[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of inhibitor-tolerant ethanologenic yeast is one of the most significant challenges facing bio-ethanol production. Adaptation of Pichia stipitis to inhibitors is one of the most efficient ways for dealing with inhibitor problems. The molecular mechanisms involved in the tolerance and adaptation of P. stipitis are, however, still unclear. In the present study, we developed a yeast strain from P. stipitis Y7 that has improved tolerance against inhibitors. We performed comparative proteomic investigations with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These investigations gave insights into the tolerance of yeast strains to biomass conversion inhibitors at the protein level. Many proteins involved in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were found to be differentially expressed due to the presence of furfural. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and metabolite analysis were utilized to provide orthogonal evidence for the results obtained. Our results provide a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of P. stipitis to furfural. These findings will benefit the design and development of inhibitor-tolerant yeast.
Biotechnology for Biofuels 03/2013; 6(1):34. · 5.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is useful as a host for genetic engineering, since it allows the folding and glycosylation of expressed heterologous eukaryotic proteins and can be subjected to many genetic manipulations. Recent advancements in the yeast cell surface engineering developed strategies to genetically immobilize amylolytic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes on yeast cell surface for the production of fuel ethanol from biomass. We reviewed the basic principle and progress of S. cerevisiae cell-surface engineering and gave an insight into the recent technological developments in the production of bioethanol using surface engineered yeast.
Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 08/2012; 28(8):901-11.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a gasoline substitute, butanol has advantages over traditional fuel ethanol in terms of energy density and hydroscopicity. However, solvent production appeared limited by butanol toxicity. The strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum was subjected to mutation by mutagen of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for 0.5 h. Screening of mutants was done according to the individual resistance to butanol. A selected butanol-resistant mutant, strain 206, produced 50 % higher solvent concentrations than the wild-type strain when 60 g glucose/l was employed as substrate. The strain was also able to produce solvents of 23.47 g/l in 80 g/l glucose P2 medium after 70 h fermentation, including 5.41 g acetone/l, 15.05 g butanol/l and 3.02 g ethanol/l, resulting in an ABE yield and productivity of 0.32 g/g and 0.34 g/(l h). Subsequently, Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from enzymatic hydrolysate of NaOH-pretreated corn stover was investigated in this study. An ABE yield of 0.41 and a productivity of 0.21 g/(l h) was obtained, compared to the yield of 0.33 and the productivity of 0.20 g/(l h) in the control medium containing 52.47 mixed sugars. However, it is important to note that although strain 206 was able to utilize all the glucose rapidly in the hydrolysate, only 32.9 % xylose in the hydrolysate was used after fermentation stopped compared to 91.4 % xylose in the control medium. Strain 206 was shown to be a robust strain for ABE production from lignocellulosic materials and has a great potential for industrial application.
MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2012; 28(10):2963-71. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production of ethanol and methane from corn stover (CS) was investigated in a biorefinery process. Initially, a novel soaking pretreatment (NaOH and aqueous-ammonia) for CS was developed to remove lignin, swell the biomass, and improve enzymatic digestibility. Based on the sugar yield during enzymatic hydrolysis, the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1 % NaOH+8 % NH(4)OH, 50°C, 48 h, with a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:10. The results demonstrated that soaking pretreatment removed 63.6 % lignin while reserving most of the carbohydrates. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the yields of glucose and xylose were 78.5 % and 69.3 %, respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated CS using Pichia stipitis resulted in an ethanol concentration of 36.1 g/L, corresponding only to 63.3 % of the theoretical maximum. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, the liquid fraction of the pretreatment was used to re-soak new CS. For methane production, the re-soaked CS and the residues of SSF were anaerobically digested for 120 days. Fifteen grams CS were converted to 1.9 g of ethanol and 1337.3 mL of methane in the entire process.
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 06/2012; 167(7):2088-102. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida shehatae gene xyl1 and Pichia stipitis gene xyl2, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XD) respectively, were amplified by PCR. The genes xyl1 and xyl2 were placed under the control of promoter GAL in vector pYES2 to construct the recombinant expression vector pYES2-P12. Subsequently the vector pYES2-P12 was transformed
into S. cerevisiae YS58 by LiAc to produce the recombinant yeast YS58-12. The alcoholic ferment indicated that the recombinant yeast YS58-12
could convert xylose to ethanol with the xylose consumption rate of 81.3%.
Frontiers of Biology in China 04/2012; 3(2):165-169.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 (CGMCC no. 2660) and Issatchenkia orientalis Y4 (CGMCC no. 2159) were combined individually with Pichia stipitis CBS6054 to establish the cocultures of Y5 + CBS6054 and Y4 + CBS6054. The coculture Y5 + CBS6054 effectively metabolized furfural and HMF and converted xylose and glucose mixture to ethanol with ethanol concentration of 16.6 g/L and ethanol yield of 0.46 g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 91.2% of the maximal theoretical value in synthetic medium. Accordingly, the nondetoxified dilute-acid hydrolysate was used to produce ethanol by co-culture Y5 + CBS6054. The co-culture consumed glucose along with furfural and HMF completely in 12 h, and all xylose within 96 h, resulting in a final ethanol concentration of 27.4 g/L and ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 85.1% of the maximal theoretical value. The results indicated that the co-culture of Y5 + CBS6054 was a satisfying combination for ethanol production from non-detoxified dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This co-culture showed a promising prospect for industrial application.
Biotechnology research international. 01/2012; 2012:656371.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 was used to produce ethanol from enzymatic hydrolysate of non-detoxified steam-exploded corn stover, with and without a nitrogen source, and decreasing inoculum size. The results indicated that the ethanol concentration of 44.55 g/L, corresponding to 94.5% of the theoretical yield was obtained after 24 h, with an inoculum size of 10% (v/v) and nitrogen source (corn steep liquor, CSL) of 40 mL/L. With the same inoculum size, and without CSL, the ethanol concentration was 43.21 g/L, corresponding to 91.7% of the theoretical value after 60 h. With a decreased inoculum size of 5% (v/v), and without CSL, the ethanol concentration was 40.00 g/L, corresponding to 85.8% of the theoretical value after 72 h. The strain offers the potential to improve the economy of cellulosic ethanol production by simplifying the production process and reducing the costs associated with the process such as water, capital equipment and nutrient supplementation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Native aspen (Populus tremuloides) was pretreated using sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite (SPORL) and dilute sulfuric acid alone (DA). Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted at 18% solids using commercial enzymes with cellulase loadings ranging from 6 to 15 FPU/g glucan and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5. Compared with DA pretreatment, the SPORL pretreatment reduced the energy required for wood chip size-reduction, and reduced mixing energy of the resultant substrate for solid liquefaction. Approximately 60% more ethanol was produced from the solid SPORL substrate (211 L/ton wood at 59 g/L with SSF efficiency of 76%) than from the solid DA substrate (133 L/ton wood at 35 g/L with SSF efficiency 47%) at a cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g glucan after 120 h. When the cellulase loading was increased to 15 FPU/g glucan on the DA substrate, the ethanol yield still remained lower than the SPORL substrate at 10 FPU/g glucan.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reduce water consumption and equipment investment, and simplify the technological process, a Pichia stipitis-adapted strain with improved tolerance against inhibitors and ethanol was used in ethanol production. The steam-exploded corn stalk was directly enzymatically hydrolyzed without detoxification, and then the enzymatic hydrolysate was used as the fermentation substrate. Results from laboratory experiments in shake flasks and fermentation tanks indicated that, after fermentation for 48 h, ethanol concentration reached to 43.42 g/L; the ethanol yield was 0.47 g(p)/g(s), which was 92.16% of the theoretical ethanol yield. The results of the present research demonstrated that the application of this strain avoided detoxification of the steam-pretreated material through washing, thus simplifying the technological process. In addition, the application of the adapted strain reduced water consumption and lowered the equipment investment of ethanol production from corn stalk, which are important factors in further promotion of the development of ethanol production from straw.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the potential of an adapted inhibitor-tolerant yeast strain developed in our lab to produce ethanol from softwood, the effect of furfural and HMF presented in defined medium and pretreatment hydrolysate on cell growth was investigated. And the efficiency of ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysate mixed with pretreatment hydrolysate of softwood by bisulfite and sulfuric acid pretreatment process was reported. The results showed that in the combined treatments of the two inhibitors, cell growth was not affected at 1 g/L each of furfural and HMF. When 3 g/L each of furfural and HMF was applied, the adapted strain responded with an extended lag phase of 24 h. Both in batch and fed-batch runs of combined hydrolysate fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were above 20.0 g/L and the ethanol yields (Yp/s) on the total amount of fermentable sugar presented in the pretreated materials were above 0.40 g/g. It implies the great promise of the yeast strain for improving ethanol production from softwood due to its high ability of metabolizing inhibitor compounds of furfural and HMF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports comparative evaluations of sugar and ethanol production from a native aspen (Populus tremuloides) between sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA) pretreatments. All aqueous pretreatments were carried out in a laboratory wood pulping digester using wood chips at 170°C with a liquid to oven dry (od) wood ratio (L/W) of 3:1 at two levels of acid charge on wood of 0.56 and 1.11%. Sodium bisulfite charge on od wood was 0 for DA and 1.5 or 3.0% for SPORL. All substrates produced by both pretreatments (except DA with pretreatment duration of 0) had good enzymatic digestibility of over 80%. However, SPORL produced higher enzymatic digestibility than its corresponding DA pretreatment for all the experiments conducted. As a result, SPORL produced higher ethanol yield from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic substrate than its corresponding DA pretreatment. SPORL was more effective than its corresponding DA pretreatment in reducing energy consumption for postpretreatment wood chip size-reduction. SPORL, with lower energy input and higher sugar and ethanol yield, produced higher sugar and ethanol production energy efficiencies than the corresponding DA pretreatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports an ethanol yield of 270L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before fermentation. Detoxification of the pretreatment hydrolysate using overliming or XAD-4 resin before being combined with enzymatic hydrolysate improved ethanol productivity in the first 4h of fermentation and overall fermentation efficiency. However, detoxification did not improve final ethanol yield because of sugar losses. The Y5 strain showed excellent ethanol productivities of 2.0 and 0.8g/L/h averaged over a period of 4 and 24h, respectively, in the undetoxified run. The furan metabolization rates of the Y5 strain were significantly higher for the undetoxified run than those for the detoxidfied runs, suggesting it can tolerate even higher furan concentrations than those studied. Preliminary mass and energy balances were conducted. SPORL produced an excellent monomeric sugar recovery value of about 85% theoretical and a net energy output of 4.05GJ/ton wood with an ethanol energy production efficiency of 178% before distillation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potentials of deteriorated mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees for cellulosic ethanol production were evaluated using the sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) process. The trees were harvested from two sites in the United States Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, Colorado. The infestation age of the trees varied from zero to about 8 years. Mild (170 °C) and harsh (180 °C) SPORL pretreatments were conducted. The chemical charges were sulfuric acid of 2.21% and sodium bisulfite of 8% on oven dry wood for the harsh and half of those for the mild pretreatment. The results suggest that beetle-caused mortality enriched glucan content by as much as 3 percentage points (or 7.5%) in wood. The glucan enrichment seems to increase with infestation age. The enriched glucan can be captured after SPORL pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The killed trees are more susceptible to SPORL pretreatment, which enhanced substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED). Enzymatic hydrolysis glucose yields (EHGY) from killed trees were about 5−20% higher than those from their corresponding live trees. Total fermentable sugar productions from dead trees (including a tree laying on the ground) were 4−14% higher than corresponding production from live trees, depending on pretreatment conditions and infestation age. An ethanol yield of 267 L/metric ton of wood or 69% theoretical value was achieved from a tree infested 4 years, 7% higher than the 250 L/metric ton of wood from the corresponding live tree. The results also demonstrated the robustness of SPORL pretreatment for lodgepole pine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quais-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 degrees C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 05/2010; 86(5):1355-65. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize xylose is attributed to its inability to convert xylose to xylulose. Low xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) activities in S. cerevisiae are regarded as the reason of blocking the pathway from xylose to xylulose. We had found that Candida shehatae could also be another source for XR gene except Pichia stipitis in the previous study. In this study, we tried to investigate if the expressed XR from C. shehatae could work with the over-expressed endogenous XDH together to achieve the same goal of converting xylose to ethanol in S. cerevisiae. The XR gene (XYL1) from C. shehatae and endogenous XDH gene (XYL2) were both cloned and over-expressed in host S. cerevisiae cell. The specific enzyme activities of XR and XDH were measured and the result of fermentation revealed that the new combination of two enzymes from different sources other than P. stipitis could also coordinate and work with each other and confer xylose utilization ability to S. cerevisiae.
Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia 01/2010; 46(4):456-61.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast strains Y1, Y4 and Y7 demonstrated high conversion efficiencies for sugars and high abilities to tolerate or metabolize inhibitors in dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Strains Y1 and Y4 completely consumed the glucose within 24 h in dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysate during in situ detoxification, and the maximum ethanol yields reached 0.49 g and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose, equivalent to maximum theoretical values of 96% and 88.2%, respectively. Strain Y1 could metabolize xylose to xylitol with a yield of 0.64 g/g xylose, whereas Y4 was unable to utilize xylose as a substrate. Strain Y7 was able to consume sugars (glucose and xylose) within 72 h during hydrolysate in situ detoxification, producing a high ethanol yield (equivalent to 93.6% of the maximum theoretical value). Y1 and Y7 are the most efficient yeast strains yet reported for producing ethanol from non-detoxified dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. These findings offer huge potential for improving the economics of bio-ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene XYL1 from Candida shehatae and gene XYL2 from Pichia stipitis were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the two genes were both placed under the strong promoter of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) of plasmid pAD2 to produce the recombinant expression vector pAD2-P12. Because the amplified XYL1 fragment lacks the stop codon UAA, the polypeptide expressed in yeast cells should be a fusion protein, which is a fusion of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase. Subsequently, the pAD2-P12 vector was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae YS58 to produce a recombinant S. cerevisiae YS58-12. It was indicated that S. cerevisiae YS58-12 has the ability of metabolizing xylose to produce ethanol by fermentation experiment. The result of cofermentation of glucose and xylose by using this recombinant S. cerevisiae YS58-12 showed a relatively satisfactory result. The highest percentage of xylose consumption rate reached 81.3% and the ethanol yield was equal to 67.14% of the ideal value.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 09/2008; 150(2):185-92. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to construct a strain that converts sugar mixture and resist/metabolize inhibitors in lignocellulosic dilute-acid hydrolysate, the biotechnology of inactive intergeneric fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilis was performed. Fusant 1 was successfully obtained as a hybrid strain, which was screened out by xylose and mixed sugar (xylose and glucose) fermentation. This strain showed good abilities of ethanol production, ethanol tolerance, and resistance to the toxic inhibitors presenting in the hydrolysate. The maximum volumetric yield of ethanol and yield of xylitol in mixed sugar was 9.52 g/l and 0.44 g/g, respectively. The results indicated that the constructed strain Fusant 1 was a good producer for ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic dilute-acid hydrolysate.
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 09/2008; 157(3):473-82. · 1.94 Impact Factor