Peter B. Marlow

Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom

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Publications (27)23.79 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: UK shipping companies increasingly flagged out their ships from the 1970s to the late 1990s. This study used Lloyd's casualty records from 1970 to 2005 to investigate and compare shipping casualties and crew fatalities in UK shipping, UK second registers (Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Hong Kong and the Isle of Man) and six foreign flags (Bahamas, Belize, Cyprus, Malta, St. Vincent and Vanuatu) used frequently by UK shipping companies. The study also assessed how 12 shipping factors may affect ships foundering and crew fatalities. Shipping casualty and crew fatality rates fell over time in UK shipping, in UK second registers and in older flags of conveniences, rather than in newer flags of convenience such as Belize and St. Vincent. Cargo, trade and weather most strongly affected ships foundering and crew fatalities. The findings indicate that shipping casualties and crew fatalities should be monitored in new and rapidly expanding flags of convenience.
    Marine Policy 05/2012; 36(3):703–712. · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Jane Jing Xu, Tsz Leung Yip, Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: This paper studies the relationship between the time-varying volatility of dry bulk freight rates and the change of the supply of fleet trading in dry bulk markets. An abundance of research has been done to understand the time-varying characteristics of freight rate volatility, yet few have discussed the determinants of freight volatility. We therefore examine freight volatility against the changes in fleet size and other shipping market variables over January 1973–October 2010. The study employs a two-step model specification. The first step is the measurement of freight rate volatility through an AR-GARCH model; the second step is the analysis of the relationship between freight rate volatility and fleet size growth through a GMM regression. We confirm similar findings in the literature that freight rate volatility is time varying. Furthermore, the results reveal that the change in fleet size positively affects freight rate volatility, while the spot rate volatility of Capesize dry bulk exhibits a stronger reaction to the change in fleet size. The results of this study contribute in a general sense to understanding the systematic risk of shipping markets.
    Transportation Research Part E Logistics and Transportation Review 11/2011; 47(6):983–991. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Peter Marlow, Kyriaki Mitroussi
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    ABSTRACT: The tax treatment of the shipping industry over the last 30 years exhibits alternative forms of corporate taxation systems implemented by various governments. A consensus view of the way in which shipping should be treated for tax purposes has resulted in the widely adopted form of the tonnage tax. The aim of the paper is to examine the success or otherwise of such shipping fiscal policies in respect of widely accepted perspectives and set objectives. The focus of the study is on the UK registry, investigating the impact of the introduction of the UK tonnage tax. Noteworthy results emerge along with the understanding that, in the long run, the tonnage tax seems to be connected more with the 'flagging out' of foreign owned tonnage than with the 'flagging in' of nationally owned vessels. The findings can be considered to have broader implications for the competitiveness of national ship registries and for policy making.
    Int. J. of Shipping and Transport Logistics. 01/2011; 3(4):ng and Transport Logistics.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate long-term trends in mortality rates for accidents to fishing vessels in the UK fishing industry from 1948 to 2008; to investigate the circumstances and causes of these fishing vessel accidents and trends in fishing vessel losses. Examination of paper death inquiry files, death registers, marine accident investigative files, annual casualty and death returns. Of 1039 fatalities from accidents to UK fishing vessels from 1948 to 2008, most (65%) resulted from vessels that foundered (or capsized or disappeared), followed by vessels grounding (21%), collisions (7%), and fires and explosions (5%). There was a significant increase over time of 1.04% per year in the overall fishing vessel loss rate and for vessels that foundered (5.19%), a reduction for vessels grounding (1.13%), but no trends for collisions or fires and explosions. Regarding mortality, there was a significant reduction over time for grounding (1.44%) and a non-significant reduction for vessel accidents overall, but no trends for other types of vessel accident. Mortality was highest during the winter months (for foundering and grounding), during night time (for grounding, fires and explosions), and afternoons (foundering and collisions). Since 1976, most fatalities from collisions (83%) occurred in the English Channel and North Sea, while 49% from grounding occurred off the west coast of Scotland. The mortality rate from fishing vessel casualties in UK fishing is still very high. Fatalities in recent years have often been linked to fishing vessels that are unstable, overloaded, and unseaworthy.
    International maritime health. 01/2010; 62(3):143-53.
  • Ana C. Paixão Casaca, Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies about logistics strategies have been carried out but more often than not researchers have adopted a descriptive rather than a quantitative approach. The quantitative approach was addressed for the first time in 1987 and much of the work performed has been focused on North American based companies, thus creating a bias. Most studies have addressed product-oriented companies rather than service ones and the logistics strategies identified are of a general nature and often based on the work performed by Bowersox and Daugherty 11. Bowersox , DJ and Daugherty , PJ . 1987 . Emerging patterns of logistical organization . Journal of Business Logistics , 8 ( 1 ) : 46 – 60 . View all references. To reverse this trend, this research investigates by means of a questionnaire specific logistics strategies that short sea operators can implement to integrate short sea shipping into multimodal transport chains. To achieve this, 75 potential best-practices were reduced by using factor analysis into a list of 13 functional strategies, of which eight were considered logistics strategies. The term best practice refers to a management idea that is supported by proper processes and provides superior performance; when associated with other management ideas, best-practices help to develop a logistic strategy that gives an organization a competitive advantage.
    Marit. Pol. Mgmt. 02/2009; 36(1):1-19.
  • Ching-Chiao Yang, Peter B. Marlow, Chin-Shan Lu
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    ABSTRACT: This study empirically identifies crucial knowledge management enablers and examines their impacts on organizational performance using survey data collected from liner shipping firms include shipping companies and agencies. Results indicated that knowledge management enablers such as organizational structure and knowledge management culture are found to have significantly positive effects on the organizational performance aspects of innovativeness, financial performance, and customer service, whereas information technology support is a positive effect on organizational performance aspect of innovativeness. Theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings on knowledge management for liner shipping companies are discussed.
    Transportation Research Part E Logistics and Transportation Review 01/2009; 45(6):893-903. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Ching-Chiao Yang, Peter B. Marlow, Chin-Shan Lu
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between resource, logistics service capability, innovation capability and the performance of Taiwanese container shipping service firms based on the resource-based view (RBV). A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was employed to test the research hypotheses. Results indicated that resource had a significant positive effect on logistics service capabilities and innovation capabilities. In addition, the findings indicated that logistics service capability had a positive effect on the performance of container shipping service firms. However, resource and innovation capability were not found to have significantly positive effects on firms’ performance. Theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings for container shipping service firms are discussed.
    International Journal of Production Economics. 01/2009;
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    Kuo-Chung Shang, Peter B Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Logistics and supply chain management has been elevated to a strategic level whereby firms can simultaneously achieve differentiation and low cost for sustained competitive advantage. Empirical studies have often concentrated on logistics management in developed Western countries, displaying a bias towards the USA. This study applies the competency approach to explore logistics in Taiwan. A survey of 1,200 manufacturing firms was undertaken in order to examine the relationships between logistics competency, logistics performance, and financial performance, using exploratory factor analysis and the structural equation modelling technique. Four logistics competencies, namely, integration and knowledge competency, customer focused logistics competency, measurement competency, and agility competency were identified. The research findings revealed that (1) logistics competency was significantly related to logistics performance but not significantly associated with financial performance, and (2) logistics performance was positively associated with financial performance. These findings also implied that logistics competency has an indirect effect on financial performance through logistics performance. This finding confirmed the "world-class" logistics competencies (i.e. positioning, integration, agility, and measurement) as identified by MSUGLRT (1995). In addition, it suggests that logistics competency in a huge geographic area such as America can have the same effect in a smaller geographic area such as Taiwan.
    01/2008; 5(2):45-66.
  • Peter Marlow, Kyriaki Mitroussi
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    ABSTRACT: The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax system as no longer merely an inventive tax format but as a global standard of shipping taxation, which is in operation for 70% of the global ocean-going fleet. An examination of the European Union (EU) shipping taxation policy exhibits particular interest not only due to the fact that a number of significant traditional ship-owning nations are part of the EU – for example, Greece and the UK – but also due to the presence of fairly recently joined countries with a substantial role in international shipping as popular open registries – for example, Cyprus and Malta. The aim of this paper is to investigate the shipping taxation policy of the EU by concentrating on the forms this takes in selected European countries and to examine critically the comparative position of Greek shipping in this context. Maritime Economics & Logistics (2008) 10, 185–207. doi:10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100198
    Maritime Economics & Logistics 01/2008; 10(1-2):185-207.
  • Peter Marlow, Rawindaran Nair
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    ABSTRACT: Service contracts have emerged as an important instrument to secure a long-term relationship between carriers in the container shipping industry and shippers requiring scheduled services covering a global market. This contract, entered into largely on an individual and confidential basis, continues to enjoy anti-trust immunity under current United States and European Union regulations. It will continue to be in place even after the EC Council Regulation 4056/86 is repealed in October 2008 although it may operate in a modified way because of the absence of the common external conference tariff. This article examines the implications of this instrument on the international supply chain and explores its future role in defining efficiencies in international trade flows.
    Marine Policy. 01/2008;
  • Ana C Paixão Casaca, Peter B Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: The need to shift goods from road to underused transport capacity led the European Commission to embark on the development of two important policies: one concerning short sea shipping (SSS) and the other concerning the trans-European transport network (TEN-T). While for many years these policies were delineated separately, the introduction of ports and Project 21 in the TEN-T brought these two policies together. In light of this, the aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the TEN-T on SSS. To achieve this, the paper describes the SSS market segment; it puts into a historical perspective the TEN-T policy; and it carries out an assessment of the impact of the TEN-T on SSS. Maritime Economics & Logistics (2007) 9, 302–323. doi:10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100184
    Maritime Economics & Logistics 01/2007; 9(4):302-323.
  • Peter Marlow, Rawindaran Nair
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    ABSTRACT: The European Commission (EC) is currently reviewing Council Regulation 4056/86, which includes the proposal by the European Liner Affairs Association (ELAA) to put in place a regulatory instrument for an information exchange system. The White Paper of the EC, issued in 2004, which provides a comprehensive discussion of the key issues including the ELAA proposal, is examined. The implications of the removal of Regulation 4056/86 and the application of this information exchange instrument in its place are studied. Arising from the protection afforded by antitrust immunity for nearly 100 years owners appear to have developed a fear of the unknown regarding an unregulated environment.
    Marine Policy 11/2006; 30(6):681-688. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    Stephen E Roberts, Peter B Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Over 2300 merchant seafarers are currently employed on board UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ships. However, little is known about work related mortality among these seafarers, and whether it is lower than among seafarers in merchant fleets. To establish the causes and circumstances of all work related deaths among seafarers who were employed in RFA ships from 1976 to 2005, to compare mortality rates with those in other merchant fleets, and to identify implications for maritime health. A population based study of work related mortality over 30 years. A total of 60 deaths among seafarers in RFA ships were caused by disease (30), accidents (19), suicide (6), homicide (one), and inconclusive causes (4). Six of the 19 fatal accidents were directly related to work duties (occupational accidents), 12 occurred during off-duty time and one resulted from a shipping disaster. The fatal accident rate was about one half, and the fatal work related accident rate was about one quarter, of corresponding rates in UK merchant shipping from 1976-2002; and they were much lower than those in merchant fleets internationally. The fatal accident rate in RFA shipping also fell by about 80% over the 30 year study period. The lower fatal accident rates in RFA shipping, particularly for work related accidents, presumably reflect a lower incidence of hazardous working practices, arising from better training and career pathways for seafarers in RFA shipping, as well as better maintained ships with higher manning levels than in merchant shipping.
    International maritime health 02/2006; 57(1-4):24-35.
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    ABSTRACT: In their Green Paper on Sea Ports and Maritime Infrastructure the European Commission implies that full cost recovery pricing by ports requires current users to pay for sunk costs. Consequently, if this pricing policy were adopted by EU ports, it is argued by the EC that this would lead to strong increases in port charges.This paper compares three EU ports (two in the public sector and one privately owned) where the port authorities currently determine their charges on this basis. In doing so, it explains how full cost recovery works in practice and provides evidence which suggests the Commission is mistaken in its view that, if adopted, large increases in port charges would necessarily follow.
    Transport Policy. 01/2006;
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    S E Roberts, P B Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the causes and circumstances of all traumatic work related deaths among seafarers who were employed in British merchant shipping from 1976 to 2002, and to assess whether seafaring is still a hazardous occupation as well as a high risk occupation for suicide. A longitudinal study of occupational mortality, based on official mortality files, with a population of 1,136,427 seafarer-years at risk. Of 835 traumatic work related deaths, 564 were caused by accidents, 55 by suicide, 17 by homicide, and 14 by drug or alcohol poisoning. The circumstances in which the other 185 deaths occurred, including 178 seafarers who disappeared at sea or were found drowned, were undetermined. The mortality rate for 530 fatal accidents that occurred at the workplace from 1976 to 2002, 46.6 per 100,000 seafarer-years, was 27.8 times higher than in the general workforce in Great Britain during the same time period. The fatal accident rate declined sharply since the 1970s, but the relative risk of a fatal accident was 16.0 in 1996-2002. There was no reduction in the suicide rate, which was comparable to that in most high risk occupations in Britain, from 1976 to 1995; but a decline since 1995. Although there was a large decline in the fatal accident rate in British shipping, compared to the general workforce, seafaring has remained a hazardous occupation. Further prevention should focus on improvements in safety awareness among seafarers and shipping companies, reductions in hazardous working practices, and improvements in care for seafarers at risk of suicide.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 04/2005; 62(3):172-80. · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Kuo-chung Shang, Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: This study, based on a survey of 1200 manufacturing firms in Taiwan, uses structural equation modelling to examine the relationships among logistics capabilities, logistics performance, and financial performance. Results show that the information-based capability is the most critical since it can impact upon benchmarking capability, flexibility capability, and logistics performance. Moreover, information-based capability also indirectly impacts on financial performance through logistics performance.
    Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review. 01/2005;
  • Ana C. Paixão Casaca, Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Much has been written and spoken about short sea shipping within the European Union (EU) as a means of shifting goods from road to sea and of achieving a sustainable economic development. However, this shift is far from being a general reality, despite the few individual, and success stories that have taken place and the EUROSTAT data suggest that the overall effort has contributed very little towards attaining this desired shift. In the light of this, research was conducted to discover how to put short sea shipping on a more competitive level within European multimodal logistics supply chains. This paper aims at identifying service attributes of short sea shipping operations within multimodal transport chains by means of a questionnaire and, for that, examines the short sea shipping environment and contemporary European logistics trends. The analysis is based on empirical research, involving logistics operators, shippers’ associations and intermodal rail operators, and allows an evaluation (based on statistical techniques) of the short sea shipping industry and its competitors. It extends previous work by considering these short sea shipping attributes within a multimodal transport context.
    Maritime Policy & Management 01/2005; 32(4):363-382. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Peter B. Marlow, Ana C. Paixão Casaca
    Journal of International Logistics and Trade. 01/2004; 2(1):57-68.
  • Ana Cristina Paixão, Peter Bernard Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Since the Second World War, ports have been going through an evolution which the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) refers to as generations. The generation of a port reflects whether the approach adopted by port authorities/operators in developing their activities is likely to be reactive or proactive. These activities start with the traditional ones (cargo loading and discharging) and end up with the establishment of a wide range of logistics and value-added activities, developed in conjunction with industrial and commercial businesses. This generation of ports, classified as third generation, would be sufficient if the world economic growth pattern could be forecast with any certainty. Unfortunately, this is not the case and the external environment today comprises constant changes that are reflected in the high levels of market uncertainty. To cope with this uncertainty it is suggested that ports should adopt a new logistics approach, agility, which has already been employed in other industries. This paper provides a definition of fourth generation ports and a methodology for implementing the concept of agile ports.
    International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 01/2003; 33(4):355-376. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Peter B Marlow, Ana C Paixão Casaca
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    ABSTRACT: Ports have traditionally made use of quantitative measures to assess their performance. While contributing towards ranking a port in the worldwide context or even classifying ports according to their size, these provide little information about the quality of the services being offered. The trends in contemporary logistics and the emerging of the new economy mean that successful ports can no longer sustain this approach. It is therefore suggested that ports become agile. Agile ports entail a new approach to measuring port performance. Because its development requires the implementation of a two-stage integration process, internal and external, it is therefore proposed that a two-tier measurement of port performance indicators is also developed. The new port measurement indicators, besides considering quantitative aspects, will also focus on qualitative issues as they bring increasing visibility within the port environment and along the transport chain, enhancing a better integration of all supply chain logistics elements. Qualitative performance indicators are at the heart of lean ports and consequently of port networking. Additionally, they support a total quality port management system implementation which encourages continuous improvements. The objective of this paper is to suggest a set of new port performance indicators that measure lean port performance and sustain the subsequent development of agile ports.
    International Journal of Transport Management 01/2003; 1(4):189-202.