[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although previous research provides examples of the tobacco industry's internal coded, acronyms and abbreviations, no studies to date have undertaken a systematic review of this secretive internal jargon. In this study, we review tobacco industry documents to identify industry lists of codes and their definitions, types of codes, and patterns used for coding as well as specific codes related to product research. These findings are organized to assist other researchers in finding and decoding documents relevant to their own particular topics of interest. Likewise, we encourage documentresearchers to consider the use of code patterns, particularly those that are unique specific manufacturers, departments, project areas or types of research. We conclude that effective document research requires the development of coherent strategies to identify and decifer the coded and terminology used internally and that sharing this information will facilitate and expedite future research.
Tobacco control 01/2006; 14(6):429. · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Public health officials and tobacco researchers have raised concerns about the possible contributions of additives to the toxicity of cigarettes. However, little attention has been given to the process whereby additives promote initiation and addiction. Levulinic acid is a known cigarette additive. Review of internal tobacco industry documents indicates that levulinic acid was used to increase nicotine yields while enhancing perceptions of smoothness and mildness. Levulinic acid reduces the pH of cigarette smoke and desensitizes the upper respiratory tract, increasing the potential for cigarette smoke to be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Levulinic acid also may enhance the binding of nicotine to neurons that ordinarily would be unresponsive to nicotine. These findings held particular interest in the internal development of ultralight and so-called reduced-exposure cigarette prototypes. Industry studies found significantly increased peak plasma nicotine levels in smokers of ultralight cigarettes following addition of levulinic acid. Further, internal studies observed changes in mainstream and sidestream smoke composition that may present increased health risks. The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 11/2005; 7(5):761-71. · 2.48 Impact Factor