[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A population of F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was made from a cross between susceptible ('Santou') and resistant (PI197088-1) lines of cucumber in order to study powdery mildew resistance loci. Susceptibility to powdery mildew in the F7 RIL individuals showed a continuous distribution from susceptible to resistant, suggesting that powdery mildew resistance is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A QTL analysis identified two and three loci for powdery mildew resistance under 26 and 20 degrees C conditions, respectively. One QTL was found in the same position under both temperature conditions. Therefore, it is more likely that one major QTL acts under both temperature conditions and that other QTLs are specific to the two temperature conditions. The above results suggest that the four QTLs are controlled in a different temperature manner, and that their combination played an important role in expressing a high level of resistance to powdery mildew in this cucumber population. Sequence-tagged site (STS) markers associated with each QTL were developed and would be useful for breeding a cucumber line with a high level of powdery mildew resistance.