolates had only high adeB expression without point mutations in gyrA or parC, in contrast to 18 susceptible isolates with low adeB expression and without mutations in gyrA or parC. Sixteen isolates (45.7%) carrying a type 1 integron were MDR as well as being more resistant to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, ceftazidime or cefepime than those without the integron. The class 1 integron in A. baumannii carried different resistance gene cassettes, including 5'CS-bla(IMP-1)-aadA4-3'CS, 5'CS-aacA4-aadA1-3'CS and 5'CS-aacC1-aadA1-3'CS. In conclusion, expression of the adeB gene was associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin/sulbactam in A. baumannii. Multiple mutations in gyrA and parC also played a role in ciprofloxacin resistance. The major metallo-beta-lactamase contributing to imipenem resistance in A. baumannii in Taiwan was bla(IMP-1), which was carried by the class 1 integron. The class 1 integron was associated with the MDR phenotype in A. baumannii.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 02/2010; 35(4):382-6. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dissemination of cephamycin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and its correlation with a transposon-like DNA element consisting of a specific tnpA-bla(CMY-2)-blc-sugE structure were investigated. A total of 140 enterobacterial isolates belonging to 17 species (10 genera) of Enterobacteriaceae phenotypically characterized as putative AmpC-producers were evaluated. The isolates were examined by PCR analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and nucleotide sequencing. The bla(CMY-2)-carrying element was detected in 34 isolates from 10 species (9 genera), including all 14 Salmonella and 4 Shigella isolates as well as 7 of the 10 Escherichia coli isolates tested. The remaining 9 isolates were from 112 isolates of the other 14 species tested. The genetic structure of the bla(CMY-2)-carrying element was identical in 29 isolates, while in 3 E. coli and 2 Citrobacter isolates an additional insertion sequence IS1 was found inserted at various nucleotide positions close to the 3' end, either within or downstream, of tnpA. In 12 of the 14 representative isolates examined, the bla(CMY-2)-carrying element was found inserted in the finQ gene of various-sized plasmids with highly conserved 8 bp direct repeats flanking the junction regions. Among the other 106 non-CMY-2-producing isolates, plasmid-mediated ampC genes were found only in one isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes which carried a bla(DHA-1)-like gene. bla(CMY-2) is the most prevalent plasmid-mediated ampC gene among Enterobacteriaceae. All the bla(CMY-2) genes identified in the present study were associated with a specific transposon-like element that may be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2) among Enterobacteriaceae.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2006; 57(3):424-9. · 5.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

56 Citations
14.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2012
    • Chang Gung University
      • Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences
      Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2006–2011
    • Da-Yeh University
    • Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan