[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Escherichia coli NsrR protein is a nitric oxide-sensitive repressor of transcription. The NsrR-binding site is predicted to comprise two copies of an 11 bp motif arranged as an inverted repeat with 1 bp spacing. By mutagenesis we confirmed that both 11 bp motifs are required for maximal NsrR repression of the ytfE promoter. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) to show that NsrR binds to 62 sites close to the 5' ends of genes. Analysis of the ChIP-chip data suggested that a single 11 bp motif (with the consensus sequence AANATGCATTT) can function as an NsrR-binding site in vivo. NsrR binds to sites in the promoter regions of the fliAZY, fliLMNOPQR and mqsR-ygiT transcription units, which encode proteins involved in motility and biofilm development. Reporter fusion assays confirmed that NsrR negatively regulates the fliA and fliL promoters. A mutation in the predicted 11 bp NsrR-binding site in the fliA promoter impaired repression by NsrR and prevented detectable binding in vivo. Assays on soft-agar confirmed that NsrR is a negative regulator of motility in E. coli K12 and in a uropathogenic strain; surface attachment assays revealed decreased levels of attached growth in the absence of NsrR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) analysis showed that the nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive repressor NsrR from Escherichia coli binds in vivo to the promoters of the tynA and feaB genes. These genes encode the first two enzymes of a pathway that is required for the catabolism of phenylethylamine (PEA) and its hydroxylated derivatives tyramine and dopamine. Deletion of nsrR caused small increases in the activities of the tynA and feaB promoters in cultures grown on PEA. Overexpression of nsrR severely retarded growth on PEA and caused a marked repression of the tynA and feaB promoters. Both the growth defect and the promoter repression were reversed in the presence of a source of NO. These results are consistent with NsrR mediating repression of the tynA and feaB genes by binding (in an NO-sensitive fashion) to the sites identified by ChIP-chip. E. coli was shown to use 3-nitrotyramine as a nitrogen source for growth, conditions which partially induce the tynA and feaB promoters. Mutation of tynA (but not feaB) prevented growth on 3-nitrotyramine. Growth yields, mutant phenotypes, and analyses of culture supernatants suggested that 3-nitrotyramine is oxidized to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetate, with growth occurring at the expense of the amino group of 3-nitrotyramine. Accordingly, enzyme assays showed that 3-nitrotyramine and its oxidation product (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetaldehyde) could be oxidized by the enzymes encoded by tynA and feaB, respectively. The results suggest that an additional physiological role of the PEA catabolic pathway is to metabolize nitroaromatic compounds that may accumulate in cells exposed to NO.
Journal of bacteriology 09/2008; 190(18):6170-7. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NsrR is a nitric oxide-sensitive regulator of transcription. In Escherichia coli, NsrR is a repressor of the hmp gene encoding the flavohemoglobin that detoxifies nitric oxide. Three other transcription units (ytfE, ygbA, and hcp-hcr) are known to be subject to regulation by NsrR. This chapter describes experimental and statistical protocols used to identify NsrR-binding sites in the E. coli chromosome using chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray analysis. The methods are applicable, with suitable modifications, to any regulatory protein and any organism.
Methods in Enzymology 02/2008; 437:211-33. · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microarray studies of the Escherichia coli response to nitric oxide and nitrosative stress have suggested that additional transcriptional regulators of this response remain to be characterized. We identify here the product of the yjeB gene as a negative regulator of the transcription of the ytfE, hmpA and ygbA genes, all of which are known to be upregulated by nitrosative stress. Transcriptional fusions to the promoters of these genes were expressed constitutively in a yjeB mutant, indicating that all three are targets for repression by YjeB. An inverted repeat sequence that overlaps the -10 element of all three promoters is proposed to be a binding site for the YjeB protein. A similar inverted repeat sequence was identified in the tehA promoter, which is also known to be sensitive to nitrosative stress. The ytfE, hmpA, ygbA, and tehA promoters all caused derepression of a ytfE-lacZ transcriptional fusion when present in the cell in multiple copies, presumably by a repressor titration effect, suggesting the presence of functional YjeB binding sites in these promoters. However, YjeB regulation of tehA was weak, as judged by the activity of a tehA-lacZ fusion, perhaps because YjeB repression of tehA is masked by other regulatory mechanisms. Promoters regulated by YjeB could be derepressed by iron limitation, which is consistent with an iron requirement for YjeB activity. The YjeB protein is a member of the Rrf2 family of transcriptional repressors and shares three conserved cysteine residues with its closest relatives. We propose a regulatory model in which the YjeB repressor is directly sensitive to nitrosative stress. On the basis of similarity to the nitrite-responsive repressor NsrR from Nitrosomonas europaea, we propose that the yjeB gene of E. coli be renamed nsrR.
Journal of Bacteriology 03/2006; 188(3):874-81. · 2.69 Impact Factor