Kevin A Kerber

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States

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Publications (60)222.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Fee Schedule confers higher value for physician work in procedure and test codes than in Evaluation and Management (E/M) codes.
    Annals of surgery. 09/2014;
  • Annals of Neurology 09/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mexican Americans (MAs) were previously found to have lower mortality after ischemic stroke than non-Hispanic whites. We studied mortality trends in a population-based design.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is a prevalent condition that results in high costs from diagnostic testing. However, the role of neurologists and diagnostic tests in patient care is unknown.
    JAMA Neurology 07/2014; · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poststroke rehabilitation is associated with improved outcomes. Medicaid coverage of inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) admissions varies by state. We explored the role of state Medicaid IRF coverage on IRF utilization among patients with stroke.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Studies suggest that dying at home is a more favorable experience. This study investigated where amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients die and the patient demographics associated with dying in an acute care facility or nursing home compared to home or hospice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multiple Cause Mortality Files from 2005 to 2010 were used to identify ALS patients and to classify place of death. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between patient demographics and place of death. Between 2005 and 2010, 40,911 patients died of ALS in the United States. Place of death was as follows: home or hospice facility 20,231 (50%), acute care facility (25%), and nursing home (20%). African Americans (adjusted multinomial odds ratio (aMOR) 2.56, CI 2.32-2.83), Hispanics (aMOR 1.44, CI 1.30-1.62), and Asians (aMOR 1.87, CI 1.57-2.22) were more likely to die in an acute care facility, whereas females (aMOR 0.76, CI 0.72-0.80) and married individuals were less likely. Hispanics (aMOR 0.68, CI 0.58-0.79) and married individuals were less likely to die in a nursing home. In conclusion, minorities, men, and unmarried individuals are more likely to die in an acute care facility. Further studies are needed to better understand place of death preferences.
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration 06/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Association between cerebral infarction site and poststroke sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has important implications for SDB screening and the pathophysiology of poststroke SDB. Within a large, population-based study, we assessed whether brainstem infarction location is associated with SDB presence and severity.
    Sleep medicine. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Acute stroke is a serious concern in Emergency Department (ED) dizziness presentations. Prior studies, however, suggest that stroke is actually an unlikely cause of these presentations. Lacking are data on short- and long-term follow-up from population-based studies to establish stroke risk after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations.Methods: From 5/8/2011 to 5/7/2012, patients ≥ 45 years of age presenting to EDs in Nueces County, Texas, with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance were identified, excluding those with stroke as the initial diagnosis. Stroke events after the ED presentation up to 10/2/2012 were determined using the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) study, which uses rigorous surveillance and neurologist validation. Cumulative stroke risk was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates.Results: 1,245 patients were followed for a median of 347 days (IQR 230- 436 days). Median age was 61.9 years (IQR, 53.8-74.0 years). After the ED visit, fifteen patients (1.2%) had a stroke. Stroke risk was 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 2 days; 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 7 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 30 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 90 days; and 1.42% (95% CI, 0.85%-2.36%) at 12 months.Interpretation: Using rigorous case ascertainment and outcome assessment in a population-based design, we found that the risk of stroke after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations is very low, supporting a non-stroke etiology to the overwhelming majority of original events. High-risk subgroups likely exist, however, because most of the 90-day stroke risk occurred within 2-days. Vascular risk stratification was insufficient to identify these cases. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological Association
    Annals of Neurology 05/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • JAMA Internal Medicine 03/2014; · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Dizziness is a common reason patients present to doctors, but effective diagnostic tests and treatments for dizziness are underused. The internet is a way to disseminate medical information and is emerging as an intervention platform. The objective of this study was to describe internet searches for dizziness terms to assess the possible consumer demand for internet-based dizziness diagnostic and treatment tools. Study Design/Methods: Google AdWords and Google Insights for Search were used for keyword search data on the following generic terms: vertigo, dizzy, dizziness, lightheaded, and lightheadedness. Data collected included keyword ideas (i.e., additional keywords identified by Google as being related search terms), global and US only monthly search frequencies, as well as trends in top searches related to dizziness terms from 2004 to 2012. Keywords suggestive of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) or BPPV processes were identified. Results: Of the five generic dizziness terms, vertigo had the most global searches per month (1.83 million) and lightheadedness had the least (90,500). Four BPPV-specific terms had more than 100,000 global searches per month. Three BPPV terms ("positional vertigo," "benign vertigo," and "benign positional vertigo") have been in the list of top searches related to vertigo every quarter since 2004. Conclusion: Substantial demand exists for dizziness information via the internet. Future studies should seek to better characterize the population seeking this information. The magnitude of this potential demand suggests that validated and tested diagnostic and treatment tools could contribute to healthcare efficiencies and patient outcomes.
    Frontiers in Neurology 01/2014; 5:50.
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    ABSTRACT: <0.01). After adjustment for demographics, stroke severity, and stroke and mortality risk factors, the relationship between BMI and mortality was U shaped. The lowest mortality risk was observed among patients with an approximate BMI of 35 kg/m(2), whereas those with lower or higher BMI had higher mortality risk.Conclusions-Severe obesity is associated with increased poststroke mortality in middle-aged and older adults. Stroke patients with class 2 obesity had the lowest mortality risk. More research is needed to determine weight management goals among stroke survivors.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 12/2013; · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    Annals of Neurology 10/2013; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dizziness and vertigo account for about 4 million emergency department (ED) visits annually in the United States, and some 160,000 to 240,000 (4% to 6%) have cerebrovascular causes. Stroke diagnosis in ED patients with vertigo/dizziness is challenging because the majority have no obvious focal neurologic signs at initial presentation. The authors sought to compare the accuracy of two previously published approaches purported to be useful in bedside screening for possible stroke in dizziness: a clinical decision rule (head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew [HINTS]) and a risk stratification rule (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of symptoms, diabetes [ABCD2]). This was a cross-sectional study of high-risk patients (more than one stroke risk factor) with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS; acute, persistent vertigo or dizziness with nystagmus, plus nausea or vomiting, head motion intolerance, and new gait unsteadiness) at a single academic center. All underwent neurootologic examination, neuroimaging (97.4% by magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and follow-up. ABCD2 risk scores (0-7 points), using the recommended cutoff of ≥4 for stroke, were compared to a three-component eye movement battery (HINTS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-) were assessed for stroke and other central causes, and the results were stratified by age. False-negative initial neuroimaging was also assessed. A total of 190 adult AVS patients were assessed (1999-2012). Median age was 60.5 years (range = 18 to 92 years; interquartile range [IQR] = 52.0 to 70.0 years); 60.5% were men. Final diagnoses were vestibular neuritis (34.7%), posterior fossa stroke (59.5% [105 infarctions, eight hemorrhages]), and other central causes (5.8%). Median ABCD2 was 4.0 (range = 2 to 7; IQR = 3.0 to 4.0). ABCD2 ≥ 4 for stroke had sensitivity of 61.1%, specificity of 62.3%, LR+ of 1.62, and LR- of 0.62; sensitivity was lower for those younger than 60 years old (28.9%). HINTS stroke sensitivity was 96.5%, specificity was 84.4%, LR+ was 6.19, and LR- was 0.04 and did not vary by age. For any central lesion, sensitivity was 96.8%, specificity was 98.5%, LR+ was 63.9, and LR- was 0.03 for HINTS, and sensitivity was 99.2%, specificity was 97.0%, LR+ was 32.7, and LR- was 0.01 for HINTS "plus" (any new hearing loss added to HINTS). Initial MRIs were falsely negative in 15 of 105 (14.3%) infarctions; all but one was obtained before 48 hours after onset, and all were confirmed by delayed MRI. HINTS substantially outperforms ABCD2 for stroke diagnosis in ED patients with AVS. It also outperforms MRI obtained within the first 2 days after symptom onset. While HINTS testing has traditionally been performed by specialists, methods for empowering emergency physicians (EPs) to leverage this approach for stroke screening in dizziness should be investigated.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 10/2013; 20(10):986-996. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To optimize care in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy, we sought to define which tests drive expenditures and the role of the provider type. We investigated test utilization and expenditures by provider type in those with incident neuropathy in a nationally representative elderly, Medicare population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of MRI and electrodiagnostic utilization. MRIs of the neuroaxis and electrodiagnostic tests accounted for 88% of total expenditures. Mean and aggregate diagnostic expenditures were higher in those who saw a neurologist. Patients who saw a neurologist were more likely to receive an MRI and an electrodiagnostic test. MRIs and electrodiagnostic tests are the main contributors to expenditures in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy, and should be the focus of future efficiency efforts.
    Neurology: Clinical Practice (Print) 10/2013; 3(5):421-430.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends in ischemic stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non Hispanic Whites. We performed population-based stroke surveillance from January 1, 2000 - December 31, 2010 in Corpus Christi, Texas. Ischemic stroke cases 45 years and over were ascertained from potential sources and charts abstracted. Neurologists validated cases based on source documentation blinded to ethnicity and age. Crude and age, sex and ethnicity adjusted annual incidence was calculated for first-ever completed ischemic stroke. Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted ischemic stroke rates, rate ratios, and trends. There were 2,604 ischemic strokes in Mexican Americans and 2,042 in non Hispanic Whites. The rate ratios (Mexican American:non Hispanic White) were: 1.94 (95% CI 1.67, 2.25); 1.50 (95% CI 1.35, 1.67); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.90, 1.11) among those 45-59, 60-74 and 75 and older, respectively, and 1.34 (95%CI 1.23, 1.46) age- adjusted. Ischemic stroke incidence declined during the study period by 35.9% (95% CI: 25.9%, 44.5%). The decline was limited to those 60 and over, and happened in both ethnic groups similarly (p>0.10), implying that the disparities seen in the 45-74 age group persist unabated. Ischemic stroke incidence rates have declined dramatically in the last decade in both ethnic groups for those 60 and over. However, the disparity between Mexican American and non Hispanic White stroke rates persists in those <75 years of age. While the decline in stroke is encouraging, additional prevention efforts targeting young Mexican Americans are warranted. ANN NEUROL 2013. © 2013 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 07/2013; · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Kevin A Kerber
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    ABSTRACT: Acute continuous vertigo presentations are among the most feared presentations in medicine. Although a self-limited disorder is the typical cause, a life-threatening stroke can also occur. Differentiating a self-limited disorder from a life-threatening stroke can be a challenge. Routinely collected information-such as stroke risk factors and findings on the general neurologic examination-is not likely to enable the clinician to discriminate between these causes. A focused oculomotor examination is a necessary component of the assessment, but is underused in routine care. The author describes the challenges to diagnosing stroke in cases of acute continuous vertigo and provides an approach to inform decision making at the bedside. Future research is necessary to validate clinical decision support, assess generalizability, and demonstrate its impact on meaningful outcomes.
    Seminars in Neurology 07/2013; 33(3):173-8. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dizziness and vertigo account for roughly 4% of chief symptoms in the emergency department (ED). Little is known about the aggregate costs of ED evaluations for these patients. The authors sought to estimate the annual national costs associated with ED visits for dizziness. This cost study of adult U.S. ED visits presenting with dizziness or vertigo combined public-use ED visit data (1995 to 2009) from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) and cost data (2003 to 2008) from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We calculated total visits, test utilization, and ED diagnoses from NHAMCS. Diagnosis groups were defined using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Clinical Classifications Software (HCUP-CCS). Total visits and the proportion undergoing neuroimaging for future years were extrapolated using an autoregressive forecasting model. The average ED visit cost-per-diagnosis-group from MEPS were calculated, adjusting to 2011 dollars using the Hospital Personal Health Care Expenditures price index. An overall weighted mean across the diagnostic groups was used to estimate total national costs. Year 2011 data are reported in 2011 dollars. The estimated number of 2011 US ED visits for dizziness or vertigo was 3.9 million (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6 to 4.2 million). The proportion undergoing diagnostic imaging by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both in 2011 was estimated to be 39.9% (39.4% CT, 2.3% MRI). The mean per-ED-dizziness-visit cost was $1,004 in 2011 dollars. The total extrapolated 2011 national costs were $3.9 billion. HCUP-CCS key diagnostic groups for those presenting with dizziness and vertigo included the following (fraction of dizziness visits, cost-per-ED-visit, attributable annual national costs): otologic/vestibular (25.7%; $768; $757 million), cardiovascular (16.5%, $1,489; $941 million), and cerebrovascular (3.1%; $1059; $127 million). Neuroimaging was estimated to account for about 12% of the total costs for dizziness visits in 2011 (CT scans $360 million, MRI scans $110 million). Total U.S. national costs for patients presenting with dizziness to the ED are substantial and are estimated to now exceed $4 billion per year (about 4% of total ED costs). Rising costs over time appear to reflect the rising prevalence of ED visits for dizziness and increased rates of imaging use. Future economic studies should focus on the specific breakdown of total costs, emphasizing areas of high cost and use that might be safely reduced.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 07/2013; 20(7):689-96. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral neuropathy is a common disorder, often prompting an extensive initial laboratory evaluation. The initial evaluation is particularly challenging to primary care physicians and neurologists because of the broad differential diagnosis. Although screening thyroid and rheumatologic tests are frequently ordered, the diagnostic yield of these tests is unclear. Data from our institution were collected on patient demographics, clinical characteristics including warning signs suggestive of a diagnosis other than distal symmetric polyneuropathy, history of thyroid or rheumatologic disease, and laboratory tests ordered. Thyroid and rheumatologic screening tests are commonly ordered in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy. Our findings suggest a low aggregate value of these tests based on low yield and infrequent changes in the suspected etiology or management of these patients.
    Neurology: Clinical Practice (Print) 04/2013; 3(2):90-98.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Strokes can be distinguished from benign peripheral causes of acute vestibular syndrome using bedside oculomotor tests (head impulse test, nystagmus, test-of-skew). Using head impulse test, nystagmus, test-ofskew is more sensitive and less costly than early magnetic resonance imaging for stroke diagnosis in acute vestibular syndrome but requires expertise not routinely available in emergency departments. We sought to begin standardizing the head impulse test, nystagmus, test-of-skew diagnostic approach for eventual emergency department use through the novel application of a portable video-oculography device measuring vestibular physiology in real time. This approach is conceptually similar to ECG to diagnose acute cardiac ischemia. METHODS: Proof-of-concept study (August 2011 to June 2012). We recruited adult emergency department patients with acute vestibular syndrome defined as new, persistent vertigo/dizziness, nystagmus, and (1) nausea/vomiting, (2) head motion intolerance, or (3) new gait unsteadiness. We recorded eye movements, including quantitative horizontal head impulse testing of vestibulo-ocular-reflex function. Two masked vestibular experts rated vestibular findings, which were compared with final radiographic gold-standard diagnoses. Masked neuroimaging raters determined stroke or no stroke using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with diffusion-weighted imaging obtained 48 hours to 7 days after symptom onset. RESULTS: We enrolled 12 consecutive patients who underwent confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Mean age was 61 years (range 30-73), and 10 were men. Expert-rated video-oculography-based head impulse test, nystagmus, test-ofskew examination was 100% accurate (6 strokes, 6 peripheral vestibular). CONCLUSIONS: Device-based physiological diagnosis of vertebrobasilar stroke in acute vestibular syndrome should soon be possible. If confirmed in a larger sample, this bedside eye ECG approach could eventually help fulfill a critical need for timely, accurate, efficient diagnosis in emergency department patients with vertigo or dizziness who are at high risk for stroke.
    Stroke 03/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying the tests/procedures ordered by neurologists that contribute most to health care expenditures is a critical step in the process of creating the neurology top 5 list for the Choosing Wisely initiative. Using data from the 2007-2010 National Ambulatory Care Medical Survey, we found that $13.3 billion (95% confidence interval = $10.1-$16.5 billion) was spent on tests ordered at neurologist visits. The tests/procedures with the highest expenditures were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 51% of total expenditures; $7.5 billion), electromyography (EMG; 20% of expenditures; $2.6 billion), and electroencephalography (EEG; 8% of expenditures; $1.1 billion). MRI, EMG, and EEG should receive close scrutiny in the development of the neurology top 5 list. Ann Neurol 2013.
    Annals of Neurology 02/2013; · 11.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

389 Citations
222.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Neurology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Neurology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • DIvision of Neurology
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States