[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8(+) T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8(+) T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2013; 2013:989673. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Substantial progress on understanding the cell hierarchy within ALL bone marrow (BM) has been recorded in the last few years, suggesting that both primitive cell fractions and committed lymphoid blasts with immature stem cell-like properties contain leukemia-initiating cells. Nevertheless, the biology of the early progenitors that initiate the lymphoid program remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of lymphoid progenitors from B-cell precursor ALL BM to proliferate and undergo multilineage differentiation. By phenotype analyses, in vitro proliferation assays, and controlled culture systems, the lymphoid differentiation potentials were evaluated in BM primitive populations from B-cell precursor ALL pediatric patients. When compared to their normal counterparts, functional stem and progenitor cell contents were substantially reduced in ALL BM. Moreover, neither B nor NK or dendritic lymphoid-cell populations developed recurrently from highly purified ALL-lymphoid progenitors, and their proliferation and cell cycle status revealed limited proliferative capacity. Interestingly, a number of quiescence-associated transcription factors were elevated, including the transcriptional repressor Gfi-1, which was highly expressed in primitive CD34(+) cells. Together, our findings reveal major functional defects in the primitive hematopoietic component of ALL BM. A possible contribution of high levels of Gfi-1 expression in the regulation of the stem/progenitor cell biology is suggested.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2013; 2013:349067. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute leukemias are the most frequent childhood malignancies worldwide and remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of relapsed patients. While remarkable progress has been made in characterizing genetic aberrations that may control these hematological disorders, it has also become clear that abnormalities in the bone marrow microenvironment might hit precursor cells and contribute to disease. However, responses of leukemic precursor cells to inflammatory conditions or microbial components upon infection are yet unexplored. Our previous work and increasing evidence indicate that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the earliest stages of lymphoid development in mice and humans provide an important mechanism for producing cells of the innate immune system. Using highly controlled co-culture systems, we now show that lymphoid precursors from leukemic bone marrow express TLRs and respond to their ligation by changing cell differentiation patterns. While no apparent contribution of TLR signals to tumor progression was recorded for any of the investigated diseases, the replenishment of innate cells was consistently promoted upon in vitro TLR exposure, suggesting that early recognition of pathogen-associated molecules might be implicated in the regulation of hematopoietic cell fate decisions in childhood acute leukemia.
BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:846724.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity. In this study, our aims were to determine the level of PRL receptor expression during bone-marrow B-cell development and to assess whether the presence of high PRL serum concentrations influences absolute numbers of developing populations and disease outcome in lupus-prone murine models. We observed that the PRL-receptor is expressed in early bone-marrow B-cell; the expression in lupus-prone mice, which had the highest level of expression in pro-B cells and immature cells, differed from that in wild-type mice. These expression levels did not significantly change in response to hyperprolactinemia; however, populations of pro-B and immature cells from lupus-prone strains showed a decrease in the absolute numbers of cells with high PRL-receptor expression in response to PRL. Because immature self-reactive B cells are constantly being eliminated, we assessed the expression of survival factor BIRC5, which is more highly expressed in both pro-B and immature B-cells in response to PRL and correlates with the onset of disease. These results identify an important role of PRL in the early stages of the B-cell maturation process: PRL may promote the survival of self-reactive clones.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2013; 2013:287469. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and causes amebiasis affecting developing countries. Phagocytosis of epithelial cells, erythrocytes, leucocytes, and commensal microbiota bacteria is a major pathogenic mechanism used by this parasite. A Toll/IL-1R/Resistance (TIR) domain-containing protein is required in phagocytosis in the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum, an ameba closely related to Entamoeba histolytica in phylogeny. In insects and vertebrates, TIR domain-containing proteins regulate phagocytic and cell activation. Therefore, we investigated whether E. histolytica expresses TIR domain-containing molecules that may be involved in the phagocytosis of erythrocytes and bacteria. METHODS: Using in silico analysis we explored in Entamoeba histolytica databases for TIR domain containing sequences. After silencing TIR domain containing sequences in trophozoites by siRNA we evaluated phagocytosis of erythrocytes and bacteria. RESULTS: We identified an E. histolytica thioredoxin containing a TIR-like domain. The secondary and tertiary structure of this sequence exhibited structural similarity to TIR domain family. Thioredoxin transcripts silenced in E. histolytica trophozoites decreased erythrocytes and E. coli phagocytosis. CONCLUSION: TIR domain-containing thioredoxin of E. histolytica could be an important element in erythrocytes and bacteria phagocytosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune response to influenza vaccination in children with cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and humoral immune responses to an influenza vaccine in children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. In this study, children with cancer, who were not previously immunized, received an influenza vaccine via intramuscular injection. Blood samples were obtained prior to and at 4 weeks after immunization. Antibodies were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Cell-mediated immunity was measured by specific lymphoproliferation with (3)H-thymidine incorporation and by measuring cell frequencies following staining with monoclonal antibodies (CD8, CD4, CD19, CD45RA and CD27) using flow cytometry following incubation with the influenza antigen for 5 days. Geometric mean titers (GMT), mean counts per minute (cpm), cell frequencies prior to and following vaccination and percentage patient responses were compared using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric U and Chi-square tests; where p<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant result. A total of 56 children were included. Their mean age was 6.64±3.61 years. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was diagnosed in 75, solid tumors in 23 and lymphoma in 2% of the children. Subjects with titers ≥40 hemagglutination units (HU) increased from 43% prior to vaccination to 73% following vaccination (p=0.01), whereas the GMT increased from 31.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 29-111] to 143.45 HU (95% CI, 284-640) following vaccination (p<0.001). An increase in CD45RA expression in CD8(+) T cells was observed following vaccination (p=0.01). An increase in CD27 expression was observed in the CD4/8-negative cell population stimulated with the influenza antigen following vaccination (p<0.05). No serious adverse effects were observed. An increase in the seropositivity rate and GMT values following influenza vaccination were also observed. Influenza immunization was well tolerated among these children with cancer and increased the humoral and cellular immune responses with the activation of probable lymphoid precursors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells has become a priority in the experimental hematology arena. In this study we have obtained different hematopoietic cell populations from umbilical cord blood and simultaneously assessed their proliferation and expansion kinetics. Our main goal was to determine which one of these cell populations would be more suitable for clinical-grade ex vivo expansion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: By using immunomagnetic-negative selection and cell sorting, five cell populations were obtained: unseparated mononuclear cells (MNCs; I); two lineage-negative cell populations, one enriched for CD34+ CD38+ cells (II) and the other enriched for CD34+ CD38- cells (III); and two CD34+ cell fractions purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, one containing CD34+ CD38+ cells (IV) and the other containing CD34+ CD38- cells (V). The kinetics of such populations were analyzed in both relative and absolute terms. RESULTS: No expansion was observed in Population I; in contrast, significant increments in the numbers of both progenitor and stem cells were observed in cultures of Populations II to V. Population V (reaching 12,800-fold increase in total cells; 1280-fold increase in CD34+ cells; 490-fold increase in colony-forming cells; and 12-fold increase in long-term culture-initiating cells) showed the highest proliferation and expansion potentials. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the cell fraction containing greater than 98% CD34+ CD38- cells would be the ideal one for large-scale ex vivo expansion; however, based on our data, it seems that, except for MNCs, all other cell populations could also be used as input cell fractions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland and other organs, as well as by cells such as lymphocytes. Prolactin has an immunostimulatory effect and is associated with autoimmune diseases that are characterised by abnormal B cell activation, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to determine if different splenic B cell subsets express the prolactin receptor and if the presence of prolactin influences these B cell subsets and correlates with development of lupus.
Using real-time PCR and flow cytometry, we found that different subsets of immature (transitional) and mature (follicular, marginal zone) B cells express different levels of the prolactin receptor and are differentially affected by hyperprolactinaemia. We found that transitional B cells express the prolactin receptor at higher levels compared to mature B cells in C57BL/6 mice and the lupus-prone MRL/lpr and MRL mouse strains. Transitional-1 (T1) B cells showed a higher level of prolactin receptor expression in both MRL/lpr and MRL mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Hyperprolactinaemia was induced using metoclopramide, which resulted in the development of early symptoms of SLE. We found that T1 B cells are the main targets of prolactin and that prolactin augments the absolute number of T1 B cells, which reflects the finding that this B cell subpopulation expresses the highest level of the prolactin receptor.
We found that all B cell subsets express the prolactin receptor but that transitional B cells showed the highest prolactin receptor expression levels. Hyperprolactinaemia in mice susceptible to lupus accelerated the disease and increased the absolute numbers of T1 and T3 B cells but not of mature B cells, suggesting a primary effect of prolactin on the early stages of B cell maturation in the spleen and a role of prolactin in B cell differentiation, contributing to SLE onset.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among its many functions, prolactin (PRL) participates in immune responses and promotes the activation, differentiation and proliferation of T cells. However, the mechanisms by which PRL regulates regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are still unknown. Our goal was to determine whether PRL plays a role in T(reg) function. We measured the expression of PRL and its receptor in T(reg) and effector T (T(eff)) cells from 15 healthy individuals. We also evaluated the functional activity of T(reg) cells by examining proliferation and cytokine secretion in cells activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of PRL. We report that T(reg) cells constitutively expressed PRL receptor, whereas T(eff) cells required stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 to induce PRL receptor expression. Expression of PRL was constitutive in both populations. We found that the addition of PRL inhibited the suppressor effect (proliferation) mediated by T(reg) cells in vitro, reducing suppression from 37.4 to 13% when PRL was added to co-cultures of T(reg) and T(eff) cells (P<0.05). Cultures treated with PRL favoured a Th1 cytokine profile, with increased production of TNF and IFNγ. We report for the first time that PRL receptor expression was constitutive in T(reg) cells but not in T(eff) cells, which require stimulation to induce PRL receptor expression. PRL inhibited the suppressive function of T(reg) cells, apparently through the induced secretion of Th1 cytokines.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 12/2011; 48(1):77-85. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be rapidly developed from influenza virus genetic sequences in order to supply vaccine after the onset of a pandemic. The safety and immunogenicity of one or two doses of a recombinant A (H1N1) 2009 influenza VLP vaccine was evaluated in a two-stage, Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in 4563 healthy adults, 18-64 years of age, during the H1N1 2009 pandemic in Mexico. In Part A, 1013 subjects were randomized into four treatment groups (5 μg, 15 μg, or 45 μg hemagglutinin [HA] VLP vaccine or placebo) and vaccinated 21 days apart, with sera collected on Days 1, 14 and 36 for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) testing. After review of safety and immunogenicity data from Part A, additional subjects were immunized with a single dose of 15 μg VLP vaccine (N=2537) or placebo (N=1011) and assessed for safety in Part B. Results showed the H1N1 2009 VLP vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. Systemic solicited events were similar between placebo and VLP vaccinated groups with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Dose response trends for solicited local adverse events were observed, with higher incidences of local pain, swelling, tenderness, and redness reported in the higher VLP dose groups (15 μg and 45 μg) compared to the placebo and 5 μg VLP groups following both vaccinations. Although the majority of local AEs were mild in severity, a dose trend in events of moderate or greater severity was also noted for these solicited events. The VLP vaccine groups demonstrated robust HAI immune responses after a single vaccination, with high rates of seroprotection (≥ 40 HAI titer) in 82-92% of all subjects and in 64-85% of subjects who were seronegative at the time of immunization. HAI geometric mean titers (GMTs), geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and seroconversion rates were also all statistically higher in the VLP groups compared to placebo for both post-baseline time points. Based on these data, additional clinical trials are in development to evaluate influenza vaccine candidate antigens manufactured using Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)/baculovirus-based VLP technology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is the first step in the inflammatory response to pathogens. Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, has a surface molecule with the characteristics of a PAMP. This molecule, which was termed lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG), is recognized through TLR2 and TLR4 and leads to the release of cytokines from human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; LPPG-activated dendritic cells have increased expression of costimulatory molecules. LPPG activates NKT cells in a CD1d-dependent manner, and this interaction limits amebic liver abscess development. LPPG also induces antibody production, and anti-LPPG antibodies prevent disease development in animal models of amebiasis. Because LPPG is recognized by both the innate and the adaptive immune system (it is a "Pamptigen"), it may be a good candidate to develop a vaccine against E. histolytica infection and an effective adjuvant.
BioMed Research International 01/2010; 2010:254521. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, but some patients develop a severe form that is associated with high mortality. In AP, local inflammation is followed first by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and then by the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome, which is defined by low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on monocytes, increased concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and decreased monocyte function. Our aim was to measure the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 (a proposed marker of infection or inflammation) and HLA-DR on monocytes, and the serum concentrations of IL-6 (a proinflammatory cytokine) and IL-10 in patients with AP to determine whether these markers can identify patients at high risk of developing severe AP or infection.
Fifty healthy volunteers, 18 patients with mild AP, and 11 patients with severe AP were included in this study. Samples were taken at admission and one and three days later. TREM-1 and HLA-DR expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, and soluble TREM-1, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were measured by ELISA.
TREM-1 expression was higher in patients with AP than in healthy volunteers, but there was no difference between patients with mild and severe AP. TREM-1 expression was not associated with mortality or with the presence of infection. Soluble TREM-1 concentration in serum was higher in non-survivors than in survivors. HLA-DR expression was lower and IL-6 concentration higher in patients with severe AP and in infected patients.
Increased TREM-1 expression was associated with the presence of inflammation but not infection in AP. In patients with AP, low HLA-DR expression and high IL-6 concentration could predict severity and infection in samples taken shortly after admission.
Critical care (London, England) 06/2009; 13(3):R69. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is the response of an organism to tissue injury or infection. It is usually limited to the affected tissue, but sometimes the inflammatory mediators reach the bloodstream and act systemically. A compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome, in which expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are decreased, regulates the resulting systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome can lead to the development of sepsis. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 has been proposed as a biomarker of the presence of sepsis. In this study, we investigated whether TREM-1 is increased only in septic patients, and not in patients with systemic inflammatory response but no infection. We also looked for a possible correlation between TREM-1 and MHC-II expression levels and the patients' progress.
Fifty-eight surgical patients, 14 septic patients and 50 healthy volunteers, were included in this study. TREM-1 and MHC-II expression on blood monocytes was determined by flow cytometry.
TREM-1 expression was increased in all patients after surgery, and its expression was higher in patients with preexisting SIRS. No association was found with the presence of infection. In septic patients, the increase in TREM-1 expression was transitory. MHC-II expression was decreased in both surgical and septic patients, and this decrease was greater in patients with a worse outcome.
Increased TREM-1 expression on monocytes is associated with both infectious and noninfectious inflammatory processes, and the levels of MHC-II expression is better correlated with the patient outcome.
Journal of Surgical Research 11/2008; 150(1):110-7. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is necessary for survival, but it is also an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, as exemplified by sepsis. During inflammation, cells of the innate immune system are recruited and activated in response to infection, trauma or injury. These cells are activated through receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize microbial ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 amplifies the inflammatory response initiated by TLRs, and its expression on the surface of monocytes increases in the presence of TLR ligands. Here we have shown that in monocytes TREM-1 mRNA levels, measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), remained unchanged and TREM-1 protein levels, measured by flow cytometry, increased, indicating that LPS increases TREM-1 expression by a post-transcriptional mechanism. We also showed that TREM-1/Fc fusion protein decreased the ability of the sera of some patients with sepsis to activate monocytes, indicating that the TREM-1 ligand, whose identity is unknown, may be present in the sera of some of these patients. We describe a mechanism for the regulation of TREM-1 expression on monocytes and the possible presence of its ligand in serum; these findings help to explain the contribution of TREM-1 during systemic inflammation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the surface expression of triggering receptor on myeloid cell 1 (TREM-1), class II major histocompatibility complex molecules (HLA-DR), and the expression of the splicing variant (svTREM-1) of TREM-1 in septic patients and those subjected to major abdominal surgery.
Using flow cytometry, we examined the surface expression of TREM-1 and HLA-DR in peripheral blood monocytes from 11 septic patients, 7 elective gastrointestinal surgical patients, and 10 healthy volunteers. svTREM-1 levels were analyzed by RT-PCR.
Basal expression of TREM-1 and HLA-DR in healthy volunteers was 35.91+/-14.75 MFI and 75.8+/-18.3%, respectively. In septic patients, TREM-1 expression was 59.9+/-23.9 MFI and HLA-DR expression was 44.39+/-20.25%, with a significant difference between healthy and septic groups (P<0.05) for both molecules. In the surgical patients, TREM-1 and HLA-DR expressions were 56.8+/-20.85 MFI and 71+/-13.8% before surgery and 72.65+/-29.92 MFI and 72.82+/-22.55% after surgery. TREM-1 expression was significantly different (P = 0.0087) between the samples before and after surgery and svTREM-1 expression was 0.8590+/-0.1451 MF1, 0.8820+/-0.1460 MF1, and 2.210+/-0.7873 MF1 in the healthy, surgical (after surgery) and septic groups, respectively. There was a significant difference (P = 0.048) in svTREM-1 expression between the healthy and surgical groups and the septic group.
TREM-1 expression is increased during systemic inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and the postoperative phase. Simultaneous low expression of HLA-DR molecules correlates with the severity of illness and increases susceptibility to infection. Additionally, TREM-1 expression is distinctly different in surgical patients at different stages of the inflammatory response before and after surgery. Thus, surface TREM-1 appears to be an endogenous signal during the course of the inflammatory response. svTREM-1 expression is significantly increased during sepsis, appearing to be an indicator of severity of illness. Together, these data indicate that TREM-1 may play an important role in establishing and amplifying the systemic inflammatory response. TREM-1, HLA-DR, and svTREM-1 expression analysis can provide useful diagnostic and prognostic indicators during SIRS, CARS, and sepsis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2005; 11(47):7473-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor