[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiological agent. Convincing epidemiological and experimental evidence also links HCC to aflatoxin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin that produces a signature p53-249(ser) mutation. Recently, we have reported that tumor-derived HBx variants encoded by HBV exhibited attenuated transactivation and proapoptotic functions but retained their ability to block p53-mediated apoptosis. These results indicate that mutations in HBx may contribute to the development of HCC. In this study, we determined whether tumor-derived HBx mutants along, or in cooperation with p53-249(ser), could alter cell proliferation and chromosome stability of normal human hepatocytes. To test this hypothesis, we established a telomerase immortalized normal human hepatocycte line HHT4 that exhibited a near diploid karyotype and expressed many hepatocyte-specific genes. We found that overexpression one of the tumor-derived HBx mutants, CT, significantly increased colony forming efficiency (CFE) while its corresponding wild-type allele CNT significantly decreased CFE in HHT4 cells. p53-249(ser) rescued CNT-mediated inhibition of colony formation. Although HHT4 cells lacked an anchorage independent growth capability as they did not form any colonies in soft agar, the CT-expressing HHT4 cells could form colonies, which could be significantly enhanced by p53-249(ser). Induction of aneuploidy could be observed in HHT4 cells expressing CT, but additionally recurring chromosome abnormalities could only be detected in cells coexpressing CT and p53-249(ser). Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that certain mutations in HBx and p53 at codon 249 may cooperate in contributing to liver carcinogenesis.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2009; 127(5):1011-20. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell cycle checkpoints play critical roles in the maintenance of genomic integrity and inactivation of checkpoint genes are frequently perturbed in most cancers. In a case-control study of 299 non-small cell lung cancer cases and 550 controls in Baltimore, we investigated the association between gamma-radiation-induced G(2)/M arrest in cultured blood lymphocytes and lung cancer risk, and examined genotype-phenotype correlations between genetic polymorphisms of 20 genes involving in DNA repair and cell cycle control and gamma-radiation-induced G(2)/M arrest. The study was specifically designed to examine race and gender differences in risk factors. Our data indicated that a less efficient DNA damage-induced G(2)/M checkpoint was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in African American women with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.63 (95% CI = 1.01-7.26); there were no statistically significant associations for Caucasians, or African American men. When the African American women were categorized into quartiles, a significant reverse trend of decreased G(2)/M checkpoint function and increased lung cancer risk was present, with lowest-vs.-highest quartile OR of 13.72 (95% CI = 2.30-81.92, p(trend) < 0.01). Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis indicated that polymorphisms in ATM, CDC25C, CDKN1A, BRCA2, ERCC6, TP53, and TP53BP1 genes were significantly associated with the gamma-radiation-induced G(2)/M arrest phenotype. This study provides evidence that a less efficient G(2)/M checkpoint is significantly associated with lung cancer risk in African American women. The data also suggested that the function of G(2)/M checkpoint is modulated by genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control.
International Journal of Cancer 08/2009; 126(9):2199-210. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles for lung cancers were examined to investigate miRNA's involvement in lung carcinogenesis. miRNA microarray analysis identified statistical unique profiles, which could discriminate lung cancers from noncancerous lung tissues as well as molecular signatures that differ in tumor histology. miRNA expression profiles correlated with survival of lung adenocarcinomas, including those classified as disease stage I. High hsa-mir-155 and low hsa-let-7a-2 expression correlated with poor survival by univariate analysis as well as multivariate analysis for hsa-mir-155. The miRNA expression signature on outcome was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analysis of precursor miRNAs and cross-validated with an independent set of adenocarcinomas. These results indicate that miRNA expression profiles are diagnostic and prognostic markers of lung cancer.
Cancer Cell 04/2006; 9(3):189-98. · 24.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence linking alcohol consumption to p53 mutations in tumors, considerable evidence linking alcohol consumption with risk of breast cancer and some evidence that alcohol and folate consumption interact to affect risk. Further, while there is some indication that oxidation may play a role in breast cancer etiology, there has been little examination of an association of oxidative stress with p53 mutations. We examined several dietary components related to one-carbon metabolism and antioxidants to determine if these factors were related to the prevalence of p53 mutations in breast tumors. We conducted a case-control study of primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer in western New York. Controls <65 were selected from drivers license lists; those > or =65 were selected from Health Care Finance Administration lists. p53 mutations in archived tumor blocks were identified in exons 2-11 and flanking intron sequences. Usual dietary intake was assessed by interview regarding intake in the previous 2 years; alcohol consumption was queried for 2, 10 and 20 years in the past. Our data were consistent with increased likelihood of tumors with p53 mutations for premenopausal breast cancer with increased alcohol intake 10 or 20 years previous; for intake of 16 or more drinks per month in the period 20 years before the interview compared with non-drinkers, the OR was 5.25, 95% CI 1.48-18.58. For postmenopausal women, there was increased likelihood of tumors with p53 mutations among women with higher folate. Antioxidant nutrients were not differentially related to p53 mutations. These results indicate that there may be heterogeneity in breast tumors, as indicated by differences in associations for those with or without p53 mutations, and that causal pathways for these nutrients may vary for pre- and postmenopausal women. For premenopausal women, alcohol consumption in the past was associated with p53 mutations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, resulting from the imbalance between prooxidant and antioxidant states, damages DNA, proteins, cell membranes, and mito- chondria and seems to play a role in human breast carcinogenesis. Dietary sources of antioxidants (chemical) and endogenous antioxidants (enzymat- ic), including the polymorphic manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn- SOD), can act to reduce the load of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the valine-to-alanine substitution that seems to alter transport of the enzyme into the mitochondrion, changing its efficacy in fighting oxidative stress, was associated with breast cancer risk and that a diet rich in sources of antioxidants could ameliorate the effects on risk. Data were collected in a case-control study of diet and breast cancer in western New York from 1986 to 1991. Caucasian women with incident, primary, his- tologically confirmed breast cancer were frequency-matched on age and county of residence to community controls. Blood specimens were col- lected and processed from a subset of participants in the study (266 cases and 295 controls). Using a RFLP that distinguishes a valine (V) to alanine (A) change in the 29 position in the signal sequence of the protein for MnSOD, we characterized MnSOD genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk. We also evaluated the effect of the polymorphism on risk among low and high consumers of fruits and vegetables. Premenopausal women who were homozygous for the A allele had a 4-fold increase in breast cancer risk in comparison to those with 1 or 2 V alleles (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-10.8). Risk was most pronounced among women below the median consumption of fruits and vegetables and of dietary ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol, with little increased risk for those with diets rich in these foods. Relationships were weaker among postmeno- pausal women, although the MnSOD AA genotype was associated with an almost 2-fold increase in risk (odds ratio, 1.8; confidence interval, 0.9 - 3.6). No appreciable modification of risk by diet was detected for these older women. These data support the hypothesis that MnSOD and oxida- tive stress play a significant role in breast cancer risk, particularly in premenopausal women. The finding that risk was greatest among women who consumed lower amounts of dietary antioxidants and was minimal among high consumers indicates that a diet rich in sources of antioxidants may minimize the deleterious effects of the MnSOD polymorphism, thereby supporting public health recommendations for the consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables as a preventive measure against cancer.