Anil Sood

Punjab Remote Sensing Centre, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

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Publications (29)9.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cotton cultivation in semi-arid region of Indian Punjab provides the full potential to offer livelihood security to millions of marginal and small farmers. But the farmers consider it most risky crop as its yield varies with season and prices fluctuate in the market largely. Temporally, its production has increased from 176 lakh bales in 1996-97 and an all time record of 280 lakh bales during 2006-07. This record production became possible only due to the good weather and introduction of Bt cotton hybrids. The unpredictability of cotton yield is a great concern to the cotton industry. Many factors, such as length of the growing season, climate (including solar radiation, temperature, light, wind, rainfall, and dew), cultivar, availability of nutrients and soil moisture, pests, and cultural practices affect cotton growth. Of these, it is thought that environmental factors exert the major influence on yield development during each season. Temperature is considered to be one of the main environmental factors contributing to variable yields in cotton. Till now limited information exists on the effects of temperature on Bt cotton growth and yield in this region. To generate such information CropSyst model was used rather than field experimentation as the later is not feasible due to difficulty in controlling/ creating variability in weather parameters. The model was customized using the data of crop, soil and weather for an experiment conducted on Bt cotton hybrid RCH 134 during 2005 at Bathinda and simulations were made for 15 years 1991-2005. From the simulated results, relationships between temperature and duration of total crop growth period as well as of phenophases (sowing to flowering, flowering to boll formation and boll formation and maturity) and subsequently between duration of phenophases and cotton seed yields were developed. The results indicated that by the increase in temperature from 28 to 32 oC cotton seed yield decreased from 4700 to 2300 kg ha-1 following a linear relation with high coefficient of determination (0.97) and the reduction was more during sowing to flowering stage than others. Regarding water relationships, real crop water productivity was more (10.2 kg mm-1) than apparent (8.8 kg mm-1).
  • Journal of agrometeorology 12/2013; 15(2):98-102. · 0.15 Impact Factor
  • 01/2013; 15(2):98-102.
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    ABSTRACT: Cropping system study is not only useful to understand the overall sustainability of agricultural system, but also it helps in generating many important parameters which are useful in climate change impact assessment. Considering its importance, Space Applications Centre, took up a project for mapping and characterizing major cropping systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. The study area included the five states of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India, i.e. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. There were two aspects of the study. The first aspect included state and district level cropping system mapping using multi-date remote sensing (IRS-AWiFS and Radarsat ScanSAR) data. The second part was to characterize the cropping system using moderate spatial resolution multi-date remote sensing data (SPOT VGT NDVI) and ground survey. The remote sensing data was used to compute three cropping system performance indices (Multiple Cropping Index, Area Diversity Index and Cultivated Land Utilization Index). Ground survey was conducted using questionnaires filled up by 1,000 farmers selected from 103 villages based on the cropping systems map. Apart from ground survey, soil and water sampling and quality analysis were carried out to understand the effect of different cropping systems and their management practices. The results showed that, rice-wheat was the major cropping system of the IGP, followed by Rice-Fallow-Fallow and Maize-Wheat. Other major cropping systems of IGP included Sugarcane based, Pearl millet-Wheat, Rice-Fallow-Rice, Cotton-Wheat. The ground survey could identify 77 cropping systems, out of which 38 are rice-based systems. Out of these 77 cropping systems, there were 5 single crop systems, occupying 6.5% coverage (of all cropping system area), 56 double crop systems with 72.7% coverage, and 16 triple crop systems with 20.8% coverage. The cropping system performance analysis showed that the crop diversity was found to be highest in Haryana, while the cropping intensity was highest in Punjab state. KeywordsCropping system–Indo-gangetic plains–Remote sensing–Performance indices–Farmers’ survey–Rice-wheat
    Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 01/2010; 39(3):355-364. · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • Italian Journal of Remote Sensing. 01/2010; 42(3):115-127.
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    ABSTRACT: Cotton cultivation in semi-arid region of Indian Punjab provides the full potential to offer livelihood security to millions of marginal and small farmers. But the farmers consider it most risky crop as its yield varies with season and prices fluctuate in the market largely. Temporally, its production has increased from 176 lakh bales in 1996-97 and an all time record of 280 lakh bales during 2006-07. This record production became possible only due to the good weather and introduction of Bt cotton hybrids. The unpredictability of cotton yield is a great concern to the cotton industry. Many factors, such as length of the growing season, climate (including solar radiation, temperature, light, wind, rainfall, and dew), cultivar, availability of nutrients and soil moisture, pests, and cultural practices affect cotton growth. Of these, it is thought that environmental factors exert the major influence on yield development during each season. Temperature is considered to be one of the main environmental factors contributing to variable yields in cotton. Till now limited information exists on the effects of temperature on Bt cotton growth and yield in this region. To generate such information CropSyst model was used rather than field experimentation as the later is not feasible due to difficulty in controlling/ creating variability in weather parameters. The model was customized using the data of crop, soil and weather for an experiment conducted on Bt cotton hybrid RCH 134 during 2005 at Bathinda and simulations were made for 15 years 1991-2005. From the simulated results, relationships between temperature and duration of total crop growth period as well as of phenophases (sowing to flowering, flowering to boll formation and boll formation and maturity) and subsequently between duration of phenophases and cotton seed yields were developed. The results indicated that by the increase in temperature from 28 to 32 o C cotton seed yield decreased from 4700 to 2300 kg ha -1 following a linear relation with high coefficient of determination (0.97) and the reduction was more during sowing to flowering stage than others. Regarding water relationships, real crop water productivity was more (10.2 kg mm -1) than apparent (8.8 kg mm -1).
    International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS): Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture, Ahmedabad, India; 12/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Individual effect of different field scale management interventions for water saving in rice viz. changing date of transplanting, cultivar and irrigation schedule on yield, water saving and water productivity is well documented in the literature. However, little is known about their integrated effect. To study that, field experimentation and modeling approach was used. Field experiments were conducted for 2 years (2006 and 2007) at Punjab Agricultural University Farm, Ludhiana on a deep alluvial loamy sand Typic Ustipsamment soils developed under hyper-thermic regime. Treatments included three dates of transplanting (25 May, 10 June and 25 June), two cultivars (PR 118 inbred and RH 257 hybrid) and two irrigation schedules (2-days drainage period and at soil water suction of 16 kPa). The model used was CropSyst, which has already been calibrated for growth (periodic biomass and LAI) of rice and soil water content in two independent experiments. The main findings of the field and simulation studies conducted are compared to any individual, integrated management of transplanting date, cultivar and irrigation, sustained yield (6.3–7.5 t ha−1) and saved substantial amount of water in rice. For example, with two management interventions, i.e. shifting of transplanting date to lower evaporative demand (from 5 May to 25 June) concomitant with growing of short duration hybrid variety (90 days from transplanting to harvest), the total real water saving (wet saving) through reduction in evapotranspiration (ET) was 140 mm, which was almost double than managing the single, i.e. 66 mm by shifting transplanting or 71 mm by growing short duration hybrid variety. Shifting the transplanting date saved water through reduction in soil water evaporation component while growing of short duration variety through reduction in both evaporation and transpiration components of water balance. Managing irrigation water schedule based on soil water suction of 16 kPa at 15–20 cm soil depth, compared to 2-day drainage, did not save water in real (wet saving), however, it resulted into apparent water saving (dry saving). The real crop water productivity (marketable yield/ET) was more by 17% in 25th June transplanted rice than 25th May, 23% in short duration variety than long and 2% in irrigation treatment of 16 kPa soil water suction than 2-days drainage. The corresponding values for the apparent crop water productivity (marketable yield/irrigation water applied) were 16, 20 and 50%, respectively. Pooled experimental data of 2 years showed that with managing irrigation scheduling based on soil water suction of 16 kPa at 15–20 cm soil depth, though 700 mm irrigation water was saved but the associated yield was reduced by 277 kg ha−1.
    Agricultural Water Management 07/2009; 96(7):1096-1104. · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • Indian Journal of Weed Science. 01/2009; 41(3&4):136-141.
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    ABSTRACT: A remote sensing-based approach was applied to study the impact of changes in cropping system on the exploitation of water resources in two districts namely Ludhiana in central Punjab and Muktsar in South-Western Punjab. Rice-wheat remained dominant rotation in Ludhiana while cottonwheat rotation was replaced partially by rice-wheat in Muktsar within a span of over five years (1998–99 to 2003–04). The solo rice-wheat system in Ludhiana district has resulted in large-scale ground water exploitation as is evident from the faster decline in water table (up to 0.9m year−1) and higher tube-wells density (440 per 1000 ha). As a result, nearly 60 per cent of the total area of Ludhiana district has the water table depth greater than 10m and in some blocks, it has reached to a depth of 22 m. In Muktsar district, corresponding rise in water table is 0.2m per year and tube well density is 114 per 1000 ha. Irrigation water associated with paddy cultivation in Ludhiana and adjoining areas moves laterally through the buried paleo-channels of Sutlaj in the deeper soil profile and gets accumulated in the basin lands of Muktsar and adjoining areas and causes an extra water flux and subsequent rise in water table, recorded at 3 to 7m depth. To minimize the hydrological imbalance of the state, it is suggested to diversify some of the area in the central districts from irrigation water intensive rice-wheat system to less water intensive cropping system.
    Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 01/2009; 37(3):483-491. · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • Journal of agrometeorology 01/2009; 11(special):217-223. · 0.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Punjab with a total geographical area of 50,362 sq. km is predominantly an agricultural state. The economy of the state and well being of the farmers depends to a large extent on the availability of water. Nearly 80% of the water resources of the state are used for the production of food and fibre. Ground water is a major source for drinking and irrigation in Punjab. However, the over exploitation and mismanagement of water sources has not only led to the fall in water table but also in deterioration of water quality.
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    ABSTRACT: Punjab with a total geographical area of 50,362 sq. km is predominantly an agricultural state. The economy of the state and well being of the farmers depends to a large extent on the availability of water. Nearly 80% of the water resources of the state are used for the production of food and fibre. Ground water is a major source for drinking and irrigation in Punjab. However, the over exploitation and mismanagement of water sources has not only led to the fall in water table but also in deterioration of water quality.
    NNRMS Bulletin. 02/2008; NNRMS (B) - 32(A Special Issue on RS and GIS based Application Projects from state Remote Sensing Centres):56-65.
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    ABSTRACT: In southwestern region of Punjab in north India, sowing dates of cotton crop in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system are staggered from last week of April to mid of May depending upon the surface water supply from canal as ground water is not fit for irrigation. Further, farmers practice intensive cultivation for seedbed preparation and burning of wheat straw before sowing of cotton crop. With the present farmers’ practices, yields have become static and system has become non-profitable. Field experiments were conducted on Entisols for two rotations of cotton–wheat system during the years of 2004–2005 and 2005–2006 in split plot design to study the direct and interactive effects of date of sowing and tillage-plus-wheat residue management practices on growth and yield of cotton and wheat and to increase the profitability by reducing the tillage operations, which costs about 50% of the sowing cost. The pooled analysis showed that in cotton crop, there was a significant interaction between year × dates of sowing. Among different tillage-plus-wheat residue management practices yields were 23–39% higher in tillage treatments than minimum-tillage. In wheat, grain yield in tillage treatments were at par. Water productivity amongst the tillage treatments in cotton was 19–27% less in minimum tillage than others tillage treatments. Similar trend was found in wheat crop. Remunerability of the cotton–wheat system was more with a combination of reduced tillage in cotton and minimum tillage in wheat than conventional tillage.
    Soil and Tillage Research 01/2008; 99(1):76-83. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Soils and Crops. 01/2008; 18(1):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Rice–wheat cropping system being highly productive and profitable, dominates the irrigated alluvial tract of Indo-Gangetic Plain of South Asia. In this region, the transplanting is staggered over a longer period (starting from early May to end of June) due to scarcity of migratory labour and power supply. Yield response of rice to different transplanting dates gets varied with weather conditions at different growth stages of the crop as well as with the occurrence of insect-pests infestation. The present investigation, therefore, concerns the effects of different dates of transplanting and weather parameters on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of rice and subsequent wheat in rice–wheat cropping system in Indian Punjab involving field experimentation for 2 years and simulation for 23 years. For the simulation study, crop production and management (CROPMAN) model which is a multi-year, multi-crop and daily time step cropping system was used. The simulated rice yields with varying dates of transplanting of rice complimented the field results and showed an increasing trend when transplanting was shifted from high to low evaporative demand owing to favourable weather conditions for plant growth. Duration of temperature greater than 37 °C during post-transplanted seedling period (DsT), temperature greater than 33 °C (TF) and number of rain showers (NSF) from flowering to pollen stage (75–90 days after transplanting) affected rice yield (Yr) significantly. Sixty-seven percent variability in rice yield was explained by these weather parameters following the equation Yr = 0.656SR − 36.9DsT − 175.9TF − 102.5NSF + 11995. Shifting of transplanting dates also resulted into a saving of 192 mm as wet (evapotranspiration) and 590 mm as dry (irrigation) water. Real and apparent crop water productivities (grain yield per unit of water consumed by the crop as ET and irrigation water applied, respectively) were more (>70%) in rice transplanted under lower (end of June onwards) than higher evaporative demand (mid May).
    Agricultural Water Management. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The Indian Punjab has been heralded for its technical achieve- ments but increasingly criticized for leveraging its success on the environment. Irrigation has been one of the main pillars of the Pun- jab's Green Revolution. The availability of water has pushed rice and wheat productivity to new heights. Cheap water policies have enabled farmers to exploit groundwater. Water tables are shrinking in some areas, while water logging poses a major problem in other parts of the Indian Punjab. This article investigates the potential for reducing irrigation water use through policies that align irriga- tion water prices with their true social cost. This includes charging Punjabi farmers for irrigation water and introducing alternative, more water efficient crops. Results indicate that alternative crops, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), would enter cropping patterns provided that irrigation water prices moved to about 25% of the price charged by municipal water au- thorities. Shifting cropping patterns toward more water-efficient en- terprises would decrease irrigation water use on a typical paddy by nearly 66%. Future policy considerations are required to offset the declines in producer welfare that would accompany the irrigation water pricing. HE Indian Punjab has witnessed a rapid growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production that has virtually defined the Green Revolution in Asia. During the past three decades, the Indian Punjab has transformed its agriculture through the introduction of new technology whose documen- tation is legion. Highlighted by high-yielding cultivars, increased fertilization, and irrigation, rice and wheat yields have more than doubled since the dawning of the Green Revolution (Punjab Ministry of Agriculture, 2005). Rice and wheat have also received market sup- port from the Indian government through minimum sup- port price (MSP) and procurement policies that provide assured markets. The remunerative nature of rice and wheat has resulted in a dramatic area expansion in the Indian Punjab: a total of 2.6 million ha of paddy rice and 3.4 million ha of wheat are now under cultivation (Punjab Ministry of Agriculture, 2005). The economic benefits have been leveraged in large measure through water irrigation. Rainfall in an aver- age year is insufficient to provide paddies with adequate
    Agronomy Journal - AGRON J. 01/2007; 99(4).
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    Indian J. Ecology. 01/2006; 33(2):132-134.
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    ABSTRACT: In the agricultural sector there is an urgent need to use dwindling water resources efficiently and enhancing crop water productivity (CWP). At the farm level, reducing evapotranspiration (ET) through deficit irrigation (lesser number of irrigations) and identification of the most sensitive crop growth stage to water stress has been reported as one of the ways to enhance CWP. Although information on CWP in relation to irrigation water of some cereal crops based on the field experimental data is available in the literature. However, the influence of soil texture, precipitation and deficit irrigation regime and their interactions on CWP is not well-documented. We explored these components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system through simulation analysis, which otherwise are difficult to be explained through field experimentation. The simulated results showed that by reducing the amount of irrigation water input below economic optima, both the yield and ET of cotton and wheat crops were reduced and consequently CWP to varying magnitudes depending upon soil texture, precipitation and irrigation regimes. With reducing post-sowing irrigation water from 300 to 75 mm, the decrease in CWP in silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand soils were 15, 4 and 1% for cotton and 8, 36 and 55% for wheat, respectively, indicating higher decrease in CWP for wheat than for cotton, and in coarse-textured than fine-textured soils. Precipitation increased the CWP. The increase was more in wheat crop on coarse-textured soil with less number of irrigations. Averaged over soil texture and irrigation regimes, real CWP (RCWP) (yield/ET) was 47 and 9 and 60% of apparent CWP (ACWP) (yield/irrigation water) in cotton, wheat and cotton–wheat system, respectively. The crop growth stages found to be most sensitive to water stress were from flowering to boll formation in cotton and grain development stage in wheat.
    Agricultural Water Management. 01/2006;
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    Journal of Agricultural Physics. 01/2006; 6(1):7-13.
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    International symposium on Geospatial Databases For Sustainable Development; 01/2006