Peter B. Marlow

Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom

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Publications (34)53.78 Total impact

  • Stephen E. Roberts · Stephen J. Pettit · Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Bulk carriers have been linked with high risks of structural failure and foundering, and with heavy loss of human life. This study used Lloyd's casualty records to investigate the extent to which dry bulk shipping has become safer over the last 30 years, and to identify shipping factors associated with the risks of bulk carriers' foundering and crew fatalities in recent years. Although there have been reductions over time in bulk carrier casualties and crew fatalities since the early 1980s, with an interim peak during the early and mid 1990s, there have been increases since 2005, linked partly to several bulk carriers that foundered when carrying nickel ore. Of 11 shipping factors considered, the strongest independent predictors of foundering and crew fatalities in recent years were the flag state, the cargo, the location of the casualty, weather conditions and the gross tonnage. Over the study period, elevated casualty and crew fatality rates were linked strongly with newly emerging or expanding flags.
    Marine Policy 11/2013; 42:223–235. DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2013.02.011 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Chung-Shan Yang · Chin-Shan Lu · Jane Jing Haider · Peter Bernard Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: This study empirically examines the relationships between internal green practices, external green integration, green performance, and firm competitiveness in the container shipping context. We collect data from a survey of 163 container shipping firms in Taiwan, and apply a structural equation model (SEM) to test the research hypotheses. We confirm that internal green practices and external green collaboration have positive impacts on green performance, which in turn helps to enhance firm competitiveness. The findings show that a firm’s green performance and external green collaboration act as mediator variables between internal green practices and firm competitiveness, and they influence firm competitiveness positively. We also discuss in this paper the managerial implications for container shipping firms to improve their green performance and competitiveness.
    Transportation Research Part E Logistics and Transportation Review 08/2013; 55:55–73. DOI:10.1016/j.tre.2013.03.005 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Stephen E Roberts · Peter B Marlow · Bogdan Jaremin
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    ABSTRACT: UK shipping companies increasingly flagged out their ships from the 1970s to the late 1990s. This study used Lloyd's casualty records from 1970 to 2005 to investigate and compare shipping casualties and crew fatalities in UK shipping, UK second registers (Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Hong Kong and the Isle of Man) and six foreign flags (Bahamas, Belize, Cyprus, Malta, St. Vincent and Vanuatu) used frequently by UK shipping companies. The study also assessed how 12 shipping factors may affect ships foundering and crew fatalities. Shipping casualty and crew fatality rates fell over time in UK shipping, in UK second registers and in older flags of conveniences, rather than in newer flags of convenience such as Belize and St. Vincent. Cargo, trade and weather most strongly affected ships foundering and crew fatalities. The findings indicate that shipping casualties and crew fatalities should be monitored in new and rapidly expanding flags of convenience.
    Marine Policy 05/2012; 36(3):703–712. DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.11.004 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Jane Jing Xu · Tsz Leung Yip · Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: This paper studies the relationship between the time-varying volatility of dry bulk freight rates and the change of the supply of fleet trading in dry bulk markets. An abundance of research has been done to understand the time-varying characteristics of freight rate volatility, yet few have discussed the determinants of freight volatility. We therefore examine freight volatility against the changes in fleet size and other shipping market variables over January 1973–October 2010. The study employs a two-step model specification. The first step is the measurement of freight rate volatility through an AR-GARCH model; the second step is the analysis of the relationship between freight rate volatility and fleet size growth through a GMM regression. We confirm similar findings in the literature that freight rate volatility is time varying. Furthermore, the results reveal that the change in fleet size positively affects freight rate volatility, while the spot rate volatility of Capesize dry bulk exhibits a stronger reaction to the change in fleet size. The results of this study contribute in a general sense to understanding the systematic risk of shipping markets.
    Transportation Research Part E Logistics and Transportation Review 11/2011; 47(6):983–991. DOI:10.1016/j.tre.2011.05.008 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Venus Y.H. Lun · Peter Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: In liner shipping operations, shipping capacity and firm performance are associated closely. This study aims to evaluate the effect of scale operations by conducting a data envelopment analysis (DEA) using empirical data. The DEA model of this study consists of two input variables (i.e., shipping capacity and operating cost) and two output variables (profit and revenue). Based on the empirical data collected in 2008, K Line and RCL are found to be efficient firms in the liner shipping industry. The results suggest that non-mega operators, with market share of 5% or below, can operate their firms efficiently.
    International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 01/2011; 3(1):ng and Transport Logistics. DOI:10.1504/IJSTL.2011.037819 · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Peter Marlow · Kyriaki Mitroussi
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    ABSTRACT: The tax treatment of the shipping industry over the last 30 years exhibits alternative forms of corporate taxation systems implemented by various governments. A consensus view of the way in which shipping should be treated for tax purposes has resulted in the widely adopted form of the tonnage tax. The aim of the paper is to examine the success or otherwise of such shipping fiscal policies in respect of widely accepted perspectives and set objectives. The focus of the study is on the UK registry, investigating the impact of the introduction of the UK tonnage tax. Noteworthy results emerge along with the understanding that, in the long run, the tonnage tax seems to be connected more with the 'flagging out' of foreign owned tonnage than with the 'flagging in' of nationally owned vessels. The findings can be considered to have broader implications for the competitiveness of national ship registries and for policy making.
    International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 01/2011; 3(4):ng and Transport Logistics. DOI:10.1504/IJSTL.2011.041132 · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comment on some of the key issues relating to piracy, terrorism, regulatory approaches and economic issues stemming from maritime security measures. It takes a wide ranging view of these issues and argues that security measures must be managed effectively so as not to be perceived as burdensome. Furthermore, any measures adopted must cover the whole of the international logistics supply chain and not just the shipping component of such distribution channels.
    Maritime Policy & Management 12/2010; 37(7):667-676. DOI:10.1080/03088839.2010.524734 · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • David A. Glass · Peter B. Marlow · Rawindaran Nair
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    ABSTRACT: One element of the supply of international transport services as part of a logistics supply chain is the use of transport documents which exchange and record information and embodies legal significance. Historically, many of these documents developed along modal lines and are paper‐based but modern logistics practices and international trade often require multi‐modal distribution channels and the greater use of information technology with a possible shift to electronic documents. This paper examines whether, in the light of the evolving operational and legal environment and from an industry perspective, a more flexible approach to carriage documentation could emerge. The paper, based on a qualitative study, comprises five sections. Following the introduction, the research methodology is outlined. Section 3 discusses documents of carriage and legal issues while Section 4 presents the findings from the study. The final section offers some conclusions and suggests that, despite various changes which are moving in the right direction, legacy and uncertainty render various parties reluctant to take advantage of the changing legal framework.
    International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics 09/2010; DOI:10.1504/IJSTL.2010.035499 · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Stephen E Roberts · Bogdan Jaremin · Peter B Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate long-term trends in mortality rates for accidents to fishing vessels in the UK fishing industry from 1948 to 2008; to investigate the circumstances and causes of these fishing vessel accidents and trends in fishing vessel losses. Examination of paper death inquiry files, death registers, marine accident investigative files, annual casualty and death returns. Of 1039 fatalities from accidents to UK fishing vessels from 1948 to 2008, most (65%) resulted from vessels that foundered (or capsized or disappeared), followed by vessels grounding (21%), collisions (7%), and fires and explosions (5%). There was a significant increase over time of 1.04% per year in the overall fishing vessel loss rate and for vessels that foundered (5.19%), a reduction for vessels grounding (1.13%), but no trends for collisions or fires and explosions. Regarding mortality, there was a significant reduction over time for grounding (1.44%) and a non-significant reduction for vessel accidents overall, but no trends for other types of vessel accident. Mortality was highest during the winter months (for foundering and grounding), during night time (for grounding, fires and explosions), and afternoons (foundering and collisions). Since 1976, most fatalities from collisions (83%) occurred in the English Channel and North Sea, while 49% from grounding occurred off the west coast of Scotland. The mortality rate from fishing vessel casualties in UK fishing is still very high. Fatalities in recent years have often been linked to fishing vessels that are unstable, overloaded, and unseaworthy.
    01/2010; 62(3):143-53.
  • Ching-Chiao Yang · Peter B. Marlow · Chin-Shan Lu
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between resource, logistics service capability, innovation capability and the performance of Taiwanese container shipping service firms based on the resource-based view (RBV). A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was employed to test the research hypotheses. Results indicated that resource had a significant positive effect on logistics service capabilities and innovation capabilities. In addition, the findings indicated that logistics service capability had a positive effect on the performance of container shipping service firms. However, resource and innovation capability were not found to have significantly positive effects on firms’ performance. Theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings for container shipping service firms are discussed.
    International Journal of Production Economics 11/2009; 122(1-122):4-20. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpe.2009.03.016 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Ching-Chiao Yang · Peter B. Marlow · Chin-Shan Lu
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    ABSTRACT: This study empirically identifies crucial knowledge management enablers and examines their impacts on organizational performance using survey data collected from liner shipping firms include shipping companies and agencies. Results indicated that knowledge management enablers such as organizational structure and knowledge management culture are found to have significantly positive effects on the organizational performance aspects of innovativeness, financial performance, and customer service, whereas information technology support is a positive effect on organizational performance aspect of innovativeness. Theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings on knowledge management for liner shipping companies are discussed.
    Transportation Research Part E Logistics and Transportation Review 11/2009; 45(6):893-903. DOI:10.1016/j.tre.2009.05.003 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Ana C. Paixão Casaca · Peter B. Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies about logistics strategies have been carried out but more often than not researchers have adopted a descriptive rather than a quantitative approach. The quantitative approach was addressed for the first time in 1987 and much of the work performed has been focused on North American based companies, thus creating a bias. Most studies have addressed product-oriented companies rather than service ones and the logistics strategies identified are of a general nature and often based on the work performed by Bowersox and Daugherty 11. Bowersox , DJ and Daugherty , PJ . 1987 . Emerging patterns of logistical organization . Journal of Business Logistics , 8 ( 1 ) : 46 – 60 . View all references. To reverse this trend, this research investigates by means of a questionnaire specific logistics strategies that short sea operators can implement to integrate short sea shipping into multimodal transport chains. To achieve this, 75 potential best-practices were reduced by using factor analysis into a list of 13 functional strategies, of which eight were considered logistics strategies. The term best practice refers to a management idea that is supported by proper processes and provides superior performance; when associated with other management ideas, best-practices help to develop a logistic strategy that gives an organization a competitive advantage.
    Maritime Policy & Management 02/2009; 36(1):1-19. DOI:10.1080/03088830802652254 · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Lu Jing · Peter B. Marlow · Wang Hui
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    ABSTRACT: The world bulk shipping market has been in a peak period since 2003, and this has lasted an incredibly long time considering that the markets are much more complex than before. This paper investigates the characteristics of volatility in dry bulk freight rates of different vessel sizes (capesize, panamax and handysize). The daily returns of freight rate indices of three different types of bulk vessel in the sample period have been examined. The sample period ran from 1 March 1999 to 23 December 2005, and applying the GARCH (generalized auto regressive conditional heteroskedasticity) model showed that the shocks will not decrease but have the tendency to strengthen for all the daily return series. Further, external shocks on the market have a different magnitude of influence on volatility in different types of vessels due to their distinct flexibility. To examine the asymmetric characters of daily return volatility in different bulk shipping sectors and different market conditions, the sample was divided into two periods: one is from 1 March 1999 to 31 December 2002, the other is from 1 January 2003 to 23 December 2005; the EGARCH (exponential generalized auto regressive conditional heteroskedasticity) model was then applied to investigate the asymmetric impact between past innovations and current volatility. The results show that the asymmetric characters are distinct for different vessel size segments and different market conditions. The reasons for the results are discussed and it is considered that the main reasons may be the different flexibility and different commodity transport on different routes. The results from this investigation will be useful for the operators and investors in the dry bulk shipping market to increase profitability and reduce investment risk.
    Maritime Policy & Management 06/2008; 35(3):237-251. DOI:10.1080/03088830802079987 · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Peter Marlow · Rawindaran Nair
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    ABSTRACT: Service contracts have emerged as an important instrument to secure a long-term relationship between carriers in the container shipping industry and shippers requiring scheduled services covering a global market. This contract, entered into largely on an individual and confidential basis, continues to enjoy anti-trust immunity under current United States and European Union regulations. It will continue to be in place even after the EC Council Regulation 4056/86 is repealed in October 2008 although it may operate in a modified way because of the absence of the common external conference tariff. This article examines the implications of this instrument on the international supply chain and explores its future role in defining efficiencies in international trade flows.
    Marine Policy 05/2008; 32(3-32):489-496. DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.09.009 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Peter Marlow · Kyriaki Mitroussi
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    ABSTRACT: The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax system as no longer merely an inventive tax format but as a global standard of shipping taxation, which is in operation for 70% of the global ocean-going fleet. An examination of the European Union (EU) shipping taxation policy exhibits particular interest not only due to the fact that a number of significant traditional ship-owning nations are part of the EU – for example, Greece and the UK – but also due to the presence of fairly recently joined countries with a substantial role in international shipping as popular open registries – for example, Cyprus and Malta. The aim of this paper is to investigate the shipping taxation policy of the EU by concentrating on the forms this takes in selected European countries and to examine critically the comparative position of Greek shipping in this context. Maritime Economics & Logistics (2008) 10, 185–207. doi:10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100198
    Maritime Economics & Logistics 03/2008; 10(1-2):185-207. DOI:10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100198
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    Kuo-Chung Shang · Peter B Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: Logistics and supply chain management has been elevated to a strategic level whereby firms can simultaneously achieve differentiation and low cost for sustained competitive advantage. Empirical studies have often concentrated on logistics management in developed Western countries, displaying a bias towards the USA. This study applies the competency approach to explore logistics in Taiwan. A survey of 1,200 manufacturing firms was undertaken in order to examine the relationships between logistics competency, logistics performance, and financial performance, using exploratory factor analysis and the structural equation modelling technique. Four logistics competencies, namely, integration and knowledge competency, customer focused logistics competency, measurement competency, and agility competency were identified. The research findings revealed that (1) logistics competency was significantly related to logistics performance but not significantly associated with financial performance, and (2) logistics performance was positively associated with financial performance. These findings also implied that logistics competency has an indirect effect on financial performance through logistics performance. This finding confirmed the "world-class" logistics competencies (i.e. positioning, integration, agility, and measurement) as identified by MSUGLRT (1995). In addition, it suggests that logistics competency in a huge geographic area such as America can have the same effect in a smaller geographic area such as Taiwan.
  • Ana C Paixão Casaca · Peter B Marlow
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    ABSTRACT: The need to shift goods from road to underused transport capacity led the European Commission to embark on the development of two important policies: one concerning short sea shipping (SSS) and the other concerning the trans-European transport network (TEN-T). While for many years these policies were delineated separately, the introduction of ports and Project 21 in the TEN-T brought these two policies together. In light of this, the aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the TEN-T on SSS. To achieve this, the paper describes the SSS market segment; it puts into a historical perspective the TEN-T policy; and it carries out an assessment of the impact of the TEN-T on SSS. Maritime Economics & Logistics (2007) 9, 302–323. doi:10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100184
    Maritime Economics & Logistics 12/2007; 9(4):302-323. DOI:10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100184
  • B.M. Gardner · P.B. Marlow · M.M. Naim · R. Nair · S.J. Pettit
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    ABSTRACT: People with seafaring experience and skills are employed in the maritime sector of the UK economy in land-based jobs as well as in seagoing ones. This paper examines the balance of supply and demand in the land-based jobs market. It then considers the likely effects of a shortfall in the supply of British ships' officers to fill net vacancies in jobs ashore, including the policy implications of this and the consequences for the economy's maritime skills base if the Government fails to act decisively now to correct market failure.
    Marine Policy 03/2007; 31(2):117-124. DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2006.05.010 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Peter Marlow · Rawindaran Nair
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    ABSTRACT: The European Commission (EC) is currently reviewing Council Regulation 4056/86, which includes the proposal by the European Liner Affairs Association (ELAA) to put in place a regulatory instrument for an information exchange system. The White Paper of the EC, issued in 2004, which provides a comprehensive discussion of the key issues including the ELAA proposal, is examined. The implications of the removal of Regulation 4056/86 and the application of this information exchange instrument in its place are studied. Arising from the protection afforded by antitrust immunity for nearly 100 years owners appear to have developed a fear of the unknown regarding an unregulated environment.
    Marine Policy 11/2006; 30(6):681-688. DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2005.10.002 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Peter B. Marlow · Bernard M. Gardner
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    ABSTRACT: The Straits of Malacca and Singapore are an important trade route linking the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. They are also rich in resources and support a range of activities that benefit the economies of the littoral states (Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore). This important shipping route is a very congested waterway and the authorities are keen to improve navigation facilities to promote ship safety and reduce the risk of groundings, collisions and accidents. This will also help to protect the marine environment from the effects of pollution and hence reduce its damaging impact on activities related to the Straits, e.g. fisheries and tourism. The Marine Electronic Highway (MEH) is an attempt to bring together maritime safety technologies and environmental management systems. The paper examines the costs of providing such a highway and considers some of the benefits which could accrue from its implementation. The analysis, conducted in the form of a cost–benefit study, clearly shows the economic viability of the scheme.
    Maritime Policy & Management 05/2006; 33(2):187-202. DOI:10.1080/03088830600613037 · 1.45 Impact Factor