[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between age of neuromotor milestone attainment and risk of adult schizophrenia. 5765 mothers of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year of life. Cohort members were followed until they were 46-48 years old through record linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The age at which milestones were met in the 92 individuals who later developed schizophrenia was compared with milestone attainment in the 691 individuals who developed other psychiatric disorders and in the 4982 cohort controls who were never admitted to a psychiatric department. Group comparisons were adjusted for gender, mother's age, father's age, parental social status, breadwinner's education, single mother status and parity. Individuals who developed schizophrenia reached all developmental milestones later than controls and differed significantly from the controls with respect to the mean age of reaching the 12 milestones. Five developmental milestones in particular (smiling, lifting head, sitting, crawling, and walking) differed significantly. Individuals who later developed psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia reached most developmental milestones earlier than those who developed schizophrenia, but later than the controls. The two psychiatric groups only differed significantly with respect to age of walking without support. The findings corroborate and methodologically extend previous research from prospective longitudinal cohort studies suggesting developmental delays observable as early as within the first year of life. These early developmental delays may not only characterize schizophrenia, but may be associated with a range of psychiatric disorders.
Schizophrenia Research 02/2010; 118(1-3):41-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors examined whether motor coordination difficulties assessed in childhood predict later adult schizophrenia spectrum outcomes.
A standardized childhood neurological examination was administered to a sample of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10-13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization for a nonpsychotic disorder (N=84); and children with no parental records of psychiatric hospitalization (N=66). Psychiatric outcomes of the offspring were assessed through psychiatric interviews in 1992 when participants were 31-33 years of age, as well as through a scan of national psychiatric registers completed in May 2007.
Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133).
Results from this study provide further support for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and underscore the potential role of cerebellar and/or basal ganglia abnormalities in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
American Journal of Psychiatry 08/2009; 166(9):1041-7. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study examines targets of treatment and intervention strategies of youths with and without schizophrenia–spectrum diagnoses utilizing services within a state public mental health system of care. Service records of youths with schizophrenia–spectrum diagnoses were compared to all other youths receiving services. Specific treatment targets and techniques were more frequently reported in the spectrum group relative to the non-spectrum group. This research on targets of treatment and specific treatment strategies offers preliminary insight into common goals of treatment and clinical practices employed in this under studied population.
Children and Youth Services Review 05/2008; 30(4):427-436. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the relation between childhood ocular alignment deficits and adult psychiatric outcomes among children at high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 265 Danish children was administered a standardized eye exam assessing strabismus and related ocular alignment deficits. All children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised the first group (N=90). Children who had at least one parent with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia comprised the first matched control group (N=93). The second control group consisted of children with no parental diagnoses (N=82). In 1992, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 242 of the original subjects. It was found that children who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder had significantly higher eye exam scale and strabismus scale scores compared to children who developed other non-psychotic psychopathology and children who did not develop a mental illness. The mean rank for children in the high-risk group (offspring of parents with schizophrenia) on the eye scale and the strabismus scale was greater than the mean rank for children in the matched control groups (both offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology in adulthood. Strabismus may serve as a premorbid marker for spectrum disorders and may have implications for the understanding of early aberrant neurological development related to later schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Schizophrenia Research 02/2006; 81(2-3):253-60. · 4.59 Impact Factor