Iacopo Carusotto

Università degli Studi di Trento, Trient, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy

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Publications (173)614.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The experimental study of edge states in atomically-thin layered materials remains a challenge due to the difficult control of the geometry of the sample terminations, the stability of dangling bonds and the need to measure local properties. In the case of graphene, localised edge modes have been predicted in zig-zag and bearded edges, characterised by flat dispersions connecting the Dirac points. Polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have recently emerged as an extraordinary photonic platform to emulate 1D and 2D Hamiltonians, allowing the direct visualization of the wavefunctions in both real- and momentum-space as well as of the energy dispersion of eigenstates via photoluminescence experiments. Here we report on the observation of edge states in a honeycomb lattice of coupled micropillars. The lowest two bands of this structure arise from the coupling of the lowest energy modes of the micropillars, and emulate the {\pi} and {\pi}* bands of graphene. We show the momentum space dispersion of the edge states associated to the zig-zag and bearded edges, holding unidimensional quasi-flat bands. Additionally, we evaluate polarisation effects characteristic of polaritons on the properties of these states.
    08/2015; 2(3). DOI:10.1088/2053-1583/2/3/034012
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a joint theoretical and experimental study of an analogue of the Lamb shift in the photonic framework. The platform is an integrated photonic device consisting of a single mode waveguide vertically coupled to a disk-shaped microresonator. The presence of a neighboring waveguide induces a reactive inter-mode coupling in the resonator, an effect analogous to an off-diagonal Lamb shift from atomic physics. Waveguide mediated coupling of different radial families results in peculiar Fano lineshapes in the waveguide transmission spectra, which manifests for different relative frequency shifts of the modes at different azimuthal numbers. Finally, a non-linear model for the dinamic tuning of the Fano lineshape under continuous wave pumping conditions is proposed.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 06/2015; 9520:952006. DOI:10.1117/12.2178984 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a realistic scheme to detect the 4D quantum Hall effect using ultracold atoms. Based on contemporary technology, motion along a synthetic fourth dimension is accomplished through controlled transitions between internal states of atoms arranged in a 3D optical lattice. From a semi-classical analysis, we identify the linear and non-linear quantized current responses of our 4D model, relating these to the underlying topology of the Bloch bands. We then propose realistic experimental protocols, based on current or center-of-mass-drift measurements, to observe both a "fractional" Hall conductivity and to extract the topological 2nd Chern number. Our proposal sets the stage for future experiments exploring novel topological phases in higher dimensions.
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    Grazia Salerno · Tomoki Ozawa · Hannah M. Price · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: We study the driven-dissipative steady-state of a coherently-driven Bose field in a honeycomb lattice geometry. In the presence of a suitable spatial modulation of the hopping amplitudes, a valley-dependent artificial magnetic field appears and the low-energy eigenmodes have the form of relativistic Landau levels. We show how the main properties of the Landau levels can be extracted by observing the peaks in the absorption spectrum of the system and the corresponding spatial intensity distribution. Finally, quantitative predictions for realistic lattices based on photonic or microwave technologies are discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: We use coupled micropillars etched out of a semiconductor microcavity to engineer a spin-orbit Hamiltonian for photons and polaritons in a microstructure. The coupling between the spin and orbital momentum arises from the polarization-dependent confinement and tunneling of photons between adjacent micropillars arranged in the form of a hexagonal photonic molecule. It results in polariton eigenstates with distinct polarization patterns, which are revealed in photoluminescence experiments in the regime of polariton condensation. Thanks to the strong polariton nonlinearities, our system provides a photonic workbench for the quantum simulation of the interplay between interactions and spin-orbit effects, particularly when extended to two-dimensional lattices.
    Physical Review X 03/2015; 5(1):011034. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevX.5.011034 · 8.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superfluidity, the ability of a liquid or gas to flow with zero viscosity, is one of the most remarkable implications of collective quantum coherence. In equilibrium systems like liquid 4He and ultracold atomic gases, superfluid behaviour conjugates diverse yet related phenomena, such as persistency of metastable flow in multiply connected geometries and the existence of a critical velocity for frictionless flow when hitting a static defect. The link between these different aspects of superfluid behaviour is far less clear in driven-dissipative systems displaying collective coherence, such as microcavity polaritons, which raises important questions about their concurrency. With a joint theoretical and experimental study, we show that the scenario is particularly rich for polaritons driven in a three-fluid collective coherent regime so-called optical parametric oscillator. On the one hand, the spontaneous macroscopic coherence following the phase locking of the signal and idler fluids has been shown to be responsible for their simultaneous quantized flow metastability. On the other hand, we show here that pump, signal and idler have distinct responses when hitting a static defect; while the signal displays hardly appreciable modulations, the ones appearing in pump and idler are determined by their mutual coupling due to nonlinear and parametric processes.
    Physical Review B 03/2015; 92(3). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.92.035307 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    Alessio Chiocchetta · Andrea Gambassi · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: After reviewing the interpretation of laser operation as a non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition, we illustrate the novel features arising from the non-equilibrium nature of photon and polariton Bose-Einstein condensates recently observed in experiments. We then proposea quantitative criterion to experimentally assess the equilibrium vs. non-equilibrium nature of a specific condensation process, based on fluctuation-dissipation relations. The power of this criterion is illustrated on two models which shows very different behaviours.
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    José Lebreuilly · Iacopo Carusotto · Michiel Wouters
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    ABSTRACT: We report a theoretical study of a quantum optical model consisting of an array of strongly nonlinear cavities incoherently pumped by an ensemble of population-inverted two-level atoms. Projective methods are used to eliminate the atomic dynamics and write a generalized master equation for the photonic degrees of freedom only, where the frequency-dependence of gain introduces non-Markovian features. In the simplest single cavity configuration, this pumping scheme allows for the selective generation of Fock states with a well-defined photon number. For many cavities in a weakly non-Markovian limit, the non-equilibrium steady state recovers a Grand-Canonical statistical ensemble at a temperature determined by the effective atomic linewidth. For a two-cavity system in the strongly nonlinear regime, signatures of a Mott state with one photon per cavity are found.
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    ABSTRACT: We report an experimental study of superfluid hydrodynamic effects in a one-dimensional polariton fluid flowing along a laterally patterned semiconductor microcavity and hitting a micron-sized engineered defect. At high excitation power, superfluid propagation effects are observed in the polariton dynamics; in particular, a sharp acoustic horizon is formed at the defect position, separating regions of sub- and supersonic flow. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by theoretical calculations based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Promising perspectives to observe Hawking radiation via photon correlation measurements are illustrated.
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum gases of atoms and exciton-polaritons are nowadays a well established theoretical and experimental tool for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics and suggest promising applications to quantum computing. Given their technological complexity, it is of paramount interest to devise other systems where such quantum many-body physics can be investigated at a lesser technological expense. Here we examine a relatively well-known system of laser light propagating through thermo-optical defocusing media: based on a hydrodynamical description of light as a quantum fluid of interacting photons, we propose such systems as a valid, room temperature alternative to atomic or exciton-polariton condensates for studies of many-body physics. First, we show that by using a technique traditionally used in oceanography, it is possible to perform a direct measurement of the single-particle part of the dispersion relation of the elementary excitations on top of the photon fluid and to detect its global flow. Then, using a pump-and-probe set-up, we investigate the collective nature of low-wavevector sound modes of the fluid and we examine how the nonlocal nature of the optical nonlinearity significantly alters the Bogoliubov dispersion even for relatively low spatial frequencies.
    Optica 01/2015; 2(5). DOI:10.1364/OPTICA.2.000484
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    ABSTRACT: We report an experimental study of superfluid hydrodynamic effects in a one-dimensional polariton fluid flowing along a laterally patterned semiconductor microcavity and hitting a micron-sized engineered defect. At high excitation power, superfluid propagation effects are observed in the polariton dynamics, in particular, a sharp acoustic horizon is formed at the defect position, separating regions of sub- and super-sonic flow. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by theoretical calculations based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Promising perspectives to observe Hawking radiation via photon correlation measurements are illustrated.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2015; 114:036402. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.036402 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, in which a phase transition is mediated by the proliferation of topological defects, governs the critical behaviour of a wide range of equilibrium two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, ranging from superconducting thin films to two-dimensional Bose fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold atoms. We show here that this phenomenon is not restricted to thermal equilibrium, rather it survives more generally in a dissipative highly non-equilibrium system driven into a steady-state. By considering a light-matter superfluid of polaritons, in the so-called optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that it indeed undergoes a vortex binding-unbinding phase transition. Yet, the exponent of the power-law decay of the first order correlation function in the (algebraically) ordered phase can exceed the equilibrium upper limit -- a surprising occurrence, which has also been observed in a recent experiment. Thus we demonstrate that the ordered phase is somehow more robust against the quantum fluctuations of driven systems than thermal ones in equilibrium.
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    P. -É. Larré · I. Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: Making use of a generalized quantum theory of paraxial light propagation where the radiation-axis and the temporal coordinates play exchanged roles, we discuss the potential of bulk nonlinear optical media in cavityless configurations for quantum statistical mechanics studies of the conservative many-body dynamics of a gas of interacting photons. To illustrate the general features of this point of view, we investigate the response of the fluid of light to the quantum quenches in the photon-photon interaction constant experienced at the front and the back faces of a finite slab of weakly nonlinear material. Extending the standard Bogoliubov theory of dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, peculiar features are predicted for the statistical properties of the light emerging from the nonlinear medium.
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    Hannah M. Price · Tomoki Ozawa · Nigel R. Cooper · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: The Berry curvature is a geometrical property of an energy band which can act as a momentum space magnetic field in the effective Hamiltonian of a wide-range of systems. We apply the effective Hamiltonian to a spin-1/2 particle in two dimensions with spin-orbit coupling, a Zeeman field and an additional harmonic trap. Depending on the parameter regime, we show how this system can be described in momentum space as either a Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian or a 1D ring pierced by a magnetic flux. With this perspective, we interpret important single-particle properties, and identify analogue magnetic phenomena in momentum space. Finally we discuss the extension of this work to higher spin systems, as well as experimental applications in ultracold atomic gases and photonic systems.
    Physical Review A 12/2014; 91(3). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevA.91.033606 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze a chain of coupled nonlinear optical cavities driven by a coherent source of light localized at one end and subject to uniform dissipation. We characterize photon transport by studying the populations and the photon correlations as a function of position. When complemented with input-output theory, these quantities provide direct information about photon transmission through the system. The position of single- and multi-photon resonances directly reflect the structure of the many-body energy levels. This shows how a study of transport along a coupled cavity array can provide rich information about the strongly correlated (many-body) states of light even in presence of dissipation. By means of a numerical algorithm based on the time-evolving block decimation scheme adapted to mixed states, we are able to simulate arrays up to sixty cavities.
    Physical Review A 12/2014; 91(5). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevA.91.053815 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Hannah M Price · Tomoki Ozawa · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: The Berry curvature is a geometrical property of an energy band which acts as a momentum space magnetic field in the effective Hamiltonian describing single-particle quantum dynamics. We show how this perspective may be exploited to study systems directly relevant to ultracold gases and photonics. Given the exchanged roles of momentum and position, we demonstrate that the global topology of momentum space is crucially important. We propose an experiment to study the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian with a harmonic trap that will illustrate the advantages of this approach and that will also constitute the first realization of magnetism on a torus.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2014; 113(19):190403. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.190403 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a joint theoretical and experimental study of an integrated photonic device consisting of a single mode waveguide vertically coupled to a disk-shaped microresonator. Starting from the general theory of open systems, we show how the presence of a neighboring waveguide induces reactive inter-mode coupling in the resonator, analogous to an off-diagonal Lamb shift from atomic physics. Observable consequences of this coupling manifest as peculiar Fano lineshapes in the waveguide transmission spectra. The theoretical predictions are validated by full vectorial 3D finite element numerical simulations and are confirmed by the experiments.
    Physical Review A 11/2014; 90(5):053811. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevA.90.053811 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    Tomoki Ozawa · Hannah M. Price · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: We show how the weakly trapped Harper-Hofstadter model can be mapped onto a Harper-Hofstadter model in momentum space: the Berry curvature plays the role of an effective magnetic field, the trap position sets the boundary conditions around the toroidal magnetic Brillouin zone, and spatially local interactions translate into non-local interactions in momentum space. Within a mean-field approximation, we show that increasing inter-particle interactions are responsible for a phase transition from a single rotationally-symmetric ground state to degenerate ground states that spontaneously break rotational symmetry.
    Physical Review A 11/2014; 92(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023609 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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Publication Stats

4k Citations
614.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • Università degli Studi di Trento
      • Department of Physics
      Trient, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • 2011
    • Trent University
      Питерборо, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2006
    • Politecnico di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2000–2004
    • Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris
      • Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy
      Sesto, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2001
    • Università degli Studi di Salerno
      • Department of Physics "E. R. Caianiello" DF
      Fisciano, Campania, Italy
  • 1997–2001
    • Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
      • Laboratory NEST: National Enterprise for Nano-Science and Nano-Technology
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy