Anavaj Sakuntabhai

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (45)287.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that afflicts millions of individuals worldwide every year. Infection by any of the four serotypes can result in a spectrum of disease severity. We investigated the impact of variants of interferon regulated innate immunity genes with a potent anti-viral effect, on the outcome of dengue infection. We compared the effect of OAS gene family variants on two dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in cell culture. While both OAS1-p42 and p46 showed antiviral activity against DENV-2, only OAS1-p42 presented anti-DENV-1 activity. Conversely, whereas both OAS3_S381 and R381 variants were able to block DENV-1 infection, the anti-DENV-2 activity observed for OAS3_S381 was largely lost for the R381 variant. By allelic association study on a cohort of 740 dengue patients, we found a protective effect of OAS3_R381 against shock (OR=0.37; P<0.001). This effect was due to DENV-2 infections (OR=0.13, P=0.007), but was absent for DENV-1, in accordance with the serotype-dependent OAS3 activity found in the functional study. Severe dengue has long been associated with a "cytokine storm" of unclear origin. This work identifies an early innate immunity process that could lead to the immune overreaction observed in severe dengue, and triggered by a specific host genotype-pathogen genotype interaction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv321 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria transmission intensity is highly heterogeneous even at a very small scale. Implementing targeted intervention in malaria transmission hotspots offers the potential to reduce the burden of disease both locally and in adjacent areas. Transmission of malaria parasites from man to mosquito requires the production of gametocyte stage parasites. Cluster analysis of a 19-year long cohort study for gametocyte carriage revealed spatially defined game-tocyte hotspots that occurred during the time when chloroquine was the drug used for clinical case treatment. In addition to known risk factors for gametocyte carriage, notably young age (<15 years old) and associated with a clinical episode, blood groups B and O increased risk compared to groups A and AB. A hotspot of clinical P. falciparum clinical episodes that overlapped the gametocyte hotspots was also identified. Gametocyte positivity was found to be increased in individuals who had been treated with chloroquine, as opposed to other drug treatment regimens, for a clinical P. falciparum episode up to 30 days previously. It seems likely the hotspots were generated by a vicious circle of ineffective treatment of clinical cases and concomitant gametocyte production in a sub-population characterized by an increased prevalence of all the identified risk factors. While rapid access to treatment with an effective anti-malarial can reduce the duration of gametocyte carriage and onward parasite transmission, localised hotspots represent a challenge to malaria control and eventual eradication.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123102. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123102 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Malaria remains a major worldwide public health problem with ~207 million cases and ~627,000 deaths per year, mainly affecting children under five years of age in Africa. Recent efforts at elaborating a genetic architecture of malaria have focused on severe malaria, leading to the identification of two new genes and confirmation of previously known variants in HBB, ABO and G6PD, by exploring the whole human genome in genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Molecular pathways controlling phenotypes representing effectiveness of host immunity, notably parasitemia and IgG levels, are of particular interest given the current lack of an efficacious vaccine and the need for new treatment options. Results: We propose a global causal framework of malaria phenotypes implicating progression from the initial infection with Plasmodium spp. to the development of the infection through liver and blood-stage multiplication cycles (parasitemia as a quantitative trait), to clinical malaria attack, and finally to severe malaria. Genetic polymorphism may control any of these stages, such that preceding stages act as mediators of subsequent stages. A biomarker of humoral immunity, IgG levels, can also be integrated into the framework, potentially mediating the impact of polymorphism by limiting parasitemia levels. Current knowledge of the genetic basis of parasitemia levels and IgG levels is reviewed through key examples including the hemoglobinopathies, showing that the protective effect of HBB variants on malaria clinical phenotypes may partially be mediated through parasitemia and cytophilic IgG levels. Another example is the IgG receptor FcγRIIa, encoded by FCGR2A, such that H131 homozygotes displayed higher IgG2 levels and were protective against high parasitemia and onset of malaria symptoms as shown in a causal diagram. Conclusions: We thus underline the value of parasitemia and IgG levels as phenotypes in the understanding of the human genetic architecture of malaria, and the need for applying GWA approaches to these phenotypes.
    BMC Immunology 03/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12865-015-0078-z · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Deciphering the genetic architecture of complex traits is still a major challenge for human genetics. In most cases, genome-wide association studies have only partially explained the heritability of traits and diseases. Epistasis, one potentially important cause of this missing heritability, is difficult to explore at the genome-wide level. Here, we develop and assess a tool based on interactive odds ratios (IOR), Fast Odds Ratio-based sCan for Epistasis (FORCE), as a novel approach for exhaustive genome-wide epistasis search. IOR is the ratio between the multiplicative term of the odds ratio (OR) of having each variant over the OR of having both of them. By definition, an IOR that significantly deviates from 1 suggests the occurrence of an interaction (epistasis). As the IOR is fast to calculate, we used the IOR to rank and select pairs of interacting polymorphisms for P value estimation, which is more time consuming. Results FORCE displayed power and accuracy similar to existing parametric and non-parametric methods, and is fast enough to complete a filter-free genome-wide epistasis search in a few days on a standard computer. Analysis of psoriasis data uncovered novel epistatic interactions in the HLA region, corroborating the known major and complex role of the HLA region in psoriasis susceptibility. Conclusions Our systematic study revealed the ability of FORCE to uncover novel interactions, highlighted the importance of exhaustiveness, as well as its specificity for certain types of interactions that were not detected by existing approaches. We therefore believe that FORCE is a valuable new tool for decoding the genetic basis of complex diseases. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12863-015-0174-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    BMC Genetics 02/2015; 16(11). DOI:10.1186/s12863-015-0174-3 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    Richard Paul, Sousa CA, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Devine GJ
    The Lancet 11/2014; 384(9956):1747-8. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62071-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    M Aguiar, R Paul, A Sakuntabhai, N Stollenwerk
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Models describing dengue epidemics are parametrized on disease incidence data and therefore high-quality data are essential. For Thailand, two different sources of long-term dengue data are available, the hard copy data from 1980 to 2005, where hospital admission cases were notified, and the electronic files, from 2003 to the present, where clinically classified forms of disease, i.e. dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome, are notified using separate files. The official dengue notification data, provided by the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health in Thailand, were cross-checked with dengue data used in recent publications, where an inexact continuous time-series was observed to be consistently used since 2003, affecting considerably the model dynamics and its correct application. In this paper, numerical analysis and simulation techniques giving insights on predictability are performed to show the effects of model parametrization by using different datasets.
    Epidemiology and Infection 11/2014; 142(11):2447-59. DOI:10.1017/S0950268813003348 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An expert conference on Dengue in Africa was held in Accra, Ghana, in February 2013 to consider key questions regarding the possible expansion of dengue in Africa. Four key action points were highlighted to advance our understanding of the epidemiology of dengue in Africa. First, dengue diagnostic tools must be made more widely available in the healthcare setting in Africa. Second, representative data need to be collected across Africa to uncover the true burden of dengue. Third, established networks should collaborate to produce these types of data. Fourth, policy needs to be informed so the necessary steps can be taken to provide dengue vector control and health services.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 10/2014; 20(10):10.3201/eid2010.140487. DOI:10.3201/eid2010.140487 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is a major international public health concern, and the number of outbreaks has escalated greatly. Human migration and international trade and travel are constantly introducing new vectors and pathogens into novel geographic areas. Of particular interest is the extent to which dengue virus (DENV) infections are subclinical or inapparent. Not only may such infections contribute to the global spread of DENV by human migration, but also seroprevalence rates in naïve populations may be initially high despite minimal numbers of detectable clinical cases. As the probability of severe disease is increased in secondary infections, populations may thus be primed, with serious public health consequences following introduction of a new serotype. In addition, pre-existing immunity from inapparent infections may affect vaccine uptake, and the ratio of clinically apparent to inapparent infection could affect the interpretation of vaccine trials. We performed a literature search for inapparent DENV infections and provide an analytical review of their frequency and associated risk factors. Inapparent rates were highly variable, but "inapparent" was the major outcome of infection in all prospective studies. Differences in the epidemiological context and type of surveillance account for much of the variability in inapparent infection rates. However, one particular epidemiological pattern was shared by four longitudinal cohort studies: the rate of inapparent DENV infections was positively correlated with the incidence of disease the previous year, strongly supporting an important role for short-term heterotypic immunity in determining the outcome of infection. Primary and secondary infections were equally likely to be inapparent. Knowledge of the extent to which viruses from inapparent infections are transmissible to mosquitoes is urgently needed. Inapparent infections need to be considered for their impact on disease severity, transmission dynamics, and vaccine efficacy and uptake.
    Frontiers in Immunology 06/2014; 5:280. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00280
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    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 12/2013; 7(12):e2320. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002320 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primaquine is essential for malaria control and elimination since it is the only available drug preventing multiple clinical attacks by relapses of Plasmodium vivax. It is also the only therapy against the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum infectious to mosquitoes, and is thus useful in preventing malaria transmission. However, the difficulties of diagnosing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) greatly hinder primaquine's widespread use, as this common genetic disorder makes patients susceptible to potentially severe and fatal primaquine-induced haemolysis. The risk of such an outcome varies widely among G6PD gene variants. A literature review was conducted to identify surveys of G6PD variant frequencies among representative population groups. Informative surveys were assembled into two map series: (1) those showing the relative proportions of the different variants among G6PDd individuals; and (2) those showing allele frequencies of G6PD variants based on population surveys without prior G6PDd screening. Variants showed conspicuous geographic patterns. A limited repertoire of variants was tested for across sub-Saharan Africa, which nevertheless indicated low genetic heterogeneity predominated by the G6PD A-202A mutation, though other mutations were common in western Africa. The severe G6PD Mediterranean variant was widespread across western Asia. Further east, a sharp shift in variants was identified, with high variant heterogeneity in the populations of China and the Asia-Pacific where no single variant dominated. G6PD variants exhibited distinctive region-specific distributions with important primaquine policy implications. Relative homogeneity in the Americas, Africa, and western Asia contrasted sharply with the heterogeneity of variants in China, Southeast Asia and Oceania. These findings will inform rational risk assessments for primaquine in developing public health strategies for malaria control and elimination, and support the future development of regionally targeted policies. The major knowledge gaps highlighted here strongly advocate for further investigation of G6PD variant diversity and their primaquine-sensitivity phenotypes.
    Malaria Journal 11/2013; 12(1):418. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-12-418 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of atopy and allergy on the risk of clinical malaria. A clinical and immunological allergy cross-sectional survey in a birth cohort of 175 children from 1 month to 14 years of age followed for up to 15 years in a longitudinal open cohort study of malaria in Senegal. Malaria incidence data were available for 143 of these children (aged 4 months to 14 years of age) for up to 15 years. Mixed-model regression analysis was used to determine the impact of allergy status on malaria incidence, adjusting for age, gender, sickle-cell trait and force of infection. Asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis status, the number of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes since birth and associated parasite density. 12% of the children were classified as asthmatic and 10% as having atopic dermatitis. These groups had respectively a twofold (OR 2.12 95%; CI 1.46 to 3.08; p=8×10(-5)) and threefold (OR 3.15; 1.56 to 6.33; p=1.3×10(-3)) increase in the risk of clinical P falciparum malaria once older than the age of peak incidence of clinical malaria (3-4 years of age). They also presented with higher P falciparum parasite densities (asthma: mean 105.3 parasites/μL±SE 41.0 vs 51.3±9.7; p=6.2×10(-3). Atopic dermatitis: 135.4±70.7 vs 52.3±11.0; p=0.014). There was no effect of allergy on the number of non-malaria clinical presentations. Individuals with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis did not have an increased risk of clinical malaria nor any difference in parasite densities. These results demonstrate that asthma and atopic dermatitis delay the development of clinical immunity to P falciparum. Despite the encouraging decrease in malaria incidence rates in Africa, a significant concern is the extent to which the increase in allergy will exacerbate the burden of malaria. Given the demonstrated antiparasitic effect of antihistamines, administration to atopic children will likely reduce the burden of clinical malaria in these children, increase the efficacy of first-line treatment antimalarials and alleviate the non-infectious consequences of atopy.
    BMJ Open 07/2013; 3(7). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002835 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There exists great disparity in the number of clinical P. falciparum episodes among children of the same age and living in similar conditions. The epidemiological determinants of such disparity are unclear. We used a data-mining approach to explore a nineteen-year longitudinal malaria cohort study dataset from Senegal and identify variables associated with increased risk of malaria episodes. These were then verified using classical statistics and replicated in a second cohort. In addition to age, we identified a novel high-risk group of children in whom the history of P. falciparum clinical episodes greatly increased risk of further episodes. Age and a high number of previous falciparum clinical episodes not only play major roles in explaining the risk of P. falciparum episodes but also are risk factors for different groups of people. Combined, they explain the majority of falciparum clinical attacks. Contrary to what is widely believed, clinical immunity to P. falciparum does not de facto occur following many P. falciparum clinical episodes. There exist a sub-group of children who suffer repeated clinical episodes. In addition to posing an important challenge for population stratification during clinical trials, this sub-group disproportionally contributes to the disease burden and may necessitate specific prevention and control measures.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e55666. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055666 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Malaria Parasites, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0326-4
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    ABSTRACT: An immunomodulatory role of arthropod saliva has been well documented, but evidence for an effect on Plasmodium sp. infectiousness remains controversial. Mosquito saliva may orient the immune response toward a Th2 profile, thereby priming a Th2 response against subsequent antigens, including Plasmodium. Orientation toward a Th1 versus a Th2 profile promotes IgG and IgE proliferation, respectively, where the former is crucial for the development of an efficient antiparasite immune response. Here we assessed the direct effect of mosquito bites on the density of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites and the prevalence of gametocytes in chronic, asymptomatic infections in a longitudinal cohort study of seasonal transmission. We additionally correlated these parasitological measures with IgE and IgG antiparasite and anti-salivary gland extract titers. The mosquito biting density was positively correlated with the asexual parasite density but not asexual parasite prevalence and was negatively correlated with gametocyte prevalence. Individual anti-salivary gland IgE titers were also negatively correlated with gametocyte carriage and were strongly positively correlated with antiparasite IgE titers, consistent with the hypothesis that mosquito bites predispose individuals to develop an IgE antiparasite response. We provide evidence that mosquito bites have an impact on asymptomatic infections and differentially so for the production of asexual and sexual parasites. An increased research focus on the immunological impact of mosquito bites during asymptomatic infections is warranted, to establish whether strategies targeting the immune response to saliva can reduce the duration of infection and the onward transmission of the parasite.
    Infection and immunity 03/2012; 80(6):2240-6. DOI:10.1128/IAI.06414-11 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue has emerged as the most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas. Evaluations of the burden and severity of dengue disease have been hindered by the frequent lack of laboratory confirmation and strong selection bias toward more severe cases. A multinational, prospective clinical study was carried out in South-East Asia (SEA) and Latin America (LA), to ascertain the proportion of inapparent dengue infections in households of febrile dengue cases, and to compare clinical data and biological markers from subjects with various dengue disease patterns. Dengue infection was laboratory-confirmed during the acute phase, by virus isolation and detection of the genome. The four participating reference laboratories used standardized methods. Among 215 febrile dengue subjects-114 in SEA and 101 in LA-28 (13.0%) were diagnosed with severe dengue (from SEA only) using the WHO definition. Household investigations were carried out for 177 febrile subjects. Among household members at the time of the first home visit, 39 acute dengue infections were detected of which 29 were inapparent. A further 62 dengue cases were classified at early convalescent phase. Therefore, 101 dengue infections were found among the 408 household members. Adding these together with the 177 Dengue Index Cases, the overall proportion of dengue infections among the study participants was estimated at 47.5% (278/585; 95% CI 43.5-51.6). Lymphocyte counts and detection of the NS1 antigen differed significantly between inapparent and symptomatic dengue subjects; among inapparent cases lymphocyte counts were normal and only 20% were positive for NS1 antigen. Primary dengue infection and a specific dengue virus serotype were not associated with symptomatic dengue infection. Household investigation demonstrated a high proportion of household members positive for dengue infection, including a number of inapparent cases, the frequency of which was higher in SEA than in LA.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 01/2012; 6(1):e1482. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001482 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 136 matched serum and urine samples obtained from 55 patients with dengue infection and 30 other febrile illnesses were assayed for dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. The urine NS1 ELISA was positive in patients with dengue fever (68.4%) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (63.9%), whereas the strip method showed a lower positive rate.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 12/2011; 71(4):467-9. DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2011.08.020 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite considerable success of genome wide association (GWA) studies in identifying causal variants for many human diseases, their success in unraveling the genetic basis to complex diseases has been more mitigated. Pathogen population structure may impact upon the infectious phenotype, especially with the intense short-term selective pressure that drug treatment exerts on pathogens. Rigorous analysis that accounts for repeated measures and disentangles the influence of genetic and environmental factors must be performed. Attempts should be made to consider whether pathogen diversity will impact upon host genetic responses to infection. We analyzed the heritability of two Plasmodium falciparum phenotypes, the number of clinical malaria episodes (PFA) and the proportion of these episodes positive for gametocytes (Pfgam), in a family-based cohort followed for 19 years, during which time there were four successive drug treatment regimes, with documented appearance of drug resistance. Repeated measures and variance components analyses were performed with fixed environmental, additive genetic, intra-individual and maternal effects for each drug period. Whilst there was a significant additive genetic effect underlying PFA during the first drug period of study, this was lost in subsequent periods. There was no additive genetic effect for Pfgam. The intra-individual effect increased significantly in the chloroquine period. The loss of an additive genetic effect following novel drug treatment may result in significant loss of power to detect genes in a GWA study. Prior genetic analysis must be a pre-requisite for more detailed GWA studies. The temporal changes in the individual genetic and the intra-individual estimates are consistent with those expected if there were specific host-parasite interactions. The complex basis to the human response to malaria parasite infection likely includes dominance/epistatic genetic effects encompassed within the intra-individual variance component. Evaluating their role in influencing the outcome of infection through host genotype by parasite genotype interactions warrants research effort.
    PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e26364. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026364 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

905 Citations
287.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2014
    • Institut Pasteur
      • Department of Parasitology and Mycology
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2013
    • Mahidol University
      • • Faculty of Science
      • • Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2011
    • Ramathibodi Hospital
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand