[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma requires accurate differentiation of true malignant tumors from highly atypical lesions, which lack the capacity to develop uncontrolled proliferation and to metastasize. We used melanoma markers from previous work to differentiate benign and atypical lesions from melanoma using paraffin-embedded tissue. This critical step in diagnosis generates the most uncertainty and discrepancy between dermatopathologists. A total of 193 biopsy tissues were selected: 47 melanomas, 48 benign nevi, and 98 atypical/suspicious, including 48 atypical nevi and 50 melanomas as later assigned by expert dermatopathologists. Performance for SILV, GDF15, and L1CAM normalized to TYR in unequivocal melanoma versus benign nevi resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94, 0.67, and 0.5, respectively. SILV also differentiated atypical cases classified as melanoma from atypical nevi with an AUC=0.74. Furthermore, SILV showed a significant difference between suspicious melanoma and each suspicious atypia group: melanoma versus severe atypia and melanoma versus moderate atypia had P-values of 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively. SILV showed clear discrimination between melanoma and benign unequivocal cases as well as between different atypia subgroups in the group of suspicious samples. The role and potential utility of this molecular assay as an adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of melanoma are discussed.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 04/2010; 130(7):1887-92. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A long-recognized, pathognomonic feature of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the appearance of halo or koilocytotic cells in the differentiated layers of the squamous epithelium. These koilocytes are squamous epithelial cells that contain an acentric, hyperchromatic nucleus that is displaced by a large perinuclear vacuole. However, the genesis of the cytoplasmic vacuole has remained unclear, particularly because both HPV DNA replication and virion assembly occur exclusively in the nucleus. In clinical biopsies, koilocytosis is observed in both low- and high-risk HPV infections; therefore, in this study, we demonstrated that the E5 and E6 proteins from both low- and high-risk HPVs cooperate to induce koilocyte formation in human cervical cells in vitro, using both stable and transient assays. Both E5 and E6 also induce koilocytosis in human foreskin keratinocytes but not in primate COS cells. Deletion of the 20 C-terminal amino acids of E5 completely abrogates koilocytosis, whereas a 10-amino acid-deletion mutant retains approximately 50% of its activity. Because the E6 protein from both the low- and high-risk HPVs is capable of potentiating koilocytosis with E5, it is apparent that the targeting of both p53 and PDZ proteins by E6 is not involved. Our data suggest new, cooperative functions for both the E5 and E6 proteins, hinting at additional targets and roles for these oncoproteins in the viral life cycle.
American Journal Of Pathology 10/2008; 173(3):682-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nearly all cervical cancers are etiologically attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and pharmaceutical treatments targeting HPV-infected cells would be of great medical benefit. Because many neoplastic cells (including cervical cancer cells) overexpress the transferrin receptor to increase their iron uptake, we hypothesized that iron-dependent, antimalarial drugs such as artemisinin might prove useful in treating HPV-infected or transformed cells. We tested three different artemisinin compounds and found that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and artesunate displayed strong cytotoxic effects on HPV-immortalized and transformed cervical cells in vitro with little effect on normal cervical epithelial cells. DHA-induced cell death involved activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway with resultant apoptosis. Apoptosis was p53 independent and was not the consequence of drug-induced reductions in viral oncogene expression. Due to its selective cytotoxicity, hydrophobicity, and known ability to penetrate epithelial surfaces, we postulated that DHA might be useful for the topical treatment of mucosal papillomavirus lesions. To test this hypothesis, we applied DHA to the oral mucosa of dogs that had been challenged with the canine oral papillomavirus. Although applied only intermittently, DHA strongly inhibited viral-induced tumor formation. Interestingly, the DHA-treated, tumor-negative dogs developed antibodies against the viral L1 capsid protein, suggesting that DHA had inhibited tumor growth but not early rounds of papillomavirus replication. These findings indicate that DHA and other artemisinin derivatives may be useful for the topical treatment of epithelial papillomavirus lesions, including those that have progressed to the neoplastic state.
Cancer Research 01/2006; 65(23):10854-61. · 8.65 Impact Factor