N Katsumata

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (9)17.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Various types of poststroke hyperactivity exist in humans, but studies of each mechanism using animal models are scarce. We aimed to analyze the heterogeneity of postischemic hyperlocomotion and to identify the ischemic lesions responsible for postischemic hyperlocomotion in rodent models of focal ischemia. Mongolian gerbils underwent right common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) for 10 or 20 min. At 24 h, 2 days, and 7 days postischemia, we performed quantitative and qualitative locomotor analysis and correlated these results with the extent of ischemic lesions. Intermittent explosive hyperlocomotion was induced transiently in a 10-min CCAO group at 24 h after ischemia and continual unexplosive hyperlocomotion persisted for 7 days in the 20-min CCAO animals. Selective neuronal death, confined to the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), was observed in the 10-min CCAO group and widespread cortical and basal ganglia infarction was observed in the 20-min CCAO group. Amyloid precursor protein was transiently observed in the hippocampus at 24 h postischemia in the 10-min CCAO animals, while it was widely distributed over the ischemic regions throughout the 7 days postischemia in the 20-min CCAO animals. Incidence maps and correlation analysis revealed hippocampal neuronal death of the CA1 sector and widespread hemispheric infarction, including the cortex, as the region responsible for the 10-min and 20-min CCAO-induced hyperactivity, respectively. Two distinct types of locomotor hyperactivity were observed that varied with regard to the distribution of the ischemic lesion, that is, hippocampal neuronal death and widespread infarction involving the cortex. These two types of locomotor hyperactivity appear to be models of the different types of poststroke hyperactivity seen in stroke patients.
    Neuropathology 09/2006; 26(4):283-92. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • T Kuroiwa, I Yamada, N Katsumata, S Endo, K Ohno
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the biomechanical properties of postischemic brain tissue is important for understanding the mechanisms of postischemic secondary brain tissue injury. We describe the method and results of biomechanical property measurement in ex vivo postischemic brain tissue by applying an indentation method. Mongolian gerbils were subjected to a transient unilateral hemispheric ischemia. At day 1 after ischemia, multi-parametric MRI was performed, the brain was removed under anesthesia, sliced, and kept in a container with silicone oil for the measurement. A compression probe attached to a pressure transducer was inserted to a pre-determined depth at the regions of interest and maintained at a constant speed. A pressure relaxation curve was recorded for the calculation of elasticity modulus (E) and viscosity modulus (eta) according to Maxwell-Voigt's 3-element model. One day after ischemia, E and eta decreased to 78.7% and 73.1% of the control level, respectively. This decrease corresponded to a mild decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and magnetization transfer ratio, and an increase in T2 value. Tissue water content increased to 105.1% of control. Microvacuolation with demyelination and axonal disruption was evident in the postischemic brain tissue.
    Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 02/2006; 96:254-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic neurons (ENs) appear in the post-ischemic cortex; however, whether there are differences in the time profile for different cortical layers and the fate of the cortex with ENs is largely unknown. We examined the time profile of ENs in different cortical layers and evolution of cortical atrophy after transient cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils. Unilateral forebrain ischemia was induced twice by 10-minute unilateral common carotid artery occlusions. Brains at 24 hours, 4 days, and 2, 4, and 16 weeks post-ischemia were prepared for morphometric analysis. Quantitative analysis of ENs in regions of interest in the rostral and caudal cortex showed the highest number of ENs at 4 days post-ischemia in layers 3 and 6. Reduction in ENs after this peak was slower in layer 6 than in layer 3 in both rostral and caudal cortex, and this difference was significant in layer 6 of the caudal cortex. Infarcts with significant atrophy appeared in the rostral cortex. In the caudal cortex, only selective neuronal death with mild but distinct atrophy was observed. We observed a significant difference between cortical layers in the time profile of ENs in the post-ischemic cortex. Selective neuronal death without infarction was sufficient to induce cortical atrophy after transient cerebral ischemia.
    Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 02/2006; 96:272-5.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined temporal profiles of neurological dysfunctions and compared them with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 changes in ischemic cortical regions after transient focal cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils. Mongolian gerbils (n = 7) underwent right common carotid artery occlusion for 20 minutes. Asymmetric motor behavior and unilateral somatosensory dysfunction were quantified by the elevated body swing test and the bilateral asymmetry test at 0, 2, 3, and 8 days after ischemia. The results were compared to the ADC and T2 changes in the primary motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex. Transient motor dysfunction was observed at day 2 after ischemia. MRI revealed transient and mild ADC decrease without T2 increase at day 2 after ischemia in the primary motor cortex. Persistent somatosensory dysfunction was observed at 2, 3, and 8 days after ischemia, which corresponded to a moderate ADC decrease, and a mild T2 increase in the primary somatosensory cortex at days 2 and 3 after ischemia. Time profiles of neurological deficits concurred with ADC changes of the post-ischemic cortex responsible for the deficits. The post-ischemic lesions responsible for the neurological deficits were detectable by using ADC mapping in the acute phase after transient focal cerebral ischemia.
    Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 02/2006; 96:279-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic hyperactivity is a neurobehavioral symptom commonly seen in patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). No useful animal model has yet been established for evaluation of this important symptom. We induced either mild (MILD, 0.7-0.9 atm) or moderate (MOD, 1.3-1.6 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) in Mongolian gerbils. Open-field and T-maze tests were used during a 7-day period after the trauma. All animals were perfusion fixed for histopathological examinations. Transient locomotor hyperactivity was found with a peak at 6 hr after injury in the MILD animals, whereas MOD animals showed prolonged and severe hyperlocomotion throughout the 7-day posttrauma period (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, the temporal profile of the posttraumatic hyperactivity was similar to that of the working memory deficit in both injury groups. Histological examination revealed significant neural tissue damages, including cortical necrosis, white matter rarefaction, and neuronal loss in the hippocampus in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the MOD animals, vs. only negligible changes in the MILD animals. Correlation analysis revealed that the volume of white matter lesions was significantly correlated with both posttraumatic hyperactivity (r = 0.591, P < 0.01) and working memory deficit (r = -0.859, P < 0.0001). Taken together, our findings confirm the successful reproduction of posttraumatic hyperactivity following experimental TBI. The posttraumatic hyperlocomotion probably shared pathomechanisms common to those of cognitive dysfunction caused by LFPI, supporting the speculation from previous studies that some neurobehavioral abnormities intimately correlate with TBI-induced cognitive dysfunction. Histopathologically, significant involvement of white matter damage in the posttraumatic functional deficits was indicated.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 02/2006; 83(2):292-300. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to establish a rodent model of vascular dementia that showed long-term cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, and to correlate those behavioral deficits with the patterns of ischemic lesions, thus providing a platform for future testing of potential therapeutic agents. In Mongolian gerbils, either 5-minute single bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (SBCCAO) or repetitive bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (two 7-minute occlusions, RBCCAO) was induced, and the behavioral deficits were evaluated using 2 tests: a modified open-field test with an escape zone to evaluate changes in anxiety and locomotor activity, and a T-maze test to assess cognitive dysfunction. SBCCAO did not induce anxiety changes but caused transient locomotor hyperactivity and mild cognitive deficits. Only pyramidal neuronal death was found in the bilateral CA1 sector of the hippocampus following SBCCAO. In contrast, RBCCAO induced persistent locomotor hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and caused severe cognitive deficits at 4 weeks post-ischemia. RBCCAO caused significant atrophy associated with diffuse selective neuronal death in the bilateral cerebral cortex and caudate nucleus, as well as the CA1 region. The repetitive ischemia model appears to be a potentially useful platform for the long-term analysis of cognitive and neuropsychological symptoms associated with vascular dementia.
    Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 02/2006; 96:299-302.
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    ABSTRACT: The fate of postischemic tissues containing eosinophilic neurons (ENs), whether they remain viable or evolve into infarction, is largely unknown. We analyzed the time profile and distribution of ENs, reactive astrocytes (RAs), and infarction after transient cerebral ischemia. Unilateral forebrain ischemia was induced in Mongolian gerbils by two 10-min unilateral common carotid artery occlusions with a 5-h interval, and the brains at 24 h, 4 days, and 2, 4, and 16 weeks were prepared for morphometric analysis. Intra-ischemic laser Doppler flowmetry revealed significant ischemia, deeper in the anterior cortex, during carotid occlusion. Here, ENs appeared in the middle and deep layers at 24 h postischemia, and EN areas had extended to all cortical layers by 4 days. Large areas of high EN density turned into infarcts between 4 days and 4 weeks. In the posterior cortex, middle and deep cortical layers evolved low EN density areas without subsequent transformation into infarcts. RAs were consistently observed in areas with ENs, and RA areas with high EN density were largely transformed into infarcts between 4 days and 4 weeks postischemia. Areas of high, but not low, EN density were slowly transformed into infarcts after transient cerebral ischemia. Delayed astrocytic death took place in the RA areas with high EN density. In conclusion, density of ENs is an important indicator of delayed astrocytic death and infarction in postischemic tissue.
    Acta Neuropathologica 02/2006; 111(1):21-8. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive/memory dysfunctions and the pathological process contributing to such dysfunction following moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) in Mongolian gerbils. Mongolian gerbils were subjected to moderate LFPI (1.3 1.6 atm). During 7 days post-trauma, spatial cognitive and memory dysfunctions were evaluated by T-maze test (TMT). At 6 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days post-injury, animals were sacrificed and the brains were prepared for Kluver-Barrera staining and immunostaining of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). In LFPI animals, the spontaneous alternation rate in the TMT remained below the random alternation rate (< 50%) on all post-injury test days. These animals also showed a transient tendency to choose only the right arm (ipsilateral to the injury) in the TMT at 6 hours and 24 hours after injury. Significant accumulation of APP was found widespread in the ipsilateral hemisphere including directly injured cortex, subcortical white matter, and hippocampal formation at 6 hours and 24 hours post-injury, while on day 7, the increased immunoreactivity of APP subsided. These results suggest that the widespread axonal degeneration of the white matter might contribute to the unilateral spatial neglect and memory deficit in the acute stage after LFPI.
    Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 01/2006; 96:144-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Few behavioral tests are available to evaluate extrapyramidal dysfunctions after focal cerebral ischemia in rodents, although extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions are often observed clinically in patients with cerebral infarction. We evaluated the methamphetamine (MP)-induced rotation test for the detection and quantification of extrapyramidal motor dysfunction induced by striatal infarction in gerbils after focal cerebral ischemia. Mongolian gerbils (n=79) underwent the left common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) for 10, 15, or 20 min. Spontaneous and MP-induced rotation tests were repeated postischemia, and the results compared with the extent of ischemic tissue injury. The density of dopaminergic neurons immunostained with a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) also was measured. Histological examination revealed selective neuronal death of the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) sector in 10-min CCAO animals, infarction confined to the striatum and hippocampal neuronal death in 15-min CCAO animals, and widespread hemispheric infarction in 20-min CCAO animals. Dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc were preserved in 10- and 15-min CCAO animals but were significantly reduced in 20-min CCAO animals. In MP-induced rotation tests, 15-min CCAO animals showed biased rotation ipsilateral to the lesioned side. Biased rotation persisted 4 weeks postischemia, and the number of rotations significantly correlated with the regional infarction volume of the striatum. Twenty-minute CCAO animals showed biased rotation contralateral to the lesioned side; rotation number was not correlated with the infarction volume. Our results show that biased rotation behavior is a sensitive parameter of the extent of striatal injury after focal cerebral ischemia provided the lesion is not extended to the ipsilateral cortex. MP-induced rotation in rodents probably coordinates with the extrapyramidal motor dysfunction after striatal infarction in patients with vascular Parkinsonism.
    Neuroscience 02/2004; 127(2):269-75. · 3.12 Impact Factor