[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic trees for the four extant species of African hominoids are presented, based on mtDNA control region-1 sequences from 1,158 unique haplotypes. We include 83 new haplotypes of western chimpanzees and bonobos. Phylogenetic analysis of this enlarged database, which takes intraspecific geographic variability into account, reveals different patterns of evolution among species and great heterogeneity in species-level variation. Several chimpanzee and bonobo clades (and even single social groups) have retained substantially more mitochondrial variation than is seen in the entire human species. Among the 811 human haplotypes, those that branch off early are predominantly but not exclusively African. Neighbor joining trees provide strong evidence that eastern chimpanzee and human clades have experienced reduced effective population sizes, the latter apparently since the Homo sapiens-neanderthalensis split. Application of topiary pruning resolves ambiguities in the phylogenetic tree that are attributable to homoplasies in the data set. The diverse patterns of mtDNA sequence variation seen in today's hominoid taxa probably reflect historical differences in ecological plasticity, female-biased dispersal, range fragmentation over differing periods of time, and competition among social groups. These results are relevant to the origin of zoonotic diseases, including HIV-1, and call into question some aspects of the current taxonomic treatment and conservation management of gorillas and chimpanzees.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1999; 96(9):5077-82. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of captive populations of bonobos suggest that females are more gregarious than males. This seems to contradict assumed sex-differences in kinship deriving from a species-typical dispersal pattern of female exogamy and male philopatry. Here we present data on spatial associations and aff liative relations among members of one wild community (Eyengo) for which genetic relationships were identi ed by analysing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Our data from Lomako con rm the existence of spatial associations among resident females. In addition, they reveal strong social bonds between males and females. While most female-female associations did not last longer than one eld season, long-term associations occurred predominantly between mixed-sex dyads and involved both close kin and unrelated individuals. Differences in social grooming appeared to be related to patterns of spatial association rather than to kinship. It is suggested that under natural conditions social organisation of bonobos is characterised by strong inter-sexual bonds. Males may benee t from bonding with females by increased reproductivesuccess via rank acquisition. For females benee ts may derive from inclusive tness and reduced food competition. Preliminary evidence suggests that females also may bene t from protection by resident males against male intruders. 2) Corresponding author; e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org 4) We are grateful to the Ministère de l'Education Nationale, Respublique Democratique du Congo for permission to conduct eldwork at Lomako; W. Wickler, the Max-Planck-Society and the DFG for nancial support; W.C. McGrew and L.F. Marchant and an anonymous reviewer for discussions and helpful comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript; J. Lamprecht and H. Hofer for statistical advice; A. Türk and B. Knauer for editorial work and B. Hartung for assistance in the lab. Particular thanks are due to W. Wickler, I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, D. Ploog and G. Neuweiler for unfailing support and assistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the physical structure and use of a distance call (high-hoot) by wild bonobos (Pan paniscus).Although spectrographic analyses reveal high structural variability, the total sample can be subdivided according to the composition
of units—the presence or absence of an initial segment—and the range of the lowest harmonic. Analyses of samples from male—female
pairs,vocalizing simultaneously and in close proximity, reveal that both animals utter calls in more or less precise temporal alternation
but with different spectral ranges. Whether these differences are gender-specific or related to other factors, such as age
or the social relations between particular individuals, is not clear. We suggest that (a) individuals of the same party may
coordinate their vocal activity on both the temporal and the spectral level and (b) high hootings stimulate emission of equal
vocalizations by members of other parties and may increase cohesion among community members. Comparison of a restricted number
of spectrograms from known individuals indicates that bonobos may be able to adjust spectral parameters of one type of distance
calls (high- hoot) according to corresponding calls of conspecifics.
International Journal of Primatology 04/1994; 15(5):767-782. · 1.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports on 2 cases of meat sharing among bonobos during an 18-mo field study in Zaire. In the 1st case, an adult female was observed sharing prey with 3 other females. In the 2nd case, a female was observed sharing prey with a male and several females and infants over a 3.5-hr period. These observations differ from previous reports, wherein males possessed and controlled highly preferred food. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Book description: Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates focuses on evolutionary perspectives of the complex interactions between the environment, food sources, physiology and behaviour in primates. This highly interdisciplinary volume provides a benchmark to assess dietary alterations that affected human evolution by putting the focus on the diet of hominid primates. It also offers a new perspective on the behavioural ecology of the last common ancestor by integrating corresponding information from both human and non-human primates. The potential of innovations of applied biotechnology are also explored to set new standards for future research on feeding ecology, and new information on feeding ecology in humans, apes and other primates is synthesized to help refine or modify current models of socioecology. By taking a comparative view, this book will be interesting to primatologists, anthropologists, behavioural ecologists and evolutionary biologists who want to understand better non-human primates, and the primate that is us.
• Comparative approach on the evolution of primate feeding ecology is interesting to wide range of researchers including primatologists, anthropologists, behavioural ecologists and evolutionary biologists • Offers new perspective on the behavioural ecology of our own ancestors by integrating findings from other primate species • Highly interdisciplinary, and explores the potential of applied biotechnology to set new standards for future research in feeding ecology
Sommer, V. and Hohmann, G. and Fowler, A. and Ortmann, S. (2006) Frugivory and gregariousness of Salonga bonobos and Gashaka chimpanzees: the abundance and nutritional quality of fruit. In: Hohmann, G. and Robbins, M.M. and Boesch, C., (eds.) Feeding ecology in apes and other primates. Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology (48). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 123-159. ISBN 9780521858373.