D B Shennan

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom

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Publications (92)345.65 Total impact

  • D B Shennan, C A R Boyd
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    ABSTRACT: This review describes the properties and regulation of the membrane transport proteins which supply the mammary gland with aminonitrogen to support metabolism under different physiological conditions (i.e. pregnancy, lactation and involution). Early studies focussed on characterising amino acid and peptide transport pathways with respect to substrate specificity, kinetics and hormonal regulation to allow a broad picture of the systems within the gland to be established. Recent investigations have concentrated on identifying the individual transporters at the molecular level (i.e. mRNA and protein). Many of the latter studies have identified the molecular correlates of the transport systems uncovered in the earlier functional investigations but in turn have also highlighted the need for more amino acid transport studies to be performed. The transporters function as either cotransporters and exchangers (or both) and act in a coordinated and regulated fashion to support the metabolic needs of the gland. However, it is apparent that a physiological role for a number of the transport proteins has yet to be elucidated. This article highlights the many gaps in our knowledge regarding the precise cellular location of a number of amino acid transporters within the gland. We also describe the role of amino acid transport in mammary cell volume regulation. Finally, the important role that individual mammary transport proteins may have in the growth and proliferation of mammary tumours is discussed.
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 10/2013; · 7.52 Impact Factor
  • D B Shennan
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    ABSTRACT: Sulphate is required by the feto-placental unit for a number of important conjugation and biosynthetic pathways. Functional studies performed several decades ago established that sulphate transport in human placental microvillus and basal membrane vesicles was mainly via a DIDS-sensitive anion-exchange mechanism. In contrast, no evidence was found for Na(+)-dependent transport. Studies performed using isolated human placental tissue confirmed anion-exchange as the main mechanism. More recently, molecular studies have established the presence of anion-exchange proteins which could play a role in transplacental sulphate movement. However, the presence of transcripts for NaS2 has been reported and has prompted the suggestion that Na(+)-sulphate cotransport may play an important role in maternal-fetal sulphate transport. This article reviews our present knowledge of placental sulphate transport, both functional and molecular, and attempts to form a model based on the available evidence.
    Placenta 05/2012; 33(8):599-603. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    David B Shennan
    The Journal of Physiology 11/2011; 589(Pt 21):5323; author reply 5325-6. · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • David B Shennan, Jean Thomson
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that cell swelling stimulates the efflux of taurine from MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via a pathway which has channel-like properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the specificity of the volume-activated taurine efflux pathway in both cell lines. A hyposmotic shock increased the efflux of glycine, L-alanine, AIB (α-aminoisobutyric acid), D-aspartate but not L-leucine from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. It was evident that the time course of activation/inactivation of those amino acids whose efflux was affected by cell swelling was similar to that of volume-activated taurine efflux. The effect of exogenous ATP on swelling-induced glycine, AIB and D-aspartate efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells was similar to that found on taurine efflux. In addition, volume-activated AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells, like that of swelling-induced taurine efflux, was inhibited by diiodosalicylate. Tamoxifen inhibited volume-activated taurine release from both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results suggest that neutral and anionic α-amino acids are able to utilize the volume-activated taurine efflux pathway in both cell lines. The effect of tamoxifen on breast cancer growth may, in part, be related to perturbations in cell volume regulation.
    General Physiology and Biophysics 03/2011; 30(1):45-51. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • C A R Boyd, D B Shennan
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 10/2010; 101(2-3):296. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • David B Shennan, Jean Thomson
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that system L (LAT1/CD98hc) is up-regulated in cancer cells, including breast tumour cells, and is therefore a promising molecular target to inhibit or limit tumour cell growth. In view of this, we have examined the effect of BCH and other inhibitors of system L on the growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Treating cells with BCH markedly inhibited the metabolism of WST-1 in a dose-dependent fashion. Similarly, melphalan and D-leucine inhibited the growth of cultured breast cancer cells whereas MeAIB, an inhibitor of system A, was without effect. The effects of BCH and melphalan on cell growth were non-additive suggesting that both compounds were acting at a single locus. The results indicate that system L is required to maintain MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-231 cell growth and support the notion that LAT1/CD98hc may be a suitable target to inhibit breast cancer progression.
    Oncology Reports 11/2008; 20(4):885-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • David B Shennan
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    ABSTRACT: The secretion of calcium into milk by mammary epithelial cells is a fundamentally important process. Despite this, the mechanisms which underlie the movement of calcium across the lactating mammary gland are still poorly understood. There are, however, two models which describe the handling of calcium by mammary epithelial cells. On the one hand, a model which has existed for several decades, suggests that the vast majority of calcium enters milk via the Golgi secretory vesicle route. On the other hand, a new model has recently been proposed which implies that the active transport of calcium across the apical membrane of mammary secretory cells is central to milk calcium secretion. This short review examines the strengths and weaknesses of both models and suggests some experiments which could add to our understanding of mammary calcium transport.
    Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 06/2008; 13(4):514-25. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • David B Shennan
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    ABSTRACT: Cells have to regulate their volume in order to survive. Moreover, it is now evident that cell volume per se and the membrane transport processes which regulate it, comprise an important signalling unit. For example, macromolecular synthesis, apoptosis, cell growth and hormone secretion are all influenced by the cellular hydration state. Therefore, a thorough understanding of volume-activated transport processes could lead to new strategies being developed to control the function and growth of both normal and cancerous cells. Cell swelling stimulates the release of ions such as K(+) and Cl(-) together with organic osmolytes, especially the beta-amino acid taurine. Despite being the subject of intense research interest, the nature of the volume-activated taurine efflux pathway is still a matter of controversy. On the one hand it has been suggested that osmosensitive taurine efflux utilizes volume-sensitive anion channels whereas on the other it has been proposed that the band 3 anion-exchanger is a swelling-induced taurine efflux pathway. This article reviews the evidence for and against a role of anion channels and exchangers in osmosensitive taurine transport. Furthermore, the distinct possibility that neither pathway is involved in taurine transport is highlighted. The putative relationship between swelling-induced taurine transport and volume-activated anionic amino acid, alpha-neutral amino acid and K(+) transport is also examined.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2008; 21(1-3):15-28. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • David B Shennan, Jean Thomson
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cells express TauT, a Na(+)-dependent taurine transporter. However, there is a paucity of information relating to the characteristics of taurine transport in this human breast cancer cell line. Therefore, we have examined the characteristics and regulation of taurine uptake by MCF-7 cells. Taurine uptake by MCF-7 cells showed an absolute dependence upon extracellular Na(+). Although taurine uptake was reduced in Cl(-) free medium a significant portion of taurine uptake persisted in the presence of NO(3) (-). Taurine uptake by MCF-7 cells was inhibited by extracellular beta-alanine but not by L-alanine or L-leucine. 17beta-estadiol increased taurine uptake by MCF-7 cells: the V(max) of influx was increased without affecting the K(m). The effect of 17beta-estradiol on taurine uptake by MCF-7 cells was dependent upon the presence of extracellular Na(+). In contrast, 17beta-estradiol had no significant effect on the kinetic parameters of taurine uptake by estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. It appears that estrogen regulates taurine uptake by MCF-7 cells via TauT. In addition, Na(+)-dependent taurine uptake may not be strictly dependent upon extracellular Cl(-).
    Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 04/2007; 12(3):396-406. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2006; 583:109-16. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    David B Shennan, Jean Thomson, Iain F Gow
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    ABSTRACT: The properties and regulation of volume-activated taurine efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells have been investigated. Volume-activated taurine release from both cell lines was almost completely inhibited by diidosalicylate. DIDS , was more effective at inhibiting swelling-induced taurine release from MCF-7 than from MDA-MB-231 cells. On the basis of comparing taurine, Cl(-) and I(-) efflux time courses, it appears that volume-activated taurine efflux does not utilize volume-sensitive anion channels in MDA-MB- 231 and MCF-7 cells. Extracellular ATP stimulated volume-activated taurine release from MDA-MB-231 cells but not from MCF-7 cells. The effect of ATP was mimicked by UTP and was dependent upon external calcium and inhibited by suramin. However, suramin inhibited volume-activated taurine efflux from both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells even in the absence of exogenously added ATP suggesting that it acts directly on the taurine efflux pathway and/or is inhibiting the effect of ATP released from the cells. Volume-activated taurine efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells was stimulated by ionomycin. In contrast, ionomycin had no effect on taurine release from MCF-7 cells. Adenosine also stimulated volume-activated taurine efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells. The results suggest that purines regulate taurine transport in MDA-MB- 231 cells via more than one type of receptor.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2006; 18(1-3):113-22. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    I F Gow, J Thomson, J Davidson, D B Shennan
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of a hyposmotic shock and extracellular ATP on the efflux of K(+)(Rb(+)) from human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) has been examined. A hyposmotic shock increased the fractional efflux of K(+)(Rb(+)) from MDA-MB-231 cells via a pathway which was unaffected by Cl(-) replacement. Apamin, charybdotoxin or removing extracellular Ca(2+) had no effect on volume-activated K(+)(Rb(+)) efflux MDA-MB-231 cells. An osmotic shock also stimulated K(+)(Rb(+)) efflux from MCF-7 cells but to a much lesser extent than found with MDA-MB-231 cells. ATP-stimulated K(+)(Rb(+)) efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent fashion but had little effect on K(+)(Rb(+)) release from MCF-7 cells. ATP-stimulated K(+)(Rb(+)) efflux was only inhibited slightly by replacing Cl(-) with NO(3)(-). Removal of external Ca(2+) during treatment with ATP reduced the fractional efflux of K(+)(Rb(+)) in a manner suggesting a role for cellular Ca(2+) stores. Charybdotoxin, but neither apamin nor iberiotoxin, inhibited ATP-stimulated K(+)(Rb(+)) release from MDA-MB-231 cells. Suramin inhibited the ATP-activated efflux of K(+)(Rb(+)). UTP also stimulated K(+)(Rb(+)) efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells whereas ADP, AMP and adenosine were without effect. A combination of an osmotic shock and ATP increased the fractional efflux of K(+)(Rb(+)) to a level greater than the sum of the individual treatments. It appears that the hyposmotically-activated and ATP-stimulated K(+) efflux pathways are separate entities. However, there may be a degree of 'crosstalk' between the two pathways.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2005; 1712(1):52-61. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transport of L-leucine by two human breast cancer cell lines has been examined. L-leucine uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was via a BCH-sensitive, Na+ -independent pathway. L-leucine uptake by both cell lines was inhibited by L-alanine, D-leucine and to a lesser extent by L-lysine but not by L-proline. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol) stimulated L-leucine uptake by MCF-7 but not by MDA-MB-231 cells. L-leucine efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect of external BCH on L-leucine efflux from both cell types was almost abolished by reducing the temperature from 37 to 4 degrees C. There was, however, a significant efflux of L-leucine under zero-trans conditions which was also temperature-sensitive. L-glutamine, L-leucine, D-leucine, L-alanine, AIB and L-lysine all trans-stimulated L-leucine release from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In contrast, D-alanine and L-proline had little or no effect. The anti-cancer agent melphalan inhibited L-leucine uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells but had no effect on L-leucine efflux. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that LAT1 mRNA was approximately 200 times more abundant than LAT2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells and confirmed that MDA-MB-231 cells express LAT1 but not LAT2 mRNA. LAT1 mRNA levels were higher in MCF-7 cells than in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, LAT1 mRNA was more abundant than CD98hc mRNA in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results suggest that system L is the major transporter for L-leucine in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. It is possible that LAT1 may be the major molecular correlate of system L in both cell types. However, not all of the properties of system L reflected those of LAT1/LAT2/CD98hc.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2004; 1664(2):206-16. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • D B Shennan, J Thomson
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    ABSTRACT: A knowledge of volume-sensitive solute transport in mammary cells is important in light of evidence that mammary cell metabolism is regulated by the cellular hydration state. In this report we have examined volume-sensitive taurine and K+ (Rb+) transport by lactating rat mammary tissue. A hyposmotic shock increased taurine efflux from rat mammary tissue: taurine release returned to a basal level upon transferring the tissue back to an isosmotic medium. However, the time taken to activate taurine efflux was less than the time taken to inactivate taurine release. A second subsequent osmotic challenge also increased taurine release but to a lesser extent than the first osmotic shock. A similar pattern was observed for bumetanide-insensitive, volume-activated K+ (Rb+) release from mammary tissue explants suggesting that taurine and K+ efflux are acting in concert to regulate mammary cell volume. An abrupt hyposmotic shock increased taurine efflux from mammary explants to a greater extent than a gradual reduction in the osmolality of the incubation medium. Increasing extracellular K+ increased taurine release via a pathway sensitive to niflumic acid, which suggests that activation of volume-sensitive taurine efflux does not require a change in the ionic strength of the incubation medium or a decrease in intracellular osmolality. A hyposmotic shock also stimulated taurine efflux from rat mammary acini. In contrast, a hyposmotic challenge had no effect on taurine uptake measured under sodium-free conditions. Hyposmotically induced taurine efflux was not dependent upon extracellular calcium. The results suggest that taurine and K+ transport may allow mammary cells to volume-regulate and consequently help to control mammary metabolism.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 08/2004; 262(1-2):111-8. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activity and expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase together with L-tryptophan transport has been examined in cultured human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 but not MCF-7 cells expressed mRNA for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Kynurenine production by MDA-MB-231 cells, which was taken as a measure of enzyme activity, was markedly stimulated by interferon-gamma (1000 units/ml). Accordingly, L-tryptophan utilization by MDA-MB-231 cells was enhanced by interferon-gamma. 1-Methyl-DL-tryptophan (1 mM) inhibited interferon-gamma induced kynurenine production by MBA-MB-231 cells. Kynurenine production by MCF-7 cells remained at basal levels when cultured in the presence of interferon-gamma. L-Tryptophan transport into MDA-MB-231 cells was via a Na(+)-independent, BCH-sensitive pathway. It appears that system L (LAT1/CD98) may be the only pathway for l-tryptophan transport into these cells. 1-Methyl-D,L-tryptophan trans-stimulated l-tryptophan efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells and thus appears to be a transported substrate of system L. The results suggest that system L plays an important role in providing indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase with its main substrate, L-tryptophan, and suggest a mechanism by which estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells may evade the attention of the immune system.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2004; 1661(1):106-12. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2003; 1611(1-2):81-90. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transport of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine by the perfused lactating rat mammary gland has been examined using a rapid, paired-tracer dilution technique. The clearances of all three amino acids by the mammary gland consisted of a rising phase followed by a rapid fall-off, respectively, reflecting influx and efflux of the radiotracers. The peak clearance of L-leucine was inhibited by BCH (65%) and D-leucine (58%) but not by L-proline. The inhibition of L-leucine clearance by BCH and D-leucine was not additive. L-leucine inhibited the peak clearance of radiolabelled L-leucine by 78%. BCH also inhibited the peak clearance of L-phenylalanine (66%) and L-alanine (33%) by the perfused mammary gland. Lactating rat mammary tissue was found to express both LAT1 and LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that system L is situated in the basolateral aspect of the lactating rat mammary epithelium and thus probably plays a central role in neutral amino acid uptake from blood. The finding that L-alanine uptake by the gland was inhibited by BCH suggests that LAT2 may make a significant contribution to neutral amino acid uptake by the mammary epithelium.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2002; 1564(1):133-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    D B Shennan, A C G Grant, I F Gow
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of hyposmotic and isosmotic cell swelling on the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in rat mammary acinar cells has been examined using the fura-2 dye technique. Ahyposmotic shock (40% reduction) increased the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells in a fashion which was transient; the [Ca2+]i returned to a value similar to that found under isomotic conditions within 180 sec. The increase in the [Ca2+]i was dependent upon the extent of the osmotic shock. The hyposmotically-activated increase in the [Ca2+]i could not be attributed to a reduction in extracellular Na+ or a change in the ionic strength of the incubation medium. Thapsigargin (1 microM) enhanced the hyposmotically-activated increase in the [Ca2+]i. Isosmotic swelling of rat mammary acinar cells, using urea, had no significant effect on the [Ca2+]i. Similarly, a hyperosmotic shock did not affect the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells. It appears that the effect of cell swelling on the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells depends on how the cells are swollen (hyposmotic vs. isosmotic). This finding may have important physiological implications given that it is predicted that mammary cell volume will change in vivo under isomotic conditions.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 05/2002; 233(1-2):91-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    D B Shennan
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    ABSTRACT: Cell-swelling, induced by a hyposmotic challenge, stimulated the efflux of L-carnitine from a human mammary cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The response was dependent upon the extent of the osmotic shock. Hyposmotically-activated L-carnitine efflux was inhibited by the anion transport blocker diiodosalicylate. The efflux of taurine from MDA-MB-231 cells was also stimulated by a hyposmotic shock via a pathway sensitive to diiodosalicylate. L-carnitine efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells was stimulated by isosmotic swelling in a manner which was inhibited by diiodosalicylate. The results suggest that L-carnitine may exit cells via a volume-sensitive pathway: it is possible that L-carnitine efflux may utilize the same pathway as amino acids. The efflux of L-carnitine via this route could have a major effect on the intracellular concentration of L-carnitine and could facilitate transepithelial L-carnitine transport.
    Bioscience Reports 01/2002; 21(6):779-87. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    D B Shennan
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    ABSTRACT: Although it is beyond doubt that mammary cells accumulate iodide via a Na+-dependent transport mechanism, it is not clear if this is the only pathway for iodide transport in mammary tissue. In view of this, experiments were designed to test for the presence of an anion-exchange pathway which could mediate the transport of iodide into mammary cells; thus, the effect of external iodide on sulfate efflux from rat mammary tissue has been investigated. Iodide trans-stimulated sulfate efflux from mammary tissue explants in a dose-dependent manner: 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mM iodide stimulated the fractional release of iodide by 56 +/- 2.2, 166.5 +/- 17.5, and 302.9 +/- 29.8%, respectively. The stimulation of sulfate efflux by external iodide was completely inhibited by DIDS (4.4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid). Perchlorate (1 mM) also trans-stimulated sulfate efflux in a manner that was inhibited by DIDS. Furthermore, iodide trans-accelerated sulfate efflux from rat mammary acini via a DIDS-sensitive mechanism. The results are consistent with the presence of a DIDS-sensitive anion-exchange mechanism which can accept iodide as a substrate. It appears that the iodide-sulfate exchange mechanism is independent from the sodium-dependent iodide transporter given that sulfate is not a substrate of the latter system. The iodide-sulfate exchanger may operate in parallel with the sodium-dependent iodide transporter to mediate iodide uptake into mammary cells.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2001; 280(5):1359-63. · 2.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

755 Citations
345.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2011
    • University of Strathclyde
      • • Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences
      • • Department of Bioscience
      Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • UK Department of Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Animal Sciences
      Urbana, IL, United States
  • 1998
    • University of St Andrews
      Saint Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1996–1997
    • University of Wales
      • Epithelial Function and Development Group
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1985–1988
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1986
    • University of Dundee
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom