[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GATA-3 is the master transcription factor for T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation and is critical for the expression of Th2 cytokines. Little is known, however, about the nature of the functional molecular complexes of GATA-3. We identified a high-mobility group (HMG)-box type transcription factor, lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF-1), in the GATA-3 complex present in Th2 cells using a Flag-calmodulin-binding peptide (CBP)-tag based proteomics method. The interaction between GATA-3 and LEF-1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments using LEF-1-introduced T-cell lineage TG40 cells. The HMG-box domain of LEF-1 and two zinc finger domains of GATA-3 were found to be important for the physical association. The introduction of LEF-1 into developing Th2 cells resulted in the suppression of Th2 cytokine production. The suppression was significantly lower in the cells into which a HMG-box-deleted LEF-1 mutant was introduced. Moreover, LEF-1 inhibited the binding activity of GATA-3 to the interleukin (IL)-5 promoter. These results suggest that LEF-1 is involved in the GATA-3 complex, while also regulating the GATA-3 function, such as the induction of Th2 cytokine expression via the inhibition of the DNA-binding activity of GATA-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related changes in lymphocytes are most prominent in the T cell compartment. There have been substantial numbers of reports on T cell function in aged mice and humans, such as on the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, but the results show considerable variation and contradictions. In the present study, we used 8- to 12-mo-old aging mice and a well-established in vitro Th1/Th2 cell differentiation culture system to identify molecular defects in Th1/Th2 cell differentiation that can be detected in the relatively early stages of aging. The capability to differentiate into Th2 cells is reduced in aging mouse CD4(+) T cells. Decreased activation of the ERK MAPK cascade upon TCR stimulation, but normal intracellular-free calcium ion concentration mobilization and normal IL-4-induced STAT6 activation were observed in aging mouse CD4(+) T cells. In addition, reduced expression of GATA3 was detected in developing Th2 cells. Chromatin remodeling of the Th2 cytokine gene locus was found to be impaired. Th2-dependent allergic airway inflammation was milder in aging mice compared with in young adult mice. These results suggest that the levels of Th2 cell differentiation and resulting Th2-dependent immune responses, including allergic airway inflammation, decline during aging through defects in the activation of the ERK MAPK cascade, expression of GATA3 protein and GATA3-dependent chromatin remodeling of the Th2 cytokine gene locus. In the present study, we provide the first evidence indicating that a chromatin-remodeling event in T cells is impaired by aging.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2006; 176(4):2546-54. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.176.4.2546 · 4.92 Impact Factor