[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmalemmal neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) regulate the level of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA) and glutamate, after their release at brain synapses. Stimuli including protein kinase C (PKC) activation can lead to the internalization of some NTTs and a reduction in neurotransmitter clearance capacity. We found that the protein Flotillin-1 (Flot1), also known as Reggie-2, was required for PKC-regulated internalization of members of two different NTT families, the DA transporter (DAT) and the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, and we identified a conserved serine residue in Flot1 that is essential for transporter internalization. Further analysis revealed that Flot1 was also required to localize DAT within plasma membrane microdomains in stable cell lines, and was essential for amphetamine-induced reverse transport of DA in neurons but not for DA uptake. In sum, our findings provide evidence for a critical role of Flot1-enriched membrane microdomains in PKC-triggered DAT endocytosis and the actions of amphetamine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A quinazoline that decreases polyglutamine aggregate burden in a cell-based assay was identified from a high-throughput screen of a chemical-compound library, provided by the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR). A structure and activity study yielded leads with submicromolar potency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conditional mouse models of polyglutamine diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD), have revealed that cells can clear accumulated pathogenic proteins if the continuous production of the mutant transgene is halted. Invariably, the clearance of the protein leads to regression of the disease symptoms in mice. In light of these findings, it is critical to determine the pathway responsible for alleviating this protein accumulation to define targets to fight these diseases. In a functional genetic screen of HD, we found that activation of insulin receptor substrate-2, which mediates the signaling cascades of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, leads to a macroautophagy-mediated clearance of the accumulated proteins. The macroautophagy is triggered despite activation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and S6 kinase, but still requires proteins previously implicated in macroautophagy, such as Beclin1 and hVps34. These findings indicate that the accumulation of mutant protein can lead to mTOR-independent macroautophagy and that lysosome-mediated degradation of accumulated protein differs from degradation under conditions of starvation.
The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2006; 172(5):719-31. · 10.82 Impact Factor